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Backman, Y., Reznitskaya, A., Gardelli, V. & Wilkinson, I. A. G. (2023). Beyond Structure: Using the Rational Force Model to Assess Argumentative Writing. Written Communication, 40(2), 555-585
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond Structure: Using the Rational Force Model to Assess Argumentative Writing
2023 (English)In: Written Communication, ISSN 0741-0883, E-ISSN 1552-8472, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 555-585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Current approaches used in educational research and practice to evaluate the quality of written arguments often rely on structural analysis. In such assessments, credit is awarded for the presence of structural elements of an argument, such as claims, evidence, and rebuttals. In this article, we discuss limitations of such approaches, including the absence of criteria for evaluating the quality of the argument elements. We then present an alternative framework, based on the Rational Force Model (RFM), which originated from the work of a Nordic philosopher Næss. Using an example of an argumentative essay, we demonstrate the potential of the RFM to improve argument analysis by focusing on the acceptability and relevance of argument elements, two criteria widely considered to be fundamental markers of argument strength. We outline possibilities and challenges with using the RFM in educational contexts and conclude by proposing directions for future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
argument analysis, argumentation, assessment framework, informal logic, writing assessment
National Category
Philosophy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96230 (URN)10.1177/07410883221148664 (DOI)000943588700001 ()2-s2.0-85149911962 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-03 (johcin);

Available from: 2023-03-23 Created: 2023-03-23 Last updated: 2023-04-03Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, A.-C., Backman, Y., Gardelli, V. & Gyllefjord, Å. (2023). On Being Twice Exceptional in Sweden - An Interview-Based Case Study about the Educational Situation for a Gifted Student Diagnosed with ADHD. Education Sciences, 13(11), Article ID 1120.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Being Twice Exceptional in Sweden - An Interview-Based Case Study about the Educational Situation for a Gifted Student Diagnosed with ADHD
2023 (English)In: Education Sciences, E-ISSN 2227-7102, Vol. 13, no 11, article id 1120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The gifted education research area is rapidly expanding in Sweden. In the context of very limited research nationally, demands are increasing for steering documents and addressing of student and teacher needs in practice. However, Swedish research on students that are ‘twice exceptional’—students classified as being both gifted and disabled (for instance, through a neurodevelopmental disorder such as ADHD)—is nearly non-existent. In this study, we present an exploratory single case study of a female student in school year seven based on semi-structured individual interviews with the student and her two guardians regarding her educational situation. The data were first inductively coded and triangulated in collaboration between three of the authors. A fourth author later independently and deductively coded one-third of the data based on the previously inductively determined thematic structure and conducted a consensus interrater reliability check, exceeding 85% percent agreement. The three main themes are as follows: (1) multiplex perspectives on academic outcomes and expectations, (2) the intersection between twice exceptionality and academic work, and (3) information and perceptions about twice exceptionality. The results indicate several educational challenges and opportunities for twice exceptional students. Further research is needed regarding twice exceptional students in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
case study, gifted education, inclusive education, special needs education, talented education, twice exceptional, 2e
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-102361 (URN)10.3390/educsci13111120 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-10 (joosat);

Part of special issue: Identifying and Supporting Giftedness and Talent in Schools

