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Andersson, Charlotte
Publications (10 of 33) Show all publications
Parathodiel, H., Mousa, E., Ahmed, H., Elsadek, M., Forsberg, K. & Andersson, C. (2023). Developing Iron Ore Pellets Using Novel Binders for H2-Based Direct Reduction. Sustainability, 15(14), Article ID 11415.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing Iron Ore Pellets Using Novel Binders for H2-Based Direct Reduction
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2023 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 14, article id 11415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The transformation from traditional iron- and steelmaking technologies to green H2-based new technologies will require an improvement in the quality and purity of iron ore burden materials. Iron ore pellets are essential inputs for producing direct reduced iron (DRI), but the conventional binders, used in iron ore pelletizing, introduce gangue oxides to the DRI and consequently increase the slag generation and energy consumption in the steelmaking unit. Partial and/or full replacement of the traditional binders with novel organic binders would significantly contribute to improving the process efficiency, particularly in the next-generation H2-based direct reduction technology. This study illustrates the feasibility of pelletizing magnetite iron ore concentrate using four organic binders: KemPel, Alcotac CS, Alcotac FE16, and CMC, in comparison to bentonite as a reference. The study explores the influence of binder type, binder dosage, and moisture content on the characteristics and properties of the pellets. The efficiency of binders was characterized by the moisture content, drop number test, cold compression strength, and H2 reduction of pellets. For dry pellets, CMS was superior among other binders including bentonite in developing dry strength. After firing, the pellets produced by the partial replacement of bentonite with 0.1 wt.% KemPel demonstrate a performance nearly identical to the reference pellets. While the complete replacement of bentonite with organic binder shows a lower performance of fired pellets compared to the reference, it may still be suitable for use in DR shaft furnaces. The cold-bonded pellets demonstrate a superior reduction rate compared to fired pellets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023
Keywords
agglomeration, CO2 emission, direct reduction, H2, magnetite concentrate, organic binders, pelletizing, strength
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99544 (URN)10.3390/su151411415 (DOI)001071292700001 ()2-s2.0-85166242515 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, InnoAgglo project, 2020-02089
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-08-14 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-08-14 Created: 2023-08-14 Last updated: 2024-03-07Bibliographically approved
Kumar, T. K., Viswanathan, N. N., Eriksson, A., Andersson, C. & Ahmed, H. (2023). Development of Single Pellet Induration Model for Magnetite Pellet: A Holistic Approach. Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, 54(6), 2951-2964
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Single Pellet Induration Model for Magnetite Pellet: A Holistic Approach
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2023 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 2951-2964Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99663 (URN)10.1007/s11663-023-02879-1 (DOI)001043055600002 ()2-s2.0-85166632371 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyVinnovaSwedish Research Council Formas
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-12-06 (hanlid);

Funder: Hjalmar Lundbohm Research Centre; Centre of Advanced Mining and Metallurgy (CAMM); Swedish Mining Innovation;

A correction is available for this publication, please see: Kumar, T.K.S., Viswanathan, N.N., Eriksson, A. et al. Correction: Development of Single Pellet Induration Model for Magnetite Pellet: A Holistic Approach. Metall Mater Trans B (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-023-02892-4

