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Huber, J. A. J., Broman, O., Ekevad, M., Oja, J. & Hansson, L. (2022). A method for generating finite element models of wood boards from X-ray computed tomography scans. Computers & structures, 260, Article ID 106702.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method for generating finite element models of wood boards from X-ray computed tomography scans
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2022 (English)In: Computers & structures, ISSN 0045-7949, E-ISSN 1879-2243, Vol. 260, article id 106702Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A method is presented for reconstructing the geometry, the pith, the knots and the local fibre orientations in timber boards, based on X-ray computed tomography scans. The local fibre deviations around knots were found by a new algorithm, based on image analysis. The experimental data comprised tomography scans, eigenfrequency measurements and four-point bending tests of 20 Norway spruce boards. 3D and 1D finite element models of the pure bending zone of the bending tests were created, accounting for the exact board geometry and the reconstructed fibre deviations. A purely density based, a purely eigenfrequency based, and a mixed constitutive law were compared. Model estimations showed a high coefficient of determination (R2) for global modulus of elasticity (MoE) (R2⩽0.93), local MoE (R2⩽0.87), bending strength (R2⩽0.83), and the location of initial failure. Constitutive laws accounting for eigenfrequency showed the most accurate results. In the future, adapting the method for logs could enable analyses of boards before sawing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Fibre reconstruction, Feature reconstruction, CT scanning, Strength grading, Image analysis, Gradient structure tensor
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-84593 (URN)10.1016/j.compstruc.2021.106702 (DOI)000721356100001 ()2-s2.0-85119437521 (Scopus ID)
Projects
READiStrength
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-11-22 (beamah);

Funder: READiStrength project

Available from: 2021-06-04 Created: 2021-06-04 Last updated: 2022-06-01Bibliographically approved
Livas, C., Ekevad, M. & Öhman, M. (2022). Experimental analysis of passively and actively reinforced glued-laminated timber with focus on ductility. Wood Material Science & Engineering, 17(2), 129-137
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental analysis of passively and actively reinforced glued-laminated timber with focus on ductility
2022 (English)In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When glued-laminated timber are subjected to bending moment, they usually fail in a brittle way in the tension zone before the compressive zone reaches the compressive strength of wood. This means that the compression strength of wood is not fully exploited. By reinforcing the tension zone, the failure mode of glued-laminated timber can be changed from tensile to compressive. As a result, by utilizing the higher compressive strength, reinforced glued-laminated timber become stronger and the failure mode becomes compressive and ductile. This paper presents experimental results of the effect of steel reinforcements in the tension zone of glued-laminated timber. Four passively reinforced beams, four actively reinforced beams, and seven unreinforced beams were tested to failure in four-point bending tests. The experimental results confirmed the brittle tension failure in the unreinforced beams as well as the ductile and compressive failure in the reinforced beams. Furthermore, the experiments revealed the increase of the passively and the actively reinforced glued-laminated timber relative to the reference beams for strengths (26% and 39%) and stiffnesses (30% and 11%). Ductilities were increased from 7.7% for the reference beams to 90% and 75% for the passively and the actively reinforced glued-laminated timber, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
Glulam, reinforcement, ductility, bending test
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-82331 (URN)10.1080/17480272.2020.1869998 (DOI)000606904400001 ()2-s2.0-85099340355 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-04-13 (sofila)

Available from: 2021-01-13 Created: 2021-01-13 Last updated: 2022-04-13Bibliographically approved
Meulenberg, V., Ekevad, M. & Svensson, M. (2022). Minor cutting edge angles of sawing teeth: effect on cutting forces in wood. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 80(5), 1165-1173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minor cutting edge angles of sawing teeth: effect on cutting forces in wood
2022 (English)In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 80, no 5, p. 1165-1173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optimising the cutting tool geometries can reduce waste while increasing timber yield. The industry is moving towards thin-kerf bandsawing of timber, and therefore, the geometry of the minor cutting edge and minor first flanks of cutting teeth become more important. Six cutting teeth with varying minor cutting edge angles (0°, 2°, 4°, 6°) and minor cutting edge clearance angles (2°, 4°, 6°) were tested by cutting into the heartwood and sapwood of frozen and non-frozen Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Single cutting tooth tests were conducted, and the cutting and feeding forces were measured. The cutting forces were higher for Scots pine due to its higher density. Frozen sapwood resulted in higher cutting forces. The feeding force of frozen sapwood stood out as it was highly negative (i.e. self-feeding) compared to frozen heartwood, non-frozen heartwood and non-frozen sapwood. An increase in the minor cutting edge angle and minor cutting edge clearance angles, and therefore more room for elastic spring-back, can lead to up to less friction and 40% lower cutting forces. Higher minor cutting edge angles and minor cutting edge clearance angles resulted in less-negative feeding forces (i.e. less self-feeding) for frozen sapwood but remained relatively unchanged for the other wood conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-91786 (URN)10.1007/s00107-022-01833-3 (DOI)000809327900001 ()2-s2.0-85131530166 (Scopus ID)
Projects
IPOS project (Swedish wood- Innovation potential for the bio-based society)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-09-29 (hanlid);