CC BY 4.0 License

Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2023-11-10Bibliographically approved
Gardelli, V., Backman, Y., Franklin, A. & Gardelli, Å. (2023). ’You Talk and Try to Think, Together’ - A Case Study of a Student Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder Participating in Philosophical Dialogues. Childhood & Philosophy, 19, 1-28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>’You Talk and Try to Think, Together’ - A Case Study of a Student Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder Participating in Philosophical Dialogues
2023 (English)In: Childhood & Philosophy, ISSN 2525-5061, E-ISSN 1984-5987, Vol. 19, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present results from a single case study based on semi-structured interviews with a student (a boy in school year 3) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and his school staff after participating in a short and small-scale intervention carried out in a socio-economically disadvantaged Swedish elementary school in 2019. The student participated in a seven week long long intervention with a total of 12 philosophical dialogues (ranging from 45 to 60 minutes). Two facilitators, both with years of facilitation experience and teacher degree and at least BA in philosophy, facilitated the majority of the dialogues, mainly followed a ”routine” procedure. The student was interviewed in direct connection to the end of the intervention about his experiences from the dialogues and his perceptions about wether and how the dialogues had influenced him. The student’s two teachers, who had participated in the dialogues as participants, were interviewed as a pair, also in direct connection to the end of the intervention, while the school principal was interviewed two years after the study. These staff interviews concerned the staff’s experiences of the influence of the dialogues on the students within the intervention as well as transfer effects to other contexts in school. The data from the study include detailed elaborations from a student perspective of different effects on the student’s communicative and cognitive development, which are in several respects supported also by staff reports. The results show that the student was able, interested, and willing to participate in philosophical dialogues, and our data point to several positive outcomes for the student in the communicative and cognitive domains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
State University of Rio de Janeiro, 2023
Keywords
autism spectrum disorder, communication difficulties, philosophy for children, philosophy with children, philosophical dialogue, philosophy, special needs education, education, school, pedagogy, case study, autism, kommunikationssvårigheter, filosofi med barn, filosofi, filosofiska samtal, kommunikation, npf, neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar, skola, utbildning, specialpedagogik, pedagogik, särskilda behov, funktionsnedsättning, funktionsvariation, fallstudie
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96231 (URN)10.12957/childphilo.2023.70493 (DOI)2-s2.0-85162118467 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-05-05 (joosat);

Available from: 2023-03-23 Created: 2023-03-23 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Backman, Y., Gardelli, V. & Parnes, P. (2022). App-supported Philosophical Dialogues: Designs, challenges and Participants’ Experiences. In: : . Paper presented at 20th Biennial ICPIC Conference – Philosophy in and beyond the classroom: P4wC across Cultural, Social, and Political Differences, Tokyo, Japan [ONLINE], August 8-11, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>App-supported Philosophical Dialogues: Designs, challenges and Participants’ Experiences
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In an ongoing project (Vinnova, project dnr 2019-04651), we develop an app, called Dialogica, which is intended for use in app-supported philosophical dialogues for persons with aphasia in an IRL setting. Aphasia is a communication disorder caused by a brain injury and involves often grave difficulties with expressing thoughts to others. Many persons with aphasia are excluded from conversations about deeper issues. In a previous research project (Swedish Research Council, project dnr 721-2013-2161), philosophical dialogues were conducted with persons with acquired brain injuries and aphasia, with positive results in group argumentation development. However, the group of persons with more severe brain injuries and aphasia saw smaller changes and needed more facilitator support than did the group of persons with milder brain injuries and without aphasia. This prompted further consideration about appropriate tools, such as apps, to support the participants with aphasia in increasing their autonomy and participation during the dialogues.

Dialogica is developed with modern digital technologies used in computer games and is intended for use on a portable device such as an iPad. It thus contains technologies for text-to-speech and speech-to-text synthesis, real-time translations, avatar animations, visual highlighting, and so on. The design is based on theory and methodology from the fields of philosophy for/with children as well as argumentation analysis and informal logic, along with experience from years of facilitation of philosophical dialogues in different settings. The goal is to produce an app that is easy to use, visually engaging, and tailored for use in philosophical dialogues, in order to provide tools for higher levels of autonomy and participation in inquiry dialogues to participants who otherwise have limited abilities to express themselves. This is done through several features of the app, such as the “conversation tree”, which gives a visualization of the inquiry, and a palette of predefined dialogic moves, to support spoken interaction.

In the project, we use a methodology inspired by an extended interpretation of the “Living Lab” principle, where the actual end-users of an app is involved in the development process through recurrent workshops including feedback sessions. In our case, these workshops rely on a “routine” PwC procedure in combination with using the app during the joint inquiry and meta-dialogue, and giving feedback during and after the sessions, when questions about usability, overall impression and specific features are discussed. Both persons with aphasia and supporting staff in their daily milieu join the workshops. This methodology can be extended also to school environments, where students and teachers are involved.

In this research presentation, we will present our research about app-supported philosophical dialogues (including an overview of the user input received through the Living Lab workshops), shortly show the user interface of the app, and outline some of its main features.