Available from: 2023-08-21 Created: 2023-08-21 Last updated: 2024-01-09Bibliographically approved
Babanejad, S., Ahmed, H., Andersson, C. & Heikkinen, E.-P. (2023). Mechanical Activation-Assisted Recovery of Valuable Metals from Black Mass in the Form of Fe/Cu Alloys. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 9(2), 522-536
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical Activation-Assisted Recovery of Valuable Metals from Black Mass in the Form of Fe/Cu Alloys
2023 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, ISSN 2199-3823, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 522-536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pyrometallurgy is a popular industrial method that is employed in the recovery of valuable elements from black mass (BM), which is produced by pretreatment of Li-ion batteries. This method struggles with some downsides, such as the incineration of graphite and high energy consumption. In this study, the goal is to utilize graphite in the BM to produce a master alloy in an attempt to decrease the energy input requirement. To achieve this, metal oxides (Fe2O3 and CuO) are added to the BM to produce an Fe/Cu-based alloy containing Co/Ni as alloying elements. Mechanical activation is also employed to decrease the energy requirement and to increase the amount of metal oxide that can be reduced by the graphite in the BM. The results revealed that it is possible to produce the aforementioned alloys, the efficiency of which can be improved by applying mechanical activation. After 1 h of milling, the required heat flow for producing Fe- and Cu-based alloys is lowered for ⁓10 and ⁓25 kWh, respectively. Plus, the direct CO2 emission decreases for 13-17% in the iron system and 43-46% in the copper system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Li-ion batteries, black mass, pyrometallurgy, alloy, mechanical activation, mass and energy balance
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95666 (URN)10.1007/s40831-023-00665-6 (DOI)000944090200001 ()2-s2.0-85149391186 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-07-20 (sofila);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-02-19 Created: 2023-02-19 Last updated: 2023-07-20Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, A., Andersson, C., Semberg, P., Kumar, T. K., Dahlin, A. & Ahmed, H. (2022). Effects of High-Oxygen-Level Process Gas (40% O2) on the Temperature and Strength Development of a Magnetite Pellet Bed during Pot Furnace Induration. ISIJ International, 62(3), 465-476
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of High-Oxygen-Level Process Gas (40% O2) on the Temperature and Strength Development of a Magnetite Pellet Bed during Pot Furnace Induration
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2022 (English)In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 465-476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As Sweden transitions to hydrogen-based steel production to enable fossil-free steelmaking, excess oxygen is likely to be generated through hydrogen production via water electrolysis based on green electricity. Further, during iron-ore pellet production, magnetite oxidises to hematite, releasing considerable heat. This excess oxygen and inherent heat can be used to promote exothermic oxidation, reducing the external fuel requirement, decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, and conforming to the Paris climate agreement. In this study, the effects of a high-oxygen-content (40% O2) inflow gas on pellet bed oxidation during induration were investigated, focusing on the resulting temperature profiles in the bed and the strength development of the produced pellets. An interrupted pot furnace experimental methodology was employed on the bed scale, with an approximate scale of 100 kg pellets per bed. The results indicate that the use of 40% O2 gas helps rapidly enhance the pellet properties and yields a more uniform pellet bed in terms of oxidation degree compared to the use of 13% O2 gas. In addition, improved cold compression strength (CCS) can be achieved when using 40% O2 inflow-gas. At temperatures above 1000°C, the oxidation degree and CCS are primarily enhanced by the high oxygen level of the inflow gas; this behaviour cannot be compensated for by increasing the temperature and residence time at a lower oxygen level. The positive effects on the bed-scale oxidation degree and strength are promising and may enable faster production rates in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 2022
Keywords
Electric furnaces, Gas emissions, Greenhouse gases, Hematite, Hydrogen production, Magnetite, Ore reduction, Oxidation, Oxygen, Steelmaking, Steelmaking furnaces, Fossil-free ironmaking, High oxygens, Inflow gas, Iron making, Magnetite pellet bed, Oxidation degree, Oxygen enrichment, Oxygen levels, Pellet strength, Pot furnace induration, Pelletizing
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90413 (URN)10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2021-390 (DOI)000779919700008 ()2-s2.0-85127776680 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-05-01 (johcin)