Funder: BioInnovation (2017-02697)

Available from: 2022-06-22 Created: 2022-06-22 Last updated: 2022-09-29Bibliographically approved
Meulenberg, V., Ekevad, M., Svensson, M. & Broman, O. (2022). Minor cutting edge force contribution in wood bandsawing. Journal of Wood Science, 68, Article ID 18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minor cutting edge force contribution in wood bandsawing
2022 (English)In: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 68, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the sawmill industry is moving towards thinner bandsaws for higher yields, it is important to study the cutting force in more detail. The cutting force can be split into two zones. Zone I concerns the force on the major cutting edge as well as the friction force on the major first flank. Zone II considers the forces on the minor cutting edges as well as the friction forces on the minor first flanks. Zone II cutting can significantly affect the cutting force and has not been studied in great detail. Frozen, non-frozen and dry heartwood of Norway spruce and Scots pine were cut using different tooth geometries and the cutting force was measured. The major cutting edge, clearance, band thickness, minor cutting edge angle and minor cutting edge clearance angle were investigated. The y-intercept of the cutting force–width graph was used as the Zone II force (at this point the Zone I forces are assumed to be zero). The Zone II force contribution to the cutting force was studied. The results show that frozen wood has less elastic spring-back and therefore less Zone II cutting. Dried wood showed a significantly higher degree of Zone II cutting (55−75% contribution to the cutting force). Changing the major cutting edge from 2.87 mm to 1.6 mm resulted in 10–15% higher Zone II force contributions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Saw, Minor cutting edge, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Clearance angle, Minor first flank, Major cutting edge
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87467 (URN)10.1186/s10086-022-02023-8 (DOI)000770757500001 ()2-s2.0-85126815724 (Scopus ID)
Projects
IPOS-DP2-AP9NGenTools
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council FormasVinnova
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-03-21 (sofila);

Funder: BioInnovation (2017-02697)

Available from: 2021-10-12 Created: 2021-10-12 Last updated: 2022-07-06Bibliographically approved
Huber, J. A., Broman, O., Oja, J., Hansson, L. & Ekevad, M. (2022). Nondestructive Testing of Timber Prior to Sawing Using Finite Element Models Based on X-ray Computed Tomography Data - A Preliminary Study. In: Wang, Xiping; Ross, Robert J. (Ed.), Proceedings: 22nd International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium: . Paper presented at 22nd International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, May 24-27, 2022 (pp. 200-200). Madison, WI, USA: United States Department of Agriculture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nondestructive Testing of Timber Prior to Sawing Using Finite Element Models Based on X-ray Computed Tomography Data - A Preliminary Study
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2022 (English)In: Proceedings: 22nd International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium / [ed] Wang, Xiping; Ross, Robert J., Madison, WI, USA: United States Department of Agriculture , 2022, p. 200-200Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

