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Mesfun, S., Lundgren, J., Toffolo, A., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Engvall, K. (2019). Integration of an electrolysis unit for producer gas conditioning in a bio-synthetic natural gas plant. Journal of energy resources technology, 141(1), Article ID 012002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of an electrolysis unit for producer gas conditioning in a bio-synthetic natural gas plant
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2019 (English)In: Journal of energy resources technology, ISSN 0195-0738, E-ISSN 1528-8994, Vol. 141, no 1, article id 012002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Producer gas from biomass gasification contains impurities like tars, particles, alkali salts, and sulfur/nitrogen compounds. As a result, a number of process steps are required to condition the producer gas before utilization as a syngas and further upgrading to final chemicals and fuels. Here, we study the concept of using molten carbonate electrolysis cells (MCEC) both to clean and to condition the composition of a raw syngas stream, from biomass gasification, for further upgrading into synthetic natural gas (SNG). A mathematical MCEC model is used to analyze the impact of operational parameters, such as current density, pressure and temperature, on the quality and amount of syngas produced. Internal rate of return (IRR) is evaluated as an economic indicator of the processes considered. Results indicate that, depending on process configuration, the production of SNG can be boosted by approximately 50-60% without the need of an additional carbon source, i.e., for the same biomass input as in standalone operation of the GoBi-Gas plant. Copyright

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2019
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70732 (URN)10.1115/1.4040942 (DOI)000452421900004 ()2-s2.0-85052065806 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-09-03 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
Carvalho, L., Furusjö, E., Ma, C., Ji, X., Lundgren, J., Hedlund, J., . . . Wetterlund, E. (2018). Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning: Part 2: Techno-economic analysis. Energy, 165(Part B), 471-482
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning: Part 2: Techno-economic analysis
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2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 165, no Part B, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has shown that alkali addition has operational advantages in entrained flow biomass gasification and allows for capture of up to 90% of the biomass sulfur in the slag phase. The resultant low-sulfur content syngas can create new possibilities for syngas cleaning processes. The aim was to assess the techno-economic performance of biofuel production via gasification of alkali impregnated biomass using a novel gas cleaning systemcomprised of (i) entrained flow catalytic gasification with in situ sulfur removal, (ii) further sulfur removal using a zinc bed, (iii) tar removal using a carbon filter, and (iv) CO2 reductionwith zeolite membranes, in comparison to the expensive acid gas removal system (Rectisol technology). The results show that alkali impregnation increases methanol productionallowing for selling prices similar to biofuel production from non-impregnated biomass. It was concluded that the methanol production using the novel cleaning system is comparable to the Rectisol technology in terms of energy efficiency, while showing an economic advantagederived from a methanol selling price reduction of 2–6 €/MWh. The results showed a high level of robustness to changes related to prices and operation. Methanol selling prices could be further reduced by choosing low sulfur content feedstocks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Biomass gasification, Catalysis, Entrained-flowBio-methanol, Techno-economic analysis
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering Chemical Process Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering; Chemical Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68206 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.09.159 (DOI)000455171600039 ()2-s2.0-85056197830 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-12-03 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
Furusjö, E., Ma, C., Ji, X., Carvalho, L., Lundgren, J. & Wetterlund, E. (2018). Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning: Part 1: Gasifier performance. Energy, 157, 96-105
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning: Part 1: Gasifier performance
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2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 157, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research shows that alkali addition in entrained flow biomass gasification can increase char conversion and decrease tar and soot formation through catalysis. This paper investigates two other potential benefits of alkali addition: increased slag flowability and in situ sulfur capture.

Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that addition of 2–8% alkali catalyst to biomass completely changes the chemical domain of the gasifier slag phase to an alkali carbonate melt with low viscosity. This can increase feedstock flexibility and improve the operability of an entrained flow biomass gasification process. The alkali carbonate melt also leads to up to 90% sulfur capture through the formation of alkali sulfides. The resulting reduced syngas sulfur content can potentially simplify gas cleaning required for catalytic biofuel production.