Available from: 2022-04-25 Created: 2022-04-25 Last updated: 2022-04-28Bibliographically approved
Babanejad, S., Ahmed, H., Andersson, C., Samuelsson, C., Lennartsson, A., Hall, B. & Arnerlöf, L. (2022). High-Temperature Behavior of Spent Li-Ion Battery Black Mass in Inert Atmosphere. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 8, 566-581
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Temperature Behavior of Spent Li-Ion Battery Black Mass in Inert Atmosphere
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, ISSN 2199-3823, Vol. 8, p. 566-581Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increased demand for Li-ion batteries has prompted the scientific community to improve recycling routes in order to reuse the valuable materials in batteries. After their end-of-life, the batteries are collected, discharged, and mechanically disintegrated, generating plastic and metallic streams that are recycled directly; this leaves behind a small particle size fraction known as black mass (BM). BM is composed mainly of graphite and Li-metal complex oxides. Pyrometallurgy is a route known for recycling of BM, in which identifying the BM’s behavior at high temperatures is essential. In this study, two types of BM are characterized in two fractions of 150–700 µm and smaller than 150 µm. The thermal behavior of the BM is studied with thermal analysis techniques. The analyses demonstrate that the mineralogical and morphological properties of the two fractions do not significantly differ, while the amounts of C and organic materials might vary. When the BM was thermally treated, the binders decomposed until a temperature of 500 ℃ was reached, where the volatilization of hydrocarbons was observed, although F mostly persisted in the BM. The Li-metal oxide was partially reduced to lower oxides and Li carbonate at ⁓ 600 ℃, and the main mass loss was caused by carbothermic reduction immediately thereafter. As the products of this process, metallic Co and Ni phases were formed, and part of the graphite remained unreacted. Regarding the Li behavior, it was observed that in the presence of Al, AlLiO2 is the most likely composition to form, and it changes to LiF by increasing the F concentration in the composition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
Keywords
Li-ion battery black mass, Recycling, Pyrometallurgy, Thermal analysis, Fluorine
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Process Metallurgy; Centre - Centre for Advanced Mining & Metallurgy (CAMM)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-89457 (URN)10.1007/s40831-022-00514-y (DOI)000762339400001 ()2-s2.0-85125395019 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-03-21 (hanlid)

Available from: 2022-03-07 Created: 2022-03-07 Last updated: 2023-02-19Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, A., Andersson, C., Ahmed, H., Dahlin, A., Kumar, T. K. & Semberg, P. (2021). Effect of varied oxygen levels on the oxidation of a magnetite pellet bed during pot furnace induration. ISIJ International, 61(5), 1439-1449
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of varied oxygen levels on the oxidation of a magnetite pellet bed during pot furnace induration
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2021 (English)In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 1439-1449Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An excess amount of oxygen originating from hydrogen production is likely to be available as part of the HYBRIT (Hydrogen Breakthrough Ironmaking Technology) initiative, aimed at producing fossil-free steel by replacing coking coal with hydrogen. Oxygen enrichment during magnetite pellet induration can lead to reduced fuel amounts and increased productivity. Induration of magnetite iron ore pellets liberates considerable amounts of heat when magnetite is oxidised to hematite. Elevated oxygen levels in the process gas are expected to promote the oxidation reaction, resulting in increased process efficiency. However, more information is required to enable the transition towards a higher oxygen level process and improved production rate, while maintaining the metallurgical properties of the pellet bed. In this study, interrupted pot furnace experiments were conducted on a magnetite pellet bed (approximately 100 kg) at Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag to investigate the effect of oxygen levels at approximately 6%, 13%, and 30% O2. Temperature profiles are measured and pellet properties (compression strength, porosity, oxidation degree, microstructures) are analysed at different bed heights. The higher oxygen level (approximately 30% O2) intensifies the oxidation reaction, resulting in increased temperature, oxidation rate and compression strength across the vertical bed height. Three different pellet oxidation profiles are identified, namely, homogenous oxidation across the pellet, complete oxidation of the pellet shell and an unreacted core with a sharp/distinct interface, and partial oxidation of the pellet shell and an unreacted core. A higher oxygen level results in an increased oxidation rate, while the temperature controls the pellet oxidation profile. © 2021 Iron and Steel Institute of Japan. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 2021
Keywords
Coal industry, Coking, Compressive strength, Hematite, Hydrogen production, Iron ore pellets, Iron ores, Magnetite, Oxygen, Pelletizing, Temperature control, Compression strength, Increased productivity, Increased temperature, Ironmaking technology, Metallurgical properties, Oxidation reactions, Process efficiency, Temperature profiles, Oxidation
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-85021 (URN)10.2355/ISIJINTERNATIONAL.ISIJINT-2020-469 (DOI)000661550700013 ()2-s2.0-85106668117 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-06-11 (johcin)