X-ray computed tomography (CT) of wood delivers internal density data of a scanned object, where, depending on the resolution, internal features like the pith, annual rings and knots can be identified. Some sawmills use CT scanners in front of the saw line to determine the optimal positioning of the log in the saw, to maximise the value yield of the sawn products. We envision that the gathered CT data also could be used for mechanical evaluations of the timber using numerical models of boards prior to sawing. In a recent study by the authors, a method was developed to create 3D and 1D finite element (FE) models based on CT scans of dried sawn timber, which could predict bending stiffness and strength in bending simulations with high accuracy. The objective of the present study is to explore how the method can be adapted to CT scans of logs before sawing. Our preliminary study was based on CT data of green Norway Spruce logs and the corresponding scans of dried sawn timber. The stiffness and strength were evaluated using four-point bending tests. Additionally, the resonance frequency of the logs was recorded. The corresponding volume of each piece of sawn timber was extracted from the log data and an FE model was created. The model accounted for the pith, the annual rings, the knots, and the local fibre deviations around knots. Various laws for local stiffness and different failure criteria were tested. The study showed how FE models of virtual pieces of sawn timber can be created from CT data and what obstacles need to be overcome for further development of the presented method. The results indicated that more detailed evaluations of the relationship between local stiffness and density may be required, in specific for knots and for wood in green state.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Madison, WI, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 2022
Series
United States Department of Agriculture General Technical Report FPL-GTR-290
Keywords
strength prediction, virtual grading, numerical modelling, sawmill optimisation
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-91274 (URN)
Conference
22nd International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, May 24-27, 2022
Projects
ReadIStrength
Available from: 2022-06-12 Created: 2022-06-12 Last updated: 2022-06-13Bibliographically approved
Huber, J. A., Oja, J., Ekevad, M. & Broman, O. (2021). 3D Quasi-Continuum and Finite Element Models Based on CT Scans of Timber Boards to Predict Stiffness and Strength. In: António J.M. Ferreira; Nicholas Fantuzzi; Michele Bacciocchi (Ed.), ICCSE1 1st International Conference on Computations for Science and Engineering: Book of Abstracts. Paper presented at 1st International Conference on Computations for Science and Engineering, , Online, July 19-22, 2021. , Article ID 159.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Quasi-Continuum and Finite Element Models Based on CT Scans of Timber Boards to Predict Stiffness and Strength
2021 (English)In: ICCSE1 1st International Conference on Computations for Science and Engineering: Book of Abstracts / [ed] António J.M. Ferreira; Nicholas Fantuzzi; Michele Bacciocchi, 2021, article id 159Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Engineered wood products of today's construction industry require predictable mechanical properties of the used structural timber. At sawmills, automated strength grading is used to assess the stiffness and strength of sawn and dried timber boards. This process can be based on various technologies, e.g. surface scanning, dynamic excitation, flat-wise bending, which are used to derive so-called indicating properties, i.e. simplified numerical values. Heuristically derived statistical models can then be used to predict the stiffness and strength based on indicating properties. However, statistical strength grading can only exploit a small fraction of the potential strength of a single board, since it assesses the properties of a board in relation to its population. 

A growing number of sawmills in Sweden use computed tomography (CT) scanners to assess the incoming logs to optimise their positioning prior to sawing. CT scans provide high-quality data of the cross-sectional density distribution along the length of a log, which could also be used to derive continuum mechanical models of the yet unsawn boards and with that assess their mechanical properties. If the stiffness and strength of a virtual board can be predicted before it is sawn, then it could be pre-classified into a strength class or its specific use as a specific construction part could be predetermined already at the log stage, which would lead to a more efficient material usage. Additionally, the predictive power of the existing statistical strength grading processes could be improved for the final boards.

The goals of this study were to i) derive 3D quasi-continuum and finite element (FE) models of CT scanned timber boards using different material laws for local stiffness based on measured density and ii) compare their capabilities for predicting stiffness and strength of the boards.

The experimental material consisted of dried softwood boards (12% moisture content) of nominal cross-sectional dimensions 50x100mm with different lengths, scanned with a medical high-resolution CT scanner. The boards underwent an eigenfrequency measurement by dynamic excitation and were tested until failure in a four-point bending test, where both the local and global displacement were recorded.

A previously developed algorithm was used to derive 3D quasi-continuum reconstructions from the CT scans and subsequently finite element (FE) models. The algorithm reconstructed the board geometry, pith, knots and local fibre directions (material coordinate system) on a volume grid of material points spaced 0.68mm apart. The stiffness tensor in each material point was made locally dependent on the measured density by different mathematical laws, e.g. constant, linear or power laws. Furthermore, material laws which scaled the stiffness tensor based on the ratio between the simulated and measured eigenfrequency were tested for comparison. The bending stiffness profile was calculated for each board along its length and different indicating properties for predicting stiffness and strength were derived and compared with respect to the experimental results. With the FE model, strain distributions in the cross-sections were studied and local stress states around the experimentally observed points of initial failure were investigated to determine whether similar dominant failure stress states existed among boards.

