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Publications (10 of 87) Show all publications
Zhu, Z., Buck, D., Guo, X., Ekevad, M. & Cao, P. (2019). Effect of Cutting Speed on Machinability of Stone–Plastic Composite Material. Science of Advanced Materials, 11(6), 884-892
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Cutting Speed on Machinability of Stone–Plastic Composite Material
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2019 (English)In: Science of Advanced Materials, ISSN 1947-2935, E-ISSN 1947-2943, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 884-892Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research examined the orthogonal cutting of stone–plastic composite with diamond cutting tools. The objective was to quantify features relating to machinability, including cutting forces, cutting heat, chip formation, and machining quality with respect to cutting speed. The conclusions are as follows. An increased cutting speed promotes a decrease in the resulting force, causes cutting temperature to increase, makes the cutting processes more stable, and reduces the surface roughness. Chip-breaking length increases with an increase in cutting speed, and chip morphology changes from particle, to curve, to helical, and finally, to flow chips. Overall, a higher cutting speed is more suitable for machining stone–plastic composite materials: it not only increases the stability of cutting process, but also improves the final product of stone–plastic composite by promoting production of a smoother surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Scientific Publishers, 2019
Keywords
cutting process, decorating material, machining property, planing, polycrystalline cemented diamond, thermal imaging
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74810 (URN)10.1166/sam.2019.3538 (DOI)000469948000015 ()
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-24 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Cao, P., Zhu, Z., Buck, D., Xiaolei, G., Ekevad, M. & Wang, X. A. (2019). Effect of rake angle on cutting performance during machining of stone-plastic composite material with polycrystalline diamond cutters. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 33(1), 351-356
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of rake angle on cutting performance during machining of stone-plastic composite material with polycrystalline diamond cutters
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, ISSN 1738-494X, E-ISSN 1976-3824, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 351-356Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the effect of rake angle on cutting performance during machining of stone-plastic composite material with diamond cutters. To that end, an orthogonal cutting experiment was designed, in which stone-plastic composite material was planed by a polycrystalline diamond (PCD) cutter to produce chips. The features studied include cutting forces, cutting heat, chip formation and cutting quality. The conclusions are as follows: Firstly, increased rake angle causes frictional force and resulting force to decrease, promoting an increase in normal force. Secondly, during planing, cutting heat is primarily distributed in the chips, with less retained in the cutting edge, and the least retained in the machined surface. The temperatures of both cutting edge and chip decline with an increase in rake angle. Thirdly, as rake angle increases, chip morphology changes from segmental to curved and then to particle chips, with chip-breaking lengths first increasing and then decreasing. Finally, an increased rake angle leads a more stable cutting process and improved cutting quality. Therefore, with the precondition of blade strength, a diamond cutter with a larger rake angle can be used to machine stone-plastic composite to improve production quality by forming a smoother machined surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Orthogonal cutting, PCD blades, Cutting forces, Cutting heat, Cutting quality, Chip formation
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72688 (URN)10.1007/s12206-018-1237-y (DOI)000455641100035 ()2-s2.0-85060183090 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-01-25 (johcin) 

Available from: 2019-01-25 Created: 2019-01-25 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Berg, S., Turesson, J., Ekevad, M. & Huber, J. A. (2019). Finite element analysis of bending stiffness for cross-laminated timber with varying board width. Wood Material Science & Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finite element analysis of bending stiffness for cross-laminated timber with varying board width
2019 (English)In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