Alkali catalyst recovery and recycling is a precondition for the economic feasibility of the proposed process and is effected through a wet quench. It is shown that the addition of Zn for sulfur precipitation in the alkali recovery loop enables the separation of S, Ca and Mg from the recycle. For high Si and Cl biomass feedstocks, an alternative separation technology for these elements may be required to avoid build-up.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68753 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.05.097 (DOI)000440876600010 ()2-s2.0-85048465146 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-25 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
Svanberg, M., Finnsgård, C., Flodén, J. & Lundgren, J. (2018). Analyzing animal waste-to-energy supply chains: The case of horse manure. Paper presented at 1st International Conference on Bioresource Technology for Bioenergy, Bioproducts and Environmental Sustainability (BIORESTEC), Sitges, Spain, OCT 23-26, 2016. Renewable energy, 129B, 830-837
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing animal waste-to-energy supply chains: The case of horse manure
2018 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 129B, p. 830-837Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To reduce human impact upon the environment, a transition from fossil to renewable energy sources such as biomass is imperative. Biomass from animal waste such as horse manure has unutilized potential as it has yet to be implemented at a large scale as an energy source. Research has demonstrated the technical feasibility of using animal waste for energy conversion, though their supply chain cost poses a barrier, as does a gap in research regarding the specific design of efficient horse manure-to-energy supply chains. In response, we investigated the design of horse manure-to-energy supply chains through interviews and site visits at stables, as well as through interviews with transport companies. Our findings show that horse manure-to-energy supply chains have distinct attributes at all stages of the supply chain such as the geographical spread of stables that determines supply chain design and hampers efficiency. They share several such attributes with forest biomass-to-energy supply chains, from which important needs can be identified, including the industrial development of trucks dedicated to the purpose, mathematical modeling to handle the trade-off of cost of substance loss in storage and cost of transport, and business models that reconcile the conflicting goals of different actors along the supply chains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62907 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2017.04.002 (DOI)000440771200018 ()2-s2.0-85017455474 (Scopus ID)
Conference
1st International Conference on Bioresource Technology for Bioenergy, Bioproducts and Environmental Sustainability (BIORESTEC), Sitges, Spain, OCT 23-26, 2016
Note

Konferensartikel i tidskrift;2018-07-23 (inah)

