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Westerlund, Lars
Publications (10 of 58) Show all publications
Darbandi, T., Risberg, M. & Westerlund, L. (2024). Effect of operation conditions on particulate matter removal by a packed-bed wet scrubber for a small-scale biofuel boiler. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 47, Article ID 102290.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of operation conditions on particulate matter removal by a packed-bed wet scrubber for a small-scale biofuel boiler
2024 (English)In: Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, ISSN 2451-9049, Vol. 47, article id 102290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2013 the EU’s Clean Air Policy Package was established, aiming to reduce air pollution to half by 2030 compared to the level in 2005. Small-scale (<500 kW)biofuel boilers play a key role in particulate matter emission, and exposure to particulate matter even in the short term can cause different diseases. With the aim of reducing particulate matter emission in Europe, this study presents an approach to improve the removal of particulate matter emitted by small-scale boilers. A biofuel combustion boiler was equipped with a packed-bed wet scrubber, and the flue gas emitted through combustion was cleaned through the wet scrubber using a saltwater mixture. The performance of a packed-bed wet scrubber was investigated under different operating conditions. The effect of the salt concentration of the absorption solution, the temperature of the absorption solution fed to the absorber, and the height of the packed-bed material on the particle collection efficiency were measured. The operating conditions were selected based on the results obtained in a previous computational fluid dynamic simulation study. The results obtained in the present study show that an absorption solution temperature of 30 °C and an absorption solution concentration of 75 % with a full height of the packed-bed material lead to the best performance in the system. Totally keeping the absorption solution temperature as low as possible, increasing the absorption solution concentration, and raising the packed-bed material height could improve the particle collection efficiency by enhancing the effect of the diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis forces and the contact time between the flue gas and solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Wet scrubber, Diffusiophoresis, Thermophoresis, Particulate matter, Small-scale boiler
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93513 (URN)10.1016/j.tsep.2023.102290 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-22 (hanlid);

Full text license: CC BY

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis

Available from: 2022-10-09 Created: 2022-10-09 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Chen, J., Risberg, M., Westerlund, L., Jansson, U., Wang, C., Lu, X. & Ji, X. (2022). Heat-transfer performance of twisted tubes for highly viscous food waste slurry from biogas plants. Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts, 15, Article ID 74.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heat-transfer performance of twisted tubes for highly viscous food waste slurry from biogas plants
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2022 (English)In: Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts, E-ISSN 2731-3654, Vol. 15, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The use of food waste as feedstock shows high production of biogas via anaerobic digestion, but requires efficient heat transfer in food waste slurry at heating and cooling processes. The lack of rheological properties hampered the research on the heat-transfer process for food waste slurry. Referentially, the twisted hexagonal and elliptical rubes have been proved as the optimal enhanced geometry for heat transfer of medium viscous slurries with non-Newtonian behavior and Newtonian fluids, respectively. It remains unknown whether improvements can be achieved by using twisted geometries in combination with food waste slurry in processes including heating and cooling.

Results: Food waste slurry was observed to exhibit highly viscous, significant temperature-dependence, and strongly shear-thinning rheological characteristics. Experiments confirmed the heat-transfer enhancement of twisted hexagonal tubes for food waste slurry and validated the computational fluid dynamics-based simulations with an average deviation of 14.2%. Twisted hexagonal tubes were observed to be more effective at low-temperature differences and possess an enhancement factor of up to 2.75; while twisted elliptical tubes only exhibited limited heat-transfer enhancement at high Reynolds numbers. The heat-transfer enhancement achieved by twisted hexagonal tubes was attributed to the low dynamic viscosity in the boundary layer induced by the strong and continuous shear effect near the walls of the tube.

Conclusions: This study determined the rheological properties of food waste slurry, confirmed the heat-transfer enhancement of the twisted hexagonal tubes experimentally and numerically, and revealed the mechanism of heat-transfer enhancement based on shear rate distributions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
Keywords
Food waste slurry, Rheological properties, Twisted tubes, Computational fluid dynamics, Heat-transfer enhancement
National Category
Biomaterials Science Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92124 (URN)10.1186/s13068-022-02156-4 (DOI)000825329800002 ()35794672 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85133574304 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Luleå University of TechnologySwedish Energy Agency, 45957-1
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-07-11 (joosat);

Funder: National Natural Science Foundation of China (21838004, 91934302)