ross laminated timber (CLT) is a wood panelling building system that is used in construction, e.g. for floors, walls and beams. Because of the increased use of CLT, it is important to have accurate simulation models. CLT systems are simulated with one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) methods because they are fast and deliver practical results. However, because non-edge-glued panels cannot be modelled under 2D, these results may differ from more accurate calculations in three dimensions (3D). In this investigation, CLT panels with different width-to-thickness ratios for the boards have been simulated using the finite element method. The size of the CLT-panels was 3.0 m × 3.9 m and they had three and five laminate layers oriented 0°–90°–0° and 0°–90°–0°–90°–0°. The thicknesses of the boards were 33.33, 40.0, and 46.5 mm. The CLT panel deformation was compared by using a distributed out-of-plane load. Results showed that panels with narrow boards were less stiff than wide boards for the four-sided support setup. The results also showed that 2D models underestimate the displacement when compared to 3D models. By adjusting the stiffness factor k88, the 2D model displacement became more comparable to the 3D model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Cross laminated timber, finite element analysis, board width, out-of-plane loading
National Category
Wood Science Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73140 (URN)10.1080/17480272.2019.1587506 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062711678 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-08 Created: 2019-03-08 Last updated: 2019-03-20
Turesson, J., Berg, S. & Ekevad, M. (2019). Impact of board width on in-plane shear stiffness of cross-laminated timber. Engineering structures, 196, Article ID 109249.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of board width on in-plane shear stiffness of cross-laminated timber
2019 (English)In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 196, article id 109249Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Board width-to-thickness ratios in non-edge-glued cross laminated timber (CLT) panels influence the in-plane shear stiffness of the panel. The objective is to show the impact of board width-to-thickness ratios for 3- and 5-layer CLT panels. Shear stiffnesses were calculated using finite element analysis and are shown as reduction factors relative to the shear stiffnesses of edge-glued CLT panels. Board width-to-thickness ratios were independently varied for outer and inner layers. Results show that the reduction factor lies in the interval of 0.6 to 0.9 for most width-to-thickness ratios. Results show also that using boards with low width-to-thickness ratios give low reduction factors. The calculated result differed by 2.9% compared to existing experimental data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
CLT, In-plane shear modulus, In-plane shear stiffness, Finite element method, CLT board width, CLT layer thickness, CLT shear modulus, Board gap
National Category
Building Technologies Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75098 (URN)10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.05.090 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067851120 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-07-05 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
Berg, S., Turesson, J., Ekevad, M. & Björnfot, A. (2019). In-plane Shear Modulus of Cross-laminated Timber by Diagonal Compression Test. BioResources, 14(3), 5559-5572
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-plane Shear Modulus of Cross-laminated Timber by Diagonal Compression Test
2019 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 5559-5572Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an engineered wood material that is used in the construction industry, e.g., for floors, walls, and beams. In cases where CLT-elements are used as shear walls, the in-plane-stiffness is an important property. For non-edge glued CLT, in-plane shear stiffness is lower than for edge-glued CLT. To evaluate the non-edge glued CLT panel’s in-plane shear modulus, the diagonal compression test and finite element (FE) simulation was used. FE-models with both isotropic and orthotropic material models were used to calculate the shear stiffness. The FE models using pure shear loads were used as a reference to determine the correct value of the shear modulus. To verify the FE simulations, diagonal compression tests were conducted on 30 CLT samples. A calibration formula was derived using the least square method for calculation of shear modulus. The formula gave accurate results. The results showed that FE simulations can reproduce the same shear stiffness as tests of non-edge glued 3-layer and 5-layer CLT panels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NC State University, 2019
Keywords
Cross-laminated timber, Finite element analysis, In-plane shear stiffness, Diagonal compression test, Shear modulus
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74597 (URN)10.15376/biores.14.3.5559-5572 (DOI)000473204700043 ()2-s2.0-85066306339 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-24 (svasva)

Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Zhaolong, Z., Buck, D., Guo, X., Pingxiang, C. & Ekevad, M. (2019). Machinability of stone-plastic materials during diamond planing. Applied Sciences: APPS, 9(7), Article ID 1373.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Machinability of stone-plastic materials during diamond planing
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2019 (English)In: Applied Sciences: APPS, ISSN 1454-5101, E-ISSN 1454-5101, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 1373Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigated the machinability of a stone–plastic composite (SPC) via orthogonal cutting with diamond cutters. The objective was to determine the effect of cutting depth on its machinability, including cutting forces, heat, chip formation, and cutting quality. Increased cutting depth promoted an increase in both frictional and normal forces, and also had a strong influence on the change in normal force. The cutting temperatures of chips and tool edges showed an increasing trend as cutting depth increased. However, the cutting heat was primarily absorbed by chips, with the balance accumulating in the cutting edge. During chip formation, the highest von Mises strain was mainly found in SPC ahead of the cutting edge, and the SPC to be removed partially passed its elastic limit, eventually forming chips with different shapes. Furthermore, the average surface roughness and the mean peak-to-valley height of machined surfaces all positively correlated to an increase in cutting depth. Finally, with an increase in cutting depth, the chip shape changed from tubular, to ribbon, to arc, to segmental, and finally, to helical chips. This evolution in chip shape reduced the fluctuation in cutting force, improving cutting stability and cutting quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
composite material; polycrystalline diamond cutter; orthogonal cutting; digital image correlation; DIC analysis; full-field mechanics; machining properties
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73369 (URN)10.3390/app9071373 (DOI)000466547500108 ()2-s2.0-85064089350 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-04-09 (inah)

Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Turesson, J., Björnfot, A., Berg, S., Ekevad, M. & Tomasi, R. (2019). Picture frame and diagonal compression testing of cross-laminated timber. Materials and Structures, 52(4), Article ID 66.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Picture frame and diagonal compression testing of cross-laminated timber
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2019 (English)In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 52, no 4, article id 66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Currently, no appropriate standard exists that describes how to determine the in-plane shear stiffness for cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels, meaning that, there is a lack of appropriate and reliable test methods. In this paper, two gross shear test methods are evaluated: a picture frame test and a diagonal compression test, which are intended to measure the shear stiffness of a whole CLT panel. This evaluation aimed to compare the shear modulus, the amount of compression/tension in the diagonal directions of the panels and the deformations of both sides of the panels. The picture frame test and diagonal compression test provides a bi- and uniaxial pre-stress, respectively. A total of 30 non-edge glued CLT panels were tested, 17 3-layer and 13 5-layer panels. The shear modulus for the 3- and 5-layer non-edge-glued panels were measured as 418 and 466 MPa, respectively, in the picture frame test. In the diagonal compression test, the shear modulus was measured to substantially higher values of 530 and 626 MPa for the 3- and 5-layer panels, respectively. In the picture frame test, panels were equally stretched along one of the diagonals as they were compressed along the other diagonal, which was not the case for panels in the diagonal compression test. The test results also showed that measuring only one side incurs a risk of over- or under-estimating the in-plane shear modulus. Compared with results from the literature, the picture frame test seems to be a more reliable test method than the diagonal compression test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
In-plane shear stiffness, Picture frame method, CLT, Shear modulus, Diagonal compression
National Category
Building Technologies Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74874 (URN)10.1617/s11527-019-1372-7 (DOI)000472221500001 ()2-s2.0-85067616889 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-24 (svasva)

Available from: 2019-06-23 Created: 2019-06-23 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Huber, J. A., Ekevad, M., Girhammar, U. A. & Berg, S. (2019). Simulation of Alternative Load Paths After a Wall Removal in a Platform-Framed Cross-Laminated Timber Building. In: Tomas K. Bader, Josef Füssl, Anders Olsson (Ed.), CompWood 2019 Book of Abstracts: . Paper presented at CompWood 2019 - International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics- from Material Properties to Timber Structures, June 17-19, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of Alternative Load Paths After a Wall Removal in a Platform-Framed Cross-Laminated Timber Building
2019 (English)In: CompWood 2019 Book of Abstracts / [ed] Tomas K. Bader, Josef Füssl, Anders Olsson, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An increasing number of multi-storey timber buildings use cross-laminated timber (CLT) for their bearing structure. Platform-framed CLT buildings consist of vertical repetitions of floors resting upon one-storey tall walls, squeezing-in the floor panels between the walls. Tall buildings need to be structurally robust because many lives would be at stake in case of a disproportionate collapse. Robustness is the ability of a system to survive the loss of components. For collapse resistance, it poses the last line of defence, after an unforeseen exposure (e.g. accident, terrorism) has already occurred and after the exposed components could not resist failure. A robust building offers alternative load paths (ALPs) which come into action when a part of the bearing structure has been removed [1].

Many alternative load path analyses (ALPA) have been conducted for tall concrete and steel buildings using the finite element method (FEM), but for timber, ALPA are still scarce. ALPs depend on the behaviour of the connections after a loss [1]. Studies on timber so far have accounted for connections in a simplified manner by lumping their aggregate behaviour into single points. Our goal is to elicit the ALPs after a wall removal in a platform-framed CLT building, study their development and quantify their capacity, to determine whether they can prevent a collapse.

We investigated a corner bay of an 8-storey platform-framed CLT building (see Figure 1) and removed a wall at the bottom storey. We studied the ALPs of each storey by pushing down the walls above the gap in a non-linear quasi-static analysis in the FE software Abaqus. We accounted for contact and friction, considered plastic timber crushing, and accounted for brittle cracking in the panels. We modelled single fasteners with connector elements which simulated the elastic, plastic, damage and rupture behaviour. We recorded the force-displacement curves, i.e. pushdown curves, for each storey and used them to conduct a dynamic analysis of the entire bay in a simplified model, as suggested by [2].