Available from: 2017-04-05 Created: 2017-04-05 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, R., Forsell, N., Leduc, S., Lundgren, J., Ouraich, I., Pettersson, K. & Wetterlund, E. (2018). Large-scale implementation of biorefineries: New value chains, products and efficient biomass feedstock utilisation. Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale implementation of biorefineries: New value chains, products and efficient biomass feedstock utilisation
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2018 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018. p. 34
National Category
Economics Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Research subject
Economics; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71060 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 213-2014-184
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-18Bibliographically approved
Carvalho, L., Lundgren, J., Wetterlund, E., Wolf, J. & Furusjö, E. (2018). Methanol production via black liquor co-gasification with expanded raw material base: Techno-economic assessment. Applied Energy, 225, 570-584
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methanol production via black liquor co-gasification with expanded raw material base: Techno-economic assessment
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 225, p. 570-584Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Entrained flow gasification of black liquor combined with downstream-gas-derived synthesis of biofuels in Kraft pulp mills has shown advantages regarding energy efficiency and economic performance when compared to combustion in a recovery boiler. To further increase the operation flexibility and the profitability of the biofuel plant while at the same time increase biofuel production, black liquor can be co-gasified with a secondary feedstock (blend-in feedstock). This work has evaluated the prospects of producing biofuels via co-gasification of black liquor and different blend-in feedstocks (crude glycerol, fermentation residues, pyrolysis liquids) at different blend ratios. Process modelling tools were used, in combination with techno-economic assessment methods. Two methanol grades, crude and grade AA methanol, were investigated. The results showed that the co-gasification concepts resulted in significant increases in methanol production volumes, as well as in improved conversion efficiencies, when compared with black liquor gasification; 5-11 and 4-10 percentage point in terms of cold gas efficiency and methanol conversion efficiency, respectively. The economic analysis showed that required methanol selling prices ranging from 55-101 €/MWh for crude methanol and 58-104 €/MWh for grade AA methanol were obtained for an IRR of 15%. Blend-in led to positive economies-of-scale effects and subsequently decreased required methanol selling prices, in particular for low cost blend-in feedstocks (prices below approximately 20 €/MWh). The co-gasification concepts showed economic competitiveness to other biofuel production routes. When compared with fossil fuels, the resulting crude methanol selling prices were above maritime gas oil prices. Nonetheless, for fossil derived methanol prices higher than 80 €/MWh, crude methanol from co-gasification could be an economically competitive option. Grade AA methanol could also compete with taxed gasoline. Crude glycerol turned out as the most attractive blend-in feedstock, from an economic perspective. When mixed with black liquor in a ratio of 50/50, grade AA methanol could even be cost competitive with untaxed gasoline.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Bio-methanol, Gasification, Black liquor, Pyrolysis liquid, Crude Glycerol, Fermentation residues
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68207 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.04.052 (DOI)000438181000043 ()2-s2.0-85047259948 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-04 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-08-08Bibliographically approved
Patrizio, P., Leduc, S., Kraxner, F., Fuss, S., Kindermann, G., Mesfun, S., . . . Obersteiner, M. (2018). Reducing US Coal Emissions Can Boost Employment. Joule, 2(12), 2633-2648
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing US Coal Emissions Can Boost Employment
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2018 (English)In: Joule, ISSN 2542-4351, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 2633-2648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Concerns have been voiced that implementing climate change mitigation measures could come at the cost of employment, especially in the context of the US coal sector. However, repurposing US coal plants presents an opportunity to address emission mitigation and job creation, if the right technology change is adopted. In this study, the transformation of the US coal sector until 2050 is modeled to achieve ambitious climate targets. Results show that the cost-optimal strategy for meeting 2050 emission reductions consistent with 2°C stabilization pathways is through the early deployment of BECCS and by replacing 50% of aging coal plants with natural gas plants. This strategy addresses the concerns surrounding employment for coal workers by retaining 40,000 jobs, and creating 22,000 additional jobs by mid-century. Climate change mitigation does not have to come at the cost of employment, and policymakers could seek to take advantage of the social co-benefits of mitigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71675 (URN)10.1016/j.joule.2018.10.004 (DOI)000453896100016 ()2-s2.0-85059616029 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Bio4Energy
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-01-30 (inah)

Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
Svanberg, M., Ellis, J., Lundgren, J. & Landälv, I. (2018). Renewable methanol as a fuel for the shipping industry. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 94, 1217-1228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Renewable methanol as a fuel for the shipping industry
2018 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 94, p. 1217-1228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Maritime shipping is essential in global trade. The shipping industry uses fossil fuel with significant environmental impact as a result and a transition to renewable fuels may be part of the solution to reduce emissions. A fuel transition needs to be understood at all stages of the supply chain, ranging from feedstock to use in ships’ engines. The purpose of this paper is to do a synthesis of literature to provide an overview of main challenges and opportunities along potential supply chains of renewable methanol for maritime shipping, with a focus on bio-methanol. It is shown that renewable methanol is a technically viable option to reduce emissions from shipping and there are no major challenges with potential supply chains. Minor economic barriers that currently exist have the potential to be overcome with strengthening of environmental targets for shipping or if fuel oil prices revert to higher levels as seen previously.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70358 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2018.06.058 (DOI)000446310000086 ()2-s2.0-85050969406 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-08-13 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-10-22Bibliographically approved
Zetterholm, J., Pettersson, K., Leduc, S., Lundgren, J. & Wetterlund, E. (2018). Resource efficiency or economy of scale: Biorefinery supply chain configurations for co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis liquids. Applied Energy, 230, 912-924
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource efficiency or economy of scale: Biorefinery supply chain configurations for co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis liquids
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, p. 912-924Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries for the production of fuels, chemicals, or materials can be an important contributor to reducing dependence on fossil fuels. The economic performance of the biorefinery supply chain can be increased by, for example, industrial integration to utilise excess heat and products, increasing size to improve economy of scale, and using intermediate upgrading to reduce feedstock transport cost. To enable a large-scale introduction of biorefineries it is important to identify cost efficient supply chain configurations.

