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Darbandi, T., Risberg, M. & Westerlund, L. (2024). Effect of operation conditions on particulate matter removal by a packed-bed wet scrubber for a small-scale biofuel boiler. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 47, Article ID 102290.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of operation conditions on particulate matter removal by a packed-bed wet scrubber for a small-scale biofuel boiler
2024 (English)In: Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, ISSN 2451-9049, Vol. 47, article id 102290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2013 the EU’s Clean Air Policy Package was established, aiming to reduce air pollution to half by 2030 compared to the level in 2005. Small-scale (<500 kW)biofuel boilers play a key role in particulate matter emission, and exposure to particulate matter even in the short term can cause different diseases. With the aim of reducing particulate matter emission in Europe, this study presents an approach to improve the removal of particulate matter emitted by small-scale boilers. A biofuel combustion boiler was equipped with a packed-bed wet scrubber, and the flue gas emitted through combustion was cleaned through the wet scrubber using a saltwater mixture. The performance of a packed-bed wet scrubber was investigated under different operating conditions. The effect of the salt concentration of the absorption solution, the temperature of the absorption solution fed to the absorber, and the height of the packed-bed material on the particle collection efficiency were measured. The operating conditions were selected based on the results obtained in a previous computational fluid dynamic simulation study. The results obtained in the present study show that an absorption solution temperature of 30 °C and an absorption solution concentration of 75 % with a full height of the packed-bed material lead to the best performance in the system. Totally keeping the absorption solution temperature as low as possible, increasing the absorption solution concentration, and raising the packed-bed material height could improve the particle collection efficiency by enhancing the effect of the diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis forces and the contact time between the flue gas and solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Wet scrubber, Diffusiophoresis, Thermophoresis, Particulate matter, Small-scale boiler
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93513 (URN)10.1016/j.tsep.2023.102290 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-22 (hanlid);

Full text license: CC BY

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis

Available from: 2022-10-09 Created: 2022-10-09 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Markeby Ljungqvist, H., Risberg, M., Toffolo, A. & Vesterlund, M. (2023). A realistic view on heat reuse from direct free air-cooled data centres. Energy Conversion and Management: X, 20, Article ID 100473.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A realistic view on heat reuse from direct free air-cooled data centres
2023 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management: X, E-ISSN 2590-1745, Vol. 20, article id 100473Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the opportunities to reuse excess heat from direct free air-cooled data centres without incorporating heat pumps to upgrade the heat. The operation of a data centre in northern Sweden, Luleå, was simulated for a year. It was established that heat losses through the thermal envelope and from the humidification of the cooling airflow influenced the momentary energy reuse factor, iERF, with up to 7%. However, for the annual energy reuse factor, ERF, the heat losses could be neglected since they annually contributed to an error of less than 1%. It was shown that the ideal heat reuse temperature in Luleå was 13, 17, and 18 °C with an exhaust temperature of 30, 40 and 50 °C. The resulting ERF was 0.50, 0.59 and 0.66, meaning that a higher exhaust temperature resulted in potentially higher heat reuse. It could also be seen that raising the exhaust temperature lowered the power usage effectiveness, PUE, due to more efficient cooling. Using heat reuse applications with different heat reuse temperatures closer to the monthly average instead of an ideal heat reuse temperature for the whole year improved the ERF further. The improvement was 11–31% where a lower exhaust temperature meant a higher relative improvement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Data centre, Energy reuse factor, Excess heat, Heat recovery, Heat reuse, Waste heat
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-102311 (URN)10.1016/j.ecmx.2023.100473 (DOI)2-s2.0-85174895802 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 43090-2EU, Horizon 2020, 768875
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-15 (hanlid);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2023-11-15Bibliographically approved
Chen, J., Risberg, M., Westerlund, L., Jansson, U., Wang, C., Lu, X. & Ji, X. (2022). Heat-transfer performance of twisted tubes for highly viscous food waste slurry from biogas plants. Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts, 15, Article ID 74.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heat-transfer performance of twisted tubes for highly viscous food waste slurry from biogas plants
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2022 (English)In: Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts, E-ISSN 2731-3654, Vol. 15, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The use of food waste as feedstock shows high production of biogas via anaerobic digestion, but requires efficient heat transfer in food waste slurry at heating and cooling processes. The lack of rheological properties hampered the research on the heat-transfer process for food waste slurry. Referentially, the twisted hexagonal and elliptical rubes have been proved as the optimal enhanced geometry for heat transfer of medium viscous slurries with non-Newtonian behavior and Newtonian fluids, respectively. It remains unknown whether improvements can be achieved by using twisted geometries in combination with food waste slurry in processes including heating and cooling.