The results show that the structure could engage the following ALPs after a wall removal: I) arching action in the outer floor panels, II) arching action of the walls, III) quasi-catenary action in the floor panels, and IV) hanging action from the roof panels. The ALPs were limited by various parameters, but they sufficed to resist a collapse of the bay. We observed that the inter-storey stiffness influenced the load-sharing among storeys, which affected the structural robustness. In the compressed connections, friction, and not the fasteners, transferred most of the horizontal loads. Future research should test the squeezed-in platform joint experimentally, to quantify its capacity for transverse shear loads. We also advise to assess the inter-storey stiffness to estimate the capacity for load-sharing among storeys.

National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74893 (URN)978-91-88898-64-7 (ISBN)
Conference
CompWood 2019 - International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics- from Material Properties to Timber Structures, June 17-19, 2019
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24
Turesson, J., Dosmaev, D. & Ekevad, M. (2019). Strengthening of Cross-Laminated Timber by adding aluminium plates. In: : . Paper presented at CompWood 2019, June 17-19 2019 in Växjö, Sweden..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strengthening of Cross-Laminated Timber by adding aluminium plates
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wood is commonly judged as orthotropic with three material directions: longitudinal, radial and tangential. Shear stressand strain can occur in different directions on surfaces with different directions and shear stiffness is commonlydescribed by three shear moduli. Of those, the weakest shear modulus is called the rolling shear modulus.Cross laminated timber (CLT) is a rather recent and innovative engineered wood product with properties that can be improved and which still requires research. The benefits of using wood in buildings and construction are far from beingmaximized. During recent years, timber has been used for constructing higher buildings. It has been seen that previous small and acceptable movements of the building are magnified, which can create discomfort for the occupants. In these cases, the problem is the low in-plane shear stiffness of the CLT panel. One way to increase the in-plane shear stiffness is to build CLT mixed with other materials, with high modulus of shear, and by that increase the in-plane shear stiffness of the CLT panel. A practical test and finite element analysis (FEA) of the shear modulus was performed on 3-layer samples reinforced with aluminium plates. The panels were built by three layer of wooden lamellas and the aluminium plate was added between the first and second and/or second and third layer of boards. Two different thicknesses of the aluminium plate were used, 1 mm and 1.5 mm. Also, panels without aluminium plates were used as reference. Diagonal compression test was performed on the CLT panels, where the modulus of shear could be calculated. The diagonal compression method was performed based on experience from Andreolli. The panels containing aluminium plates had a higher shear modulus than panels without aluminium plates. This was concluded in both the practical testing and FEA.

National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74875 (URN)
Conference
CompWood 2019, June 17-19 2019 in Växjö, Sweden.
Available from: 2019-06-23 Created: 2019-06-23 Last updated: 2019-06-23
Huber, J. A., Ekevad, M., Girhammar, U. A. & Berg, S. (2018). A Review of Structural Robustness with Focus on Timber Buildings. In: 40th IABSE Symposium: Tomorrow’s Megastructures. Paper presented at 40th IABSE Symposium in Nantes 2018: Tomorrow's Megastructures; Nantes; France; 19 - 21 September 2018. International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE), Article ID S32-17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Review of Structural Robustness with Focus on Timber Buildings
2018 (English)In: 40th IABSE Symposium: Tomorrow’s Megastructures, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2018, article id S32-17Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With an increasing number of storeys, timber buildings require closer attention to structuralrobustness. If a building can survive unforeseen events (e.g. accidents, terrorism), lives can be saved.The literature appears to be rather limited concerning robustness of timber buildings. This paperaims to give a brief review on robustness in general and design guidelines for timber in specific. Theresults indicate that connection design is a key aspect for robustness. Like in seismic design, by usingthe ductile capacity of connectors, the brittleness of timber can be controlled. For light timber-framebuildings, more guidelines exist than for posts and beams and cross-laminated timber, which bothseem to be similar to steel frames and precast concrete respectively regarding robustness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE), 2018
Keywords
robustness, timber, disproportionate collapse, progressive collapse, alternative load path
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70959 (URN)9783857481611 (ISBN)
Conference
40th IABSE Symposium in Nantes 2018: Tomorrow's Megastructures; Nantes; France; 19 - 21 September 2018
Funder
VINNOVA, Bioinnovation 4.4
Available from: 2018-09-24 Created: 2018-09-24 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0145-080x

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