Available from: 2022-07-11 Created: 2022-07-11 Last updated: 2022-10-11Bibliographically approved
Lundqvist, P., Risberg, M. & Westerlund, L. (2022). Indoor thermal climate after energy efficiency measures of a residential building in a sub-Arctic region: Comparing ANSYS CFX and IDA ICE methods. Indoor + Built Environment, 31(3), 732-744
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indoor thermal climate after energy efficiency measures of a residential building in a sub-Arctic region: Comparing ANSYS CFX and IDA ICE methods
2022 (English)In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 732-744Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A residential building which had been subjected to an energy efficiency measures study had its indoor thermal climate investigated using two software approaches to understand how each approach would predict the outcome, using the predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD). The computational fluid dynamics software (ANSYS CFX) and the building performance simulation (BPS) software (IDA ICE) were used to simulate the indoor thermal climate before and after the measures. The measures included additional insulation and changing the ventilation system. The results showed a difference in how the software packages handled the thermal radiation. The difference was also because CFX could calculate the indoor thermal climate of the whole interior. While the PPD values could remain similar between the CFX solutions, the area with dissatisfaction in the apartment was decreased when the building envelope was improved. These changes gave an improvement for the CFX solutions, which was not possible to predict with IDA ICE because only the central node was visible. The user should be aware of the shortcomings of BPS and building energy simulation software when evaluating the indoor thermal climate to predict changes. A coupling between BPS and CFX software should be considered when new measures or significant changes are planned.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2022
Keywords
ANSYS CFX, Computational fluid dynamics, Energy efficiency measures, IDA ICE, Indoor thermal climate, Sub-Arctic
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86467 (URN)10.1177/1420326X211030323 (DOI)000675170200001 ()2-s2.0-85109375310 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg NordNorrbotten County CouncilLuleå University of Technology
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-04-19 (johcin)

Available from: 2021-07-27 Created: 2021-07-27 Last updated: 2023-09-04Bibliographically approved
Darbandi, T., Risberg, M. & Westerlund, L. (2021). CFD modeling of the forces in the wet scrubber acting on particulate matter released from biomass combustion. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 25, Article ID 100997.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CFD modeling of the forces in the wet scrubber acting on particulate matter released from biomass combustion
2021 (English)In: Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, ISSN 2451-9049, Vol. 25, article id 100997Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The flue gas from biomass combustion contains particulate matter, which is a considerable precarious constituent cause of serious health issues. The wet flue gas cleaning method is one of the most efficient solutions for small-scale boilers (≈100 kW) and small particles. In this study, the forces on particulate matter in a wet flue gas cleaning process using an absorption solution have been studied with the implementation of compiled user-defined function code in Ansys Fluent 19.2®. The forces governing the wet cleaning process as well as the corresponding conditions of the system have also been studied. Drag, buoyancy, diffusiophoresis, and thermophoresis forces have been analyzed as the most important forces acting on particulate matters. Simulations have been conducted for velocities, particle sizes, temperatures, and water vapor mass fractions within the same range as experiments in order to acquire trends for particle collection for these variables.

Moreover, the influence of diffusiophoresis force was compared to that of the thermophoresis force under different conditions. It was unveiled that the diffusiophoresis force had a significant effect on nanoparticle collection. The impact of diffusiophoresis is increased by the ascending gradient of temperature as well as water vapor mass fraction. Simulations declare that the thermophoresis force effect is small compared to the diffusiophoresis force effect in the particle collection process. Thereby, one could conclude that the diffusiophoresis force governs the collection of particulate matter in the wet scrubber method. The model validation is confirmed by comparing the results with previous empirical models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Biomass combustion, Flue gas cleaning, Diffusiophoresis, Thermophoresis, Wet scrubber, Particulate matter
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-85935 (URN)10.1016/j.tsep.2021.100997 (DOI)000704170800011 ()2-s2.0-85111344856 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Nord
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-08-13 (alebob)

Available from: 2021-06-23 Created: 2021-06-23 Last updated: 2022-10-10Bibliographically approved
Darbandi, T., Risberg, M. & Westerlund, L. (2021). Efficient Cleaning and Heat Recovery of Flue Gas from a Small-Scale Boiler. Chemical Engineering & Technology, 44(11), 2116-2125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient Cleaning and Heat Recovery of Flue Gas from a Small-Scale Boiler
2021 (English)In: Chemical Engineering & Technology, ISSN 0930-7516, E-ISSN 1521-4125, Vol. 44, no 11, p. 2116-2125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Small-scale biomass boilers contribute to the emission of particulate matter (PM) to the environment. In this study, the performance of a wet scrubber purification system for flue gas was experimentally investigated. The experimental setup consisted of a boiler, a wet scrubber, a generator, and heat exchangers. The results show an average particulate collection efficiency of around 42% for a particulate matter size range of 0.08-10 µm, within a testing period of 5 months. Furthermore, the results show an improvement in the heat recovery of about18%. Focusing only on the heat losses through exhaust flue gases, the losses were shown to have decreased by 72%. During the total testing period (8.5 months), no decrease could be noticed in the absorption solution ability.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Keywords
Flue gas cleaning, Heat recovery, Pellet boiler, Particulate matter, Wet scrubber
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87050 (URN)10.1002/ceat.202100274 (DOI)000703614600001 ()2-s2.0-85116285715 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Nord
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-10-26 (beamah)