The results showed high coefficients of determination between predicted stiffness and strength for material laws based on power laws and low values for linear laws. Nevertheless, the four-point bending tests only provided point-wise data (mid points) that could be used to validate the numerical model. It is therefore recommended to use field-based evaluations in the future, e.g. the surface strain obtained with DIC under four-point testing.

National Category
Wood Science Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-84592 (URN)
Conference
1st International Conference on Computations for Science and Engineering, , Online, July 19-22, 2021
Projects
ReadIStrength
Available from: 2021-05-21 Created: 2021-05-21 Last updated: 2023-01-27Bibliographically approved
Guo, X., Wang, J., Buck, D., Zhu, Z. & Ekevad, M. (2021). Cutting forces and cutting quality in the up-milling of solid wood using ceramic cutting tools. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 114(5-6), 1575-1584
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cutting forces and cutting quality in the up-milling of solid wood using ceramic cutting tools
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2021 (English)In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 114, no 5-6, p. 1575-1584Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although many studies have focused on the cutting performance of ceramic blades in processing different materials, few have reported on their application in wood processing. Thus, it is necessary to explore the cutting performance of ceramic tools in solid wood machining. The aims of this paper were to evaluate the cutting performance of Al2O3 and Si3N4 ceramic tools in the process of machining Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.) and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) by means of analysing cutting force and surface roughness and to provide guidelines for factories for applying ceramic tools in the manufacture of solid wood furniture. Up-milling tests were conducted for each combination of cutting speed, tool material, and workpiece material, and each combination was replicated five times. Results showed that (1) cutting force and surface roughness decreased with increase of cutting speed and (2) cutting force and surface roughness resulting from using Al2O3 ceramic cutting tools were larger than those of Si3N4 ceramic cutting tools, especially when cutting Manchurian ash with its extractives. Overall, ceramic tools can be used in high-speed cutting of solid wood. Compared with Al2O3 ceramic cutting tools, Si3N4 ceramic cutting tools are more suitable for cutting solid wood, especially those with extractives. Si3N4 ceramic tools provided not only chemical stability, but improved final product quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
Ceramic tools, Manchurian ash, Chinese fir, Cutting performance
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83847 (URN)10.1007/s00170-021-06991-x (DOI)000635511900003 ()2-s2.0-85103416450 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-05-03 (johcin)

Available from: 2021-04-20 Created: 2021-04-20 Last updated: 2023-03-22Bibliographically approved
Sharifi, J., Sharifi, Z., Berg, S. & Ekevad, M. (2021). Diaphragm shear and diagonal compression testing of cross-laminated timber. SN Applied Sciences, 3, Article ID 842.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diaphragm shear and diagonal compression testing of cross-laminated timber
2021 (English)In: SN Applied Sciences, ISSN 2523-3963, E-ISSN 2523-3971, Vol. 3, article id 842Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To learn the characteristics of a cross-laminated timber (CLT) panel, it is crucial to perform experimental tests. This study presents two experimental test methods to measure the in-plane shear modulus of CLT panels. This characteristic can be measured by multiple methods such as the picture frame test, the diagonal compression test, and the diaphragm shear test. In this study, the same CLT panels are tested and evaluated in the diaphragm shear test and the diagonal compression test to see if more reliable results can be achieved from the diaphragm shear test. This evaluation is done by experimental tests and finite element simulations. The theoretical pure shear simulation is used as a reference case. Finite element simulations are made for both edge glued and non-edge glued CLT panels. Nine CLT panels are tested in the diaphragm shear test and the diagonal compression test. During ideal conditions (uniform material properties and contact conditions), all three simulated methods result in an almost equal shear modulus. During the experimental testing, the diagonal compression test gives more coherent results with the expected shear modulus based on finite element simulations. Based on the diaphragm shear test results, the CLT panels behave like edge glued, but this situation is dismissed. However, during ideal conditions, the diaphragm shear test is seen as a more reliable method due to the higher proportion of shear in the measured area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
Cross-laminated timber, CLT, Diagonal compression test, Diaphragm shear test, In-plane shear modulus
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83596 (URN)10.1007/s42452-021-04826-8 (DOI)000706735000001 ()2-s2.0-85117310044 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-10-25 (johcin)