Keywords
Computer Game Technology, Design, Philosophical Dialogues, Philosophy, Argumentation, Dialogue, App, iPad, Dataspelsteknik, Design, Filosofiska samtal, Filosofi, Argumentation, Dialog, App, iPad
National Category
Computer Sciences Philosophy Pedagogy
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing; Education; ArcTech Learning Lab
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88674 (URN)
Conference
20th Biennial ICPIC Conference – Philosophy in and beyond the classroom: P4wC across Cultural, Social, and Political Differences, Tokyo, Japan [ONLINE], August 8-11, 2022
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-04651
Available from: 2022-01-06 Created: 2022-01-06 Last updated: 2023-01-19Bibliographically approved
Gardelli, V., Backman, Y. & Parnes, P. (2022). Dialogica: an iPad app to support quality and communication in philosophical dialogues, especially in special needs educational settings (Workshop). In: : . Paper presented at 20th Biennial ICPIC Conference – Philosophy in and beyond the classroom: P4wC across Cultural, Social, and Political Differences, Tokyo, Japan [ONLINE], August 8-11, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dialogica: an iPad app to support quality and communication in philosophical dialogues, especially in special needs educational settings (Workshop)
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
Philosophical dialogues, Communication, Aphasia, Argumentation, Dialogue, Dataspelsteknik, App, iPad, Special Needs Education, Filosofiska samtal, Kommunikation, Afasi, Argumentation, Dialog, Computer Game Technology, App, iPad, Specialpedagogik
National Category
Pedagogy Philosophy Computer Systems
Research subject
Education; Pervasive Mobile Computing; ArcTech Learning Lab
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88672 (URN)
Conference
20th Biennial ICPIC Conference – Philosophy in and beyond the classroom: P4wC across Cultural, Social, and Political Differences, Tokyo, Japan [ONLINE], August 8-11, 2022
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-04651
Available from: 2022-01-06 Created: 2022-01-06 Last updated: 2023-01-19Bibliographically approved
Edström, K., Gardelli, V. & Backman, Y. (2022). Inclusion as participation: mapping the participation model with four different levels of inclusive education. International Journal of Inclusive Education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inclusion as participation: mapping the participation model with four different levels of inclusive education
2022 (English)In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In Swedish schools, the so-called ‘Participation Model’ is used to observe and analyse participation, with the intention of supporting an inclusive learning environment. While this model is widely promoted by government agencies, its theoretical alignment to the concept(s) of inclusion is not established. This article therefore compares and maps the six aspects of participation within the Participation Model (i.e. belonging, accessibility, interaction, autonomy, involvement and acceptance) with a hierarchically ordered set of commonly occuring definitions of inclusive education (ranging from the lowest level, placement, to the highest, community). The Participation Model was found to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the lower levels of inclusion, as well as necessary conditions for the higher levels of inclusion. However, we show that the model suffers from construct underrepresentation and outline a few possible solutions intended to increase the theoretical alignment between the Participation Model and the higher levels of inclusive education. Finally, we suggest directions for further research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
Inclusion, inclusive education, participation, participation model, special education
National Category
Pedagogical Work Learning
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93757 (URN)10.1080/13603116.2022.2136773 (DOI)000873402100001 ()2-s2.0-85141017092 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-04604Luleå University of Technology
Available from: 2022-10-31 Created: 2022-10-31 Last updated: 2022-11-11
Gardelli, V. (2022). Philosophy for/with children, Teacher training, and Value transmission: Contradictions, problems and a solution (1ed.). In: Arie Kizel (Ed.), Philosophy with Children and Teacher Education: Global Perspectives on Critical, Creative and Caring Thinking (pp. 14-22). Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Philosophy for/with children, Teacher training, and Value transmission: Contradictions, problems and a solution
2022 (English)In: Philosophy with Children and Teacher Education: Global Perspectives on Critical, Creative and Caring Thinking / [ed] Arie Kizel, Routledge, 2022, 1, p. 14-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Some educational systems include a value transmission approach to moral education, which includes an aim to foster pupils into accepting a predetermined set of core values. Lipman, on the other hand, described P4C as an educational program which deals with the fostering of procedural values, but not substantive moral values (Lipman et al., 1980). This poses a problem for including a Philosophy for/with children approach into teacher education, since teacher students might find it difficult to fulfill both of these conflicting aims simultaneously.