This work investigates a lignocellulosic biorefinery concept integrated with forest industry, focusing on how different economic conditions affect the preferred supply chain configurations. The technology investigated is black liquor gasification, with and without the addition of pyrolysis liquids to increase production capacity. Primarily, it analyses trade-offs between high biomass conversion efficiency and economy of scale effects, as well as the selection of centralised vs. decentralised supply chain configurations.

The results show the economic advantage for biomass efficient configurations, when the biorefinery investment is benefited from an alternative investment credit due to the replacement of current capital-intensive equipment at the host industry. However, the investment credit received heavily influenced the cost of the biorefinery and clearly illustrates the benefit for industrial integration to reduce the cost of biorefineries. There is a benefit for a decentralised supply chain configuration under very high biomass competition. However, for lower biomass competition, site-specific conditions will impact the favourability of either centralised or decentralised supply chain configurations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Biorefinery, Economy of scale, Efficiency, Supply chain, Black liquor, Pyrolysis liquids
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70831 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.018 (DOI)000448226600068 ()2-s2.0-85053046147 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 213-2014-184Swedish Energy Agency, Forskarskolan EnergisystemBio4Energy
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-09-19 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Mesfun, S., Leduc, S., Patrizio, P., Wetterlund, E., Mendoza-Ponce, A., Lammens, T., . . . Kraxner, F. (2018). Spatio-temporal assessment of integrating intermittent electricity in the EU and Western Balkans power sector under ambitious CO2 emission policies. Energy, 164, 676-693
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatio-temporal assessment of integrating intermittent electricity in the EU and Western Balkans power sector under ambitious CO2 emission policies
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2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 164, p. 676-693Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work investigates a power dispatch system that aims to supply the power demand of the EU and Western Balkans (EUWB) based on low-carbon generation units, enabled by the expansion of biomass, solar, and wind based electricity. A spatially explicit techno-economic optimization tool simulates the EUWB power sector to explore the dispatch of new renewable electricity capacity on a EUWB scale, under ambitious CO2 emission policies. The results show that utility-scale deployment of renewable electricity is feasible and can contribute about 9–39% of the total generation mix, for a carbon price range of 0–200 €/tCO2and with the existing capacities of the cross-border transmission network. Even without any explicit carbon incentive (carbon price of 0 €/tCO2), more than 35% of the variable power in the most ambitious CO2 mitigation scenario (carbon price of 200 €/tCO2) would be economically feasible to deploy. Spatial assessment of bio-electricity potential (based on forest and agriculture feedstock) showed limited presence in the optimal generation mix (0–6%), marginalizing its effect as baseload. Expansion of the existing cross-border transmission capacities helps even out the variability of solar and wind technologies, but may also result in lower installed RE capacity in favor of state-of-the-art natural gas with relatively low sensitivity to increasing carbon taxes. A sensitivity analysis of the investment cost, even under a low-investment scenario and at the high end of the CO2 price range, showed natural gas remains at around 11% of the total generation, emphasizing how costly it would be to achieve the final percentages toward a 100% renewable system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Decarbonization, Renewable electricity, Intermittency, Optimization, Geospatial modeling, Power transmission
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70899 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.09.034 (DOI)000448098600053 ()2-s2.0-85054651755 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-09-28 (marisr)

Available from: 2018-09-19 Created: 2018-09-19 Last updated: 2018-11-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2314-8097

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