Available from: 2021-04-12 Created: 2021-04-12 Last updated: 2023-03-28Bibliographically approved
Huber, J. A., Ekevad, M., Berg, S. & Girhammar, U. A. (2021). Finite Element Modelling Of Alternative Load Paths after a Wall Removal in a Platform CLT Building. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2021: Book of abstracts: . Paper presented at World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2021), Santiago, Chile, August 9-12, 2021 (pp. 1867-1873). Curran Associates, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finite Element Modelling Of Alternative Load Paths after a Wall Removal in a Platform CLT Building
2021 (English)In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2021: Book of abstracts, Curran Associates, Inc., 2021, p. 1867-1873Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Tall buildings with a high occupancy need to resist disproportionate collapse caused by unforeseen exposures, e.g. terrorism or accidents. If a damage has occurred in a building, the damage propagation can be halted if the structure is robust, i.e. it provides alternative load paths (ALPs). The ALPs of platform-type cross-laminated timber buildings have not been studied in detail on the component level. The goals of this paper are thus to elicit which ALPs may develop on single storeys in a corner bay of a platform-type cross-laminated timber building, and to study how the various building components contribute to the ALPs. For this purpose, a non-linear quasi-static pushdown analysis was conducted in a finite element model of an 8-storey building after a wall removal. Friction, fastener failure, timber failure and large displacements were accounted for. Four different ALPs were identified at various storeys and their mechanisms were described. The results could be used to improve the capacity of the ALPs and make platform-type cross-laminated timber buildings more robust in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Curran Associates, Inc., 2021
Keywords
disproportionate collapse, robustness, alternative load paths, finite element analysis, CLT
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-84587 (URN)2-s2.0-85120750074 (Scopus ID)
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2021), Santiago, Chile, August 9-12, 2021
Funder
Vinnova
Note

Funder: Bo Rydin Foundation;

ISBN for host publication: 978-1-7138-4097-8; 978-1-7138-4111-1

Available from: 2021-05-21 Created: 2021-05-21 Last updated: 2022-12-22Bibliographically approved
Huber, J. A., Mpidi Bita, H., Ekevad, M. & Tannert, T. (2021). Finite Element Modelling of Catenary Action in a Cross-Laminated Timber Floor System. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2021: Book of abstracts: . Paper presented at World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2021), Santiago, Chile, August 9-12, 2021 (pp. 3018-3025). Curran Associates, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finite Element Modelling of Catenary Action in a Cross-Laminated Timber Floor System
2021 (English)In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2021: Book of abstracts, Curran Associates, Inc., 2021, p. 3018-3025Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Buildings taller than four storeys require the designer to mitigate consequences of unexpected events, e.g. terrorism or accidents, such that a disproportionate collapse can be avoided after initial damage. One approach to halt damage propagation is using structural robustness, i.e. by providing alternative load paths. For platform-type cross-laminated timber (CLT) buildings, catenary action as an alternative load path is not fully understood. The goal of the research presented in this paper is to numerically study catenary action as a resistance mechanism for floor panels after internal load-bearing wall removal, and to identify the governing parameters of this mechanism. For this purpose, a non-linear high-fidelity finite element model was constructed and calibrated against test results. All components and connections were individually modelled, to account for failure in the connectors and the timber components. A parameter study evaluated the impact of the floor span, the storey location, the connection type and the tie level on the development of catenary action. It was shown that in specific the connection, the storey location and the tie level had significant effects on catenary action. The results provide insight into how CLT floor systems can be detailed to trigger catenary action following internal wall removal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Curran Associates, Inc., 2021
Keywords
disproportionate collapse, structural robustness, progressive collapse, finite element modelling, CLT
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-84589 (URN)2-s2.0-85120748458 (Scopus ID)
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2021), Santiago, Chile, August 9-12, 2021
Note

Funder: Bo Rydin Foundation;

ISBN for host publication: 978-1-7138-4097-8; 978-1-7138-4111-1

Available from: 2021-05-21 Created: 2021-05-21 Last updated: 2022-12-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0145-080x

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