Available from: 2021-06-11 Created: 2021-06-11 Last updated: 2021-12-13Bibliographically approved
Kumar, T. S., Viswanathan, N. N., Ahmed, H., Dahlin, A., Andersson, C. & Björkman, B. (2019). Developing the Oxidation Kinetic Model for Magnetite Pellet. Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, 50(1), 162-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing the Oxidation Kinetic Model for Magnetite Pellet
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2019 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 162-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Oxidation is a vital phenomenon for magnetite pellets in their excursion through the furnace during induration. One of the pre-requisites for magnetite pellets to achieve homogeneously structured good quality pellets is to have complete oxidation before sintering begins. Partially oxidized magnetite pellets, upon sintering, might result in inhomogeneous structured pellets which could be detrimental to pellet quality. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms responsible for magnetite oxidation, and hence, it is intended in this study to investigate experimentally as well as develop a mathematical model based on oxidation kinetics. Oxidation of pellets is largely influenced by the oxidation kinetics of particles and hence should be studied at particle as well as at pellet scale. The principles of the Grain Model have been adopted to develop the Oxidation Model at pellet scale, whereas the particles’ oxidation follows the Avrami Kinetic Model. Isothermal oxidation experiments performed Thermogravimetric Analyzer showed that oxidation rate of magnetite at pellet scale contained two peaks. They were complemented well by oxidation rates predicted from the model. Further, the pellet was investigated microstructurally at pellet and particle scale to substantiate the findings from the experiments and the model. The oxidation model developed is used to predict the progression of oxidation in the magnetite pellet with respect to the reaction time at three different temperatures (873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K (600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C)) and at four levels of oxygen (0.21, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.00 atm) in the oxidizing gas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Pellet Oxidation Model, Magnetite Pellet, Induration, Grain model
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71433 (URN)10.1007/s11663-018-1423-4 (DOI)000456070300017 ()2-s2.0-85055995152 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Investigations on the Physico-Chemical Phenomena during Induration of a Magnetite Pellet
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-02-11 (inah)

Available from: 2018-11-05 Created: 2018-11-05 Last updated: 2021-10-15Bibliographically approved
Kumar, T. S., Viswanathan, N. N., Ahmed, H., Dahlin, A., Andersson, C. & Björkman, B. (2019). Investigation of Magnetite Oxidation Kinetics at the Particle Scale. Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, 50(1), 150-161
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of Magnetite Oxidation Kinetics at the Particle Scale
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2019 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 150-161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The induration of magnetite pellets is a complex physico-chemical process that involves oxidation, sintering, and heat transfer. The thermal- and gas-composition profile that is experienced by the pellet in an induration reactor could result in the formation of a homogenous or heterogeneous pellet structure, which could affect the pellet quality. The oxidation kinetics of magnetite pellets from sintering studies have been studied at two levels, namely, the pellet scale and at the particle scale, and the findings of the latter are presented here. The rate of oxidation of the magnetite concentrate depends primarily on temperature, oxygen content in the oxidizing gas, and particle size. These factors are investigated in this study. It was found that the oxidation of the magnetite concentrate is comprised of two distinct stages, a primary stage with high rates followed by a secondary stage where rates decrease significantly. The isothermal oxidation behavior as analyzed by the Avrami kinetic model was found to fit better than the shrinking-core model. The partially oxidized particles were examined microstructurally to supplement the experimental and model results. The Avrami kinetic model for isothermal oxidation was extended to non-isothermal profiles using the superposition principle, and the model was validated experimentally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Oxidation Kinetics, Shrinking Core Mechanism, Avrami Mechanism, Magnetite particle oxidation
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71839 (URN)10.1007/s11663-018-1459-5 (DOI)000456070300016 ()2-s2.0-85057526513 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Investigations on the Physico-Chemical Phenomena during Induration of a Magnetite Pellet
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-02-01 (johcin) 