Results: Food waste slurry was observed to exhibit highly viscous, significant temperature-dependence, and strongly shear-thinning rheological characteristics. Experiments confirmed the heat-transfer enhancement of twisted hexagonal tubes for food waste slurry and validated the computational fluid dynamics-based simulations with an average deviation of 14.2%. Twisted hexagonal tubes were observed to be more effective at low-temperature differences and possess an enhancement factor of up to 2.75; while twisted elliptical tubes only exhibited limited heat-transfer enhancement at high Reynolds numbers. The heat-transfer enhancement achieved by twisted hexagonal tubes was attributed to the low dynamic viscosity in the boundary layer induced by the strong and continuous shear effect near the walls of the tube.

Conclusions: This study determined the rheological properties of food waste slurry, confirmed the heat-transfer enhancement of the twisted hexagonal tubes experimentally and numerically, and revealed the mechanism of heat-transfer enhancement based on shear rate distributions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
Keywords
Food waste slurry, Rheological properties, Twisted tubes, Computational fluid dynamics, Heat-transfer enhancement
National Category
Biomaterials Science Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92124 (URN)10.1186/s13068-022-02156-4 (DOI)000825329800002 ()35794672 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85133574304 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Luleå University of TechnologySwedish Energy Agency, 45957-1
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-07-11 (joosat);

Funder: National Natural Science Foundation of China (21838004, 91934302)

Available from: 2022-07-11 Created: 2022-07-11 Last updated: 2022-10-11Bibliographically approved
Lundqvist, P., Risberg, M. & Westerlund, L. (2022). Indoor thermal climate after energy efficiency measures of a residential building in a sub-Arctic region: Comparing ANSYS CFX and IDA ICE methods. Indoor + Built Environment, 31(3), 732-744
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indoor thermal climate after energy efficiency measures of a residential building in a sub-Arctic region: Comparing ANSYS CFX and IDA ICE methods
2022 (English)In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 732-744Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A residential building which had been subjected to an energy efficiency measures study had its indoor thermal climate investigated using two software approaches to understand how each approach would predict the outcome, using the predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD). The computational fluid dynamics software (ANSYS CFX) and the building performance simulation (BPS) software (IDA ICE) were used to simulate the indoor thermal climate before and after the measures. The measures included additional insulation and changing the ventilation system. The results showed a difference in how the software packages handled the thermal radiation. The difference was also because CFX could calculate the indoor thermal climate of the whole interior. While the PPD values could remain similar between the CFX solutions, the area with dissatisfaction in the apartment was decreased when the building envelope was improved. These changes gave an improvement for the CFX solutions, which was not possible to predict with IDA ICE because only the central node was visible. The user should be aware of the shortcomings of BPS and building energy simulation software when evaluating the indoor thermal climate to predict changes. A coupling between BPS and CFX software should be considered when new measures or significant changes are planned.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2022
Keywords
ANSYS CFX, Computational fluid dynamics, Energy efficiency measures, IDA ICE, Indoor thermal climate, Sub-Arctic
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86467 (URN)10.1177/1420326X211030323 (DOI)000675170200001 ()2-s2.0-85109375310 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg NordNorrbotten County CouncilLuleå University of Technology
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-04-19 (johcin)