In this chapter, it is argued that Philosophy for/with children is indeed incompatible with value transmission. But, instead of rejecting Philosophy for/with children in teacher education, it is argued that there is a way of approaching moral education that is superior to value transmission, namely a dialogic approach under which Philosophy for/with children is not only possible, but a strong candidate for a reasonable way to treat moral matters in school. Hence, a potential obstacle for including Philosophy for/with children in teacher education is removed, and a strong argument for its inclusion is provided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2022 Edition: 1
Keywords
Philosophy, Ethics, Philosophy of Education, Philosophy with Children, Teacher education, Pedagogy, dialogue, education, critical thinking, Filosofi, Filosofi med barn, etik, lärarutbildning, pedagogik, värdegrund, dialog, utbildningsfilosof, kritiskt tänkande
National Category
Philosophy Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92500 (URN)10.4324/9781003212737-4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85143450331 (Scopus ID)
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 9781032080604, 9781003212737;The chapter has been presented at the post conference of the 20th Biennial ICPIC Conference – Philosophy in and beyond the classroom: P4wC across Cultural, Social, and Political Differences, Tokyo, Japan [Online], August 8-11, 2022

Available from: 2022-08-16 Created: 2022-08-16 Last updated: 2023-02-24Bibliographically approved
Backman, Y., Gardelli, V. & Parnes, P. (2022). Problems and Solutions in Researching Computer Game Assisted Dialogues for Persons with Aphasia. Designs for Learning, 14(1), 46-51
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Problems and Solutions in Researching Computer Game Assisted Dialogues for Persons with Aphasia
2022 (English)In: Designs for Learning, ISSN 1654-7608, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 46-51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we describe technological advances for supporting persons with aphasia in philosophical dialogues about personally relevant and contestable questions. A computer game-based application for iPads is developed and researched through Living Lab inspired workshops in order to promote the target group’s communicative participation during group argumentation. We outline some central parts of the background theory of the application and some of its main features, which are related to needs of the target group. Methodological issues connected to the design and use of Living Labs with persons with aphasia are discussed. We describe a few problems with researching development of communicative participation during group argumentation using an app assisted intervention for the target group and suggest some possible solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm University Press, 2022
Keywords
Computer game technology, philosophical dialogues, aphasia, special needs education, philosophy, digital technology, Dataspelsteknik, filosofiska samtal, afasi, specialpedagogik, filosofi, digital teknik
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education; Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-89890 (URN)10.16993/dfl.185 (DOI)
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-04651
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 1;2022-03-28 (joosat);

Funder: Luleå University and Technology, and the Municipality of Luleå (LTU-1033-2016)

Available from: 2022-03-25 Created: 2022-03-25 Last updated: 2022-04-28Bibliographically approved
Backman, Y., Gardelli, V., Gardelli, Å. & Franklin, A. (2022). Results from a PwC Intervention in a Swedish Socio-economically Disadvantaged School – A Multiple Case Study of Students Diagnosed with Neurodevelopmental Disorders. In: : . Paper presented at 20th Biennial ICPIC Conference – Philosophy in and beyond the classroom: P4wC across Cultural, Social, and Political Differences, Tokyo, Japan [ONLINE], August 8-11, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Results from a PwC Intervention in a Swedish Socio-economically Disadvantaged School – A Multiple Case Study of Students Diagnosed with Neurodevelopmental Disorders
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We will present results from a multiple case study based on interviews with students diagnosed with neurodevelopment disorders and their school staff after participating in a short and small-scale intervention carried out in a socio-economically disadvantaged Swedish elementary school in 2019. Two small school classes participated in 12 philosophical dialogues each (ranging from 45 to 60 minutes) during a total of seven weeks. Two facilitators, both with years of facilitation experience and teacher degree and at least BA in philosophy, facilitated the majority of the dialogues. 

The philosophical dialogues mainly followed a ”routine” procedure, but a few differences can be noted. First, one of the facilitators wrote short stories prompting interest in contestable issues during the intervention, which helped the stimuli to get adapted to the groups’ developing interests. Second, in the start-up phase of several dialogues, the students were encouraged to practice dialogic skills through randomly assigned individual and group tasks based on both the jointly decided rules for interaction and on ART for kids (a tool for children to become aware of and evaluate dialogic quality and progress in inquiry dialogic sessions). During meta-dialogue, the groups returned to these tasks in order to increase meta-cognitive awareness, evaluate group performance, and set up short term goals for the upcoming session. Third, during two sessions, the sessions were organized in the form of a dialogic puzzle. 