Available from: 2018-11-30 Created: 2018-11-30 Last updated: 2023-09-14Bibliographically approved
Kumar, T. K., Simonsson, M., Nurni, V., Ahmed, H., Andersson, C., El-Geassy, A.-H. A. & Björkman, B. (2018). Establishing a Novel Methodology to Correlate the Macroscopic and Microscopic Degree of Sintering inMagnetite Pellets during Induration. Steel Research International, 89(3), Article ID 1700366.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Establishing a Novel Methodology to Correlate the Macroscopic and Microscopic Degree of Sintering inMagnetite Pellets during Induration
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2018 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 89, no 3, article id 1700366Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The quality of product pellets is a result of the physico-chemical phenomenainvolved in the induration process. Sintering is the primary phenomenon,and its degree or extent contributes substantially to the evolution of themetallurgical and mechanical properties of a pellet. During the induration ofmagnetite pellets, sintering proceeds through the oxidized and non-oxidizedmagnetite phases. Sintering of these phases has been previously studied ona single pellet at the macroscopic scale using an optical dilatometer. Adeeper understanding requires corroboration of these studies throughcharacterization at the microscopic scale. In the present work, the observationsrecorded at the microscopic scale are quantified using image processingtechniques to correlate them to the macroscopic measurements. Distancetransformation, which is an image processing principle, is adapted in a novelway to digitize the microstructures and to determine the degree of sinteringin a pellet quantitatively. This methodology has potential applications as ageneric tool to follow the sintering phenomenon and process kinetics at anystage during induration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Distance Transform, Induration, Optical Microstructures, Oxidized and Non-oxidized Magnetite Pellets, Sintering Degree
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66590 (URN)10.1002/srin.201700366 (DOI)000426525900012 ()2-s2.0-85042594552 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Modeling of Physico-Chemical phenomena during Induration of Magnetite Pellet
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-02-02 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
Kumar, T. K., Neelakantan Nurni, V., Ahmed, H. M., Andersson, C. & Björkman, B. (2016). Estimation of Sintering Kinetics of Magnetite Pellet Using Optical Dilatometer (ed.). Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, 47(1), 309-319
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimation of Sintering Kinetics of Magnetite Pellet Using Optical Dilatometer
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2016 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 309-319Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During induration of magnetite pellets, oxidation of magnetite followed by sintering of the oxidized magnetite (hematite) is desirable. Sintering of magnetite which hampers the oxidation of magnetite is aimed to be kept as low as possible. In succession to our earlier study on sintering behavior of oxidized magnetite (hematite), this paper focusses on the sintering behavior of magnetite phase in isolation with an objective to estimate their kinetic parameters. The pellets prepared from the concentrate of LKAB’s mine, which majorly contains (>95 pct) magnetite, are used for the sintering studies. Optical Dilatometer is used to capture the sintering behavior of the magnetite pellet and determine their isothermal kinetics by deducing the three parameters, namely—activation energy (Q), pre-exponential factor (K′), and time exponent (n) with the help of power law and Arrhenius equation. It is interesting to find that the time exponent (n) is decreasing with the increase in sintering temperature. It is also interesting to note that the activation energy for sintering of magnetite pellet shows no single value. From the present investigation, two activation energies—477 kJ/mole [1173 K to 1373 K (900 °C to 1100 °C)] and 148 kJ/mole [1373 K to 1623 K (1100 °C to 1350 °C)]—were deduced for sintering of magnetite, suggesting two different mechanisms operating at lower and other at higher temperatures. The estimated kinetic parameters were used to predict the non-isothermal sintering behavior of magnetite using the sintering kinetic model. Predicted results were validated using experimental data.

National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14333 (URN)10.1007/s11663-015-0505-9 (DOI)000368692300031 ()2-s2.0-84958180660 (Scopus ID)db037374-5a60-4d9a-9d90-01338adc1d16 (Local ID)db037374-5a60-4d9a-9d90-01338adc1d16 (Archive number)db037374-5a60-4d9a-9d90-01338adc1d16 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20151122 (kamsan);

For correction, see: Sandeep Kumar, T.K., Viswanathan, N.N., Ahmed, H.M. et al. Erratum to: Estimation of Sintering Kinetics of Magnetite Pellet Using Optical Dilatometer. Metall Mater Trans B 48, 743–745 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-016-0843-2

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
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