Available from: 2021-07-27 Created: 2021-07-27 Last updated: 2023-09-04Bibliographically approved
Risberg, M., Lundqvist, P., Lidelöw, S. & Bhattacharjee, S. (2022). Inomhusklimat i hus med inglasade fasader (ed.). Energimyndigheten
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inomhusklimat i hus med inglasade fasader
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Energimyndigheten, 2022. p. 20
Series
Rapport ; 2022:7
Keywords
Glazing, low-energy apartment buildings, subarctic, CFD, energy simulation, IDA ICE, Inglasning, lågenergiflerbostadshus, subarktiskt, CFD, energisimulering, IDA ICE
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93370 (URN)
Projects
E2B2
Available from: 2022-09-30 Created: 2022-09-30 Last updated: 2023-10-10Bibliographically approved
Darbandi, T., Risberg, M. & Westerlund, L. (2021). CFD modeling of the forces in the wet scrubber acting on particulate matter released from biomass combustion. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 25, Article ID 100997.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CFD modeling of the forces in the wet scrubber acting on particulate matter released from biomass combustion
2021 (English)In: Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, ISSN 2451-9049, Vol. 25, article id 100997Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The flue gas from biomass combustion contains particulate matter, which is a considerable precarious constituent cause of serious health issues. The wet flue gas cleaning method is one of the most efficient solutions for small-scale boilers (≈100 kW) and small particles. In this study, the forces on particulate matter in a wet flue gas cleaning process using an absorption solution have been studied with the implementation of compiled user-defined function code in Ansys Fluent 19.2®. The forces governing the wet cleaning process as well as the corresponding conditions of the system have also been studied. Drag, buoyancy, diffusiophoresis, and thermophoresis forces have been analyzed as the most important forces acting on particulate matters. Simulations have been conducted for velocities, particle sizes, temperatures, and water vapor mass fractions within the same range as experiments in order to acquire trends for particle collection for these variables.

Moreover, the influence of diffusiophoresis force was compared to that of the thermophoresis force under different conditions. It was unveiled that the diffusiophoresis force had a significant effect on nanoparticle collection. The impact of diffusiophoresis is increased by the ascending gradient of temperature as well as water vapor mass fraction. Simulations declare that the thermophoresis force effect is small compared to the diffusiophoresis force effect in the particle collection process. Thereby, one could conclude that the diffusiophoresis force governs the collection of particulate matter in the wet scrubber method. The model validation is confirmed by comparing the results with previous empirical models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Biomass combustion, Flue gas cleaning, Diffusiophoresis, Thermophoresis, Wet scrubber, Particulate matter
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-85935 (URN)10.1016/j.tsep.2021.100997 (DOI)000704170800011 ()2-s2.0-85111344856 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Nord
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-08-13 (alebob)

Available from: 2021-06-23 Created: 2021-06-23 Last updated: 2022-10-10Bibliographically approved
Ljungqvist, H. M., Mattsson, L., Risberg, M. & Vesterlund, M. (2021). Data center heated greenhouses, a matter for enhanced food self-sufficiency in sub-arctic regions. Energy, 215(Part B), Article ID 119169.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data center heated greenhouses, a matter for enhanced food self-sufficiency in sub-arctic regions
2021 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 215, no Part B, article id 119169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the possibility of increasing Northern Sweden’s degree of self-sufficiency in food supply, at the 65th latitude, by using a data center as a heating source for greenhouse production. A dynamic building energy simulation software was used to compute both the hourly exhaust air output from a 1 MW data center for one year and the corresponding heating demand for two different greenhouse sizes, 2000 m2 and 10 000 m2, and two different production scenarios. Partial year production, 1 Mars – 15 October, without grow lights and full-year production with grow lights. The study showed that 5.5–30.5% of the electrical input to a 1 MW data center could be recovered. The 2000 m2 greenhouse could operate almost entirely, 89.7–97.9%, on excess heat while only 50.0–61.5% of the 10 000 m2 greenhouse heating demand could be met for full- and partial-year production, respectively. Furthermore, it is concluded that the 10 000 m2 greenhouse with full year production was the most prominent case and would cost-effectively yield 7.6% of northern Sweden’s vegetable self-sufficiency. © 2020 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Computer software, Food supply, Greenhouses, Building energy simulations, Data centers, Electrical inputs, Greenhouse heating, Greenhouse production, Heating demand, Heating source, Northern sweden, Thermal processing (foods), arctic environment, food consumption, greenhouse gas, self sufficiency, simulation, software, vegetable, Sweden
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-81448 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2020.119169 (DOI)000596834000006 ()2-s2.0-85095423203 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-11-19 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-11-19 Created: 2020-11-19 Last updated: 2021-01-21Bibliographically approved
Darbandi, T., Risberg, M. & Westerlund, L. (2021). Efficient Cleaning and Heat Recovery of Flue Gas from a Small-Scale Boiler. Chemical Engineering & Technology, 44(11), 2116-2125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient Cleaning and Heat Recovery of Flue Gas from a Small-Scale Boiler
2021 (English)In: Chemical Engineering & Technology, ISSN 0930-7516, E-ISSN 1521-4125, Vol. 44, no 11, p. 2116-2125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Small-scale biomass boilers contribute to the emission of particulate matter (PM) to the environment. In this study, the performance of a wet scrubber purification system for flue gas was experimentally investigated. The experimental setup consisted of a boiler, a wet scrubber, a generator, and heat exchangers. The results show an average particulate collection efficiency of around 42% for a particulate matter size range of 0.08-10 µm, within a testing period of 5 months. Furthermore, the results show an improvement in the heat recovery of about18%. Focusing only on the heat losses through exhaust flue gases, the losses were shown to have decreased by 72%. During the total testing period (8.5 months), no decrease could be noticed in the absorption solution ability.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Keywords
Flue gas cleaning, Heat recovery, Pellet boiler, Particulate matter, Wet scrubber
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87050 (URN)10.1002/ceat.202100274 (DOI)000703614600001 ()2-s2.0-85116285715 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Nord
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-10-26 (beamah)