The sample in this multiple case study contains students from two school classes (school years 3 and 4) in a Swedish elementary school. The school was small (about 150 students in total), rural, and ranked among the 10 % most socio-economically disadvantaged in Sweden. The school included students from around 20 different countries and about 20 % of the schools’ students were asylum seekers. All the students in the multiple case study were diagnosed with different neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), attention deficit disorder (ADD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and severe developmental language disorder (DLD).

We interviewed the students, four teachers who participated in the dialogues, and the school principal. The students were interviewed individually in direct connection to the end of the intervention about their experiences from the dialogues and their perceptions about the influence of the dialogues. The interviewed teachers (two in each grade) were those who had participated in the dialogues. They were interviewed in pairs, also in direct connection to the end of the intervention, while the school principal was interviewed two years after the study. The staff interviews concerned the staff’s experiences of the influence of the dialogues on the students within the intervention as well as transfer effects to other contexts in school. All interviews were semistructured. 

For each student, we present data from both student and staff interviews. We strive to give a representative picture of both the advantages and disadvantages expressed by students and staff. 

Keywords
Philosophy, Philosophy with Children, Philosophical dialogues, P4wC, Special Needs Education, Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School, Filosofi, Filosofi med barn, Filosofiska samtal, P4wC, Specialpedagogik, NPF, Skola
National Category
Philosophy Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88673 (URN)
Conference
20th Biennial ICPIC Conference – Philosophy in and beyond the classroom: P4wC across Cultural, Social, and Political Differences, Tokyo, Japan [ONLINE], August 8-11, 2022
Available from: 2022-01-06 Created: 2022-01-06 Last updated: 2023-01-19Bibliographically approved
Gardelli, V., Backman, Y., Reznitskaya, A. & Wilkinson, I. A. G. (2022). The Rational Force Model of Argumentation and its Use in Philosophical Dialogue. In: : . Paper presented at 20th Biennial ICPIC Conference – Philosophy in and beyond the classroom: P4wC across Cultural, Social, and Political Differences, Tokyo, Japan [ONLINE], August 8-11, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Rational Force Model of Argumentation and its Use in Philosophical Dialogue
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Most current approaches used in educational research and practice to evaluate arguments are based on Toulmin’s (1958) Argument Pattern (TAP), which defines the structure and core elements of an argument, such as claims, data, and warrants. Assessments based on TAP usually involve awarding credit for the number of structural elements present in an argument. In this presentation, we discuss some limitations of such assessments, including the absence of criteria for evaluating the quality of the argument elements. We then present an alternative framework, based on the Rational Force Model (RFM), which originated from the work of Nordic philosopher Arne Næss (1959). Using examples from argumentative writing and excerpts from philosophical dialogues, we demonstrate the potential of the RFM to improve understanding of the quality of argumentation by focusing on the acceptability and relevance of argument elements. We then discuss potential uses of the RFM in the context of P4wC. These include:

1. Researcher use of the RFM in evaluation of P4wC interventions through the analysis of participants’ argumentative writing.

2. Researcher use of the RFM in evaluation of P4wC interventions through the analysis of dialogue transcripts. 

3. Educational use of the RFM in teaching effective argumentation in facilitator training

4. Facilitator use of the RFM during philosophical dialogues.

5. Facilitator and participant use of the RFM in structuring and building joint understandings of argumentation in a dialogue.

Keywords
Philosophy, Philosophy with Children, Argumentation, Dialogue, Rationality, Rational Force, Filosofi, Filosofi med barn, Argumentation, Dialog, Rationalitet, Beviskraft
National Category
Philosophy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88671 (URN)
Conference
20th Biennial ICPIC Conference – Philosophy in and beyond the classroom: P4wC across Cultural, Social, and Political Differences, Tokyo, Japan [ONLINE], August 8-11, 2022
Available from: 2022-01-06 Created: 2022-01-06 Last updated: 2023-01-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6252-4000

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