Available from: 2021-09-13 Created: 2021-09-13 Last updated: 2022-10-10Bibliographically approved
Chishty, M. A., Umeki, K., Risberg, M., Wingren, A. & Gebart, R. (2021). Numerical simulation of a biomass cyclone gasifier: Effects of operating conditions on gasifier performance. Fuel processing technology, 218, Article ID 106861.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical simulation of a biomass cyclone gasifier: Effects of operating conditions on gasifier performance
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2021 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 218, article id 106861Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Nordic countries, biomass gasification in a cyclone gasifier combined with a gas engine has been employed to generate small scale heat and power. Numerical simulations were carried out to analyze the effect of different operating conditions on the functioning of the gasifier. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved together with the eddy-break up combustion model in conjunction with a modified k − ϵ model to predict the temperature and the flow field inside the gasifier. Results were compared with the experimental measurements in a 4.4 MW cyclone gasifier constructed by Meva Energy AB at Hortlax, Piteå, Sweden. The predicted results were in good agreement with the experimental data and the model provides detailed information about the gas compositions, cold gas efficiency and temperature field. Furthermore, the model allows different operating scenarios to be examined in an efficient manner such as the number of inlets, fuel to air velocity difference (slip-velocity) and moisture content in the fuel feedstock. The cold gas efficiency, composition of product gases and outlet temperature were monitored for each test case. These findings help to understand the importance of geometry modification, feedstock contents and make it possible to scale-up the gasifier for future applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Biomass gasification, Cyclone gasifier, Computational fluid dynamics, Moisture content
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-84143 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2021.106861 (DOI)000652818800007 ()2-s2.0-85104752175 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kempe Foundations, SMK-1632Swedish Energy Agency, 34721–3
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-05-21 (beamah)

Available from: 2021-05-05 Created: 2021-05-05 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Chen, J., Risberg, M., Westerlund, L., Jansson, U., Lu, X., Wang, C. & Ji, X. (2020). A high efficient heat exchanger with twisted geometries for biogas process with manure slurry. Applied Energy, 279, Article ID 115871.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A high efficient heat exchanger with twisted geometries for biogas process with manure slurry
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2020 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 279, article id 115871Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Heat-transfer enhancement in manure slurry is crucial for increasing the efficiency and production of biogas during anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. In this study, a novel heat exchanger with an optimal twisted geometry was developed based on the numerical screening of the twisted tubes with equilateral polygons, and experiments were conducted to validate the numerical results. It was observed that the SST k-ω model is more efficient than other turbulence models in representing the heat transfer performance of the twisted tubes, and the numerical model with a thermostatic wall can be used to reliably screen the twisted geometries. The twisted hexagonal tube has the optimal geometry, with enhancement capability of up to 1.4 times compared to that of the circular tube. The formation of high continuity regions with relatively strong heat-transfer rates along the heat-exchange wall is the main reason for the high performance during heat transfer. The external heating process was integrated in a full-scale biogas plant, and the model and algorithm were developed and validated with additional experiments to describe the overall performance of both conventional and screened optimal geometries under different conditions. It was observed that a profit equivalent to 39% of total production for a large-scale biogas plant can be achieved owing to energy conservation in external heating with the twisted hexagonal tubes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Heat-transfer enhancement, Manure slurry, Twisted hexagonal tubes, CFD, Energy conservation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80929 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115871 (DOI)000594115700001 ()2-s2.0-85091347197 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-09-25 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-09-25 Created: 2020-09-25 Last updated: 2022-02-04Bibliographically approved
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