Available from: 2021-09-13 Created: 2021-09-13 Last updated: 2022-10-10Bibliographically approved
Chen, J., Risberg, M., Westerlund, L., Jansson, U., Lu, X., Wang, C. & Ji, X. (2020). A high efficient heat exchanger with twisted geometries for biogas process with manure slurry. Applied Energy, 279, Article ID 115871.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A high efficient heat exchanger with twisted geometries for biogas process with manure slurry
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2020 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 279, article id 115871Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Heat-transfer enhancement in manure slurry is crucial for increasing the efficiency and production of biogas during anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. In this study, a novel heat exchanger with an optimal twisted geometry was developed based on the numerical screening of the twisted tubes with equilateral polygons, and experiments were conducted to validate the numerical results. It was observed that the SST k-ω model is more efficient than other turbulence models in representing the heat transfer performance of the twisted tubes, and the numerical model with a thermostatic wall can be used to reliably screen the twisted geometries. The twisted hexagonal tube has the optimal geometry, with enhancement capability of up to 1.4 times compared to that of the circular tube. The formation of high continuity regions with relatively strong heat-transfer rates along the heat-exchange wall is the main reason for the high performance during heat transfer. The external heating process was integrated in a full-scale biogas plant, and the model and algorithm were developed and validated with additional experiments to describe the overall performance of both conventional and screened optimal geometries under different conditions. It was observed that a profit equivalent to 39% of total production for a large-scale biogas plant can be achieved owing to energy conservation in external heating with the twisted hexagonal tubes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Heat-transfer enhancement, Manure slurry, Twisted hexagonal tubes, CFD, Energy conservation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80929 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115871 (DOI)000594115700001 ()2-s2.0-85091347197 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-09-25 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-09-25 Created: 2020-09-25 Last updated: 2022-02-04Bibliographically approved
Risberg, M. & Westerlund, L. (2020). Experimental investigation of a crawl space located in a sub-arctic climate. Results in Engineering (RINENG), 7, Article ID 100158.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental investigation of a crawl space located in a sub-arctic climate
2020 (English)In: Results in Engineering (RINENG), ISSN 2590-1230, Vol. 7, article id 100158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A common type of foundation for family houses in Northern countries is crawl spaces, where mould and moisture are a common problem for a large share of these. In this study, measurement in a crawl space located in a subarctic climate has been performed for over a year. Calculation and prediction of the climate inside the crawl space are performed both for the experimental case with a dehumidifier and a theoretical case without a dehumidifier. The results show that it is not necessary to measure at several points in the crawl space since the difference between the measurement points is small. The relative humidity is below the critical in the investigated crawl space during the whole year when a dehumidifier is used and therefore is no risk for mould growth. Prediction for a naturally ventilated crawl space with ACR of 1.5 shows that mould index will reach almost four and very close not to reach zero between different years, which indicates that mould index could start to increase between the years and cause problems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Crawl space, Mass transfer, Moisture, Mould
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80397 (URN)10.1016/j.rineng.2020.100158 (DOI)000659385200020 ()2-s2.0-85089199431 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 1;2020-08-17 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-08-13 Created: 2020-08-13 Last updated: 2021-06-29Bibliographically approved
Lundqvist, P., Risberg, M. & Westerlund, L. (2020). The importance of adjusting the heating system after an energy-retrofit of buildings in a sub-Arctic climate. Energy and Buildings, 217, Article ID 109969.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of adjusting the heating system after an energy-retrofit of buildings in a sub-Arctic climate
2020 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 217, article id 109969Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a need to improve the understanding and the knowledge of energy efficiency measures for residential buildings in sub-Arctic climate regions. This paper presents an investigation of two identical multi-family residential buildings in the sub-Arctic climate of northern Sweden, before and after renovation. During the renovation, additional insulation of the external walls and new windows were installed in one building, while the other building retained its original envelope.

The energy usage data for the past four heating seasons were collected, including data from before and after the renovation. Detailed thermal indoor climate data were gathered for specific months. The data from the two separate buildings showed that the renovation did not result in a significant improvement in energy usage. Prior to the renovation, the energy usage data showed a difference of 2-3% in the heat supply between the two buildings, and this difference persisted after the renovation. On the other hand, the indoor air temperature was raised. The renovated building had an indoor air temperature which was 2°C higher than the not yet renovated building.

IDA ICE models were constructed and validated with the measured data to investigate how a lower indoor air temperature would affect the energy usage and indoor thermal climate. The models showed that with a reduction in the indoor air temperature by 2°C after the renovation, the thermal climate would maintain an acceptable level according to PMV/PPD standards, and would result in a 13-14% reduction of the heat supply during the cold months. With an annual reduction of 15%, the heat supply could be reduced by 270 MWh per year for the whole area where the buildings are located. This clearly demonstrates the importance of adjusting the heating system after an energy efficiency measure has been performed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Energy efficiency measures, Sub-Arctic climate, Residential buildings, IDA ICE, Renovation, heating system
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78387 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2020.109969 (DOI)000531471400012 ()2-s2.0-85082851168 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-04-23 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-04-07 Created: 2020-04-07 Last updated: 2023-01-25Bibliographically approved
Lundqvist, P., Risberg, M. & Westerlund, L. (2019). Air heating system design for a sub-Arctic climate using a CFD technique. Building and Environment, 160, Article ID 106164.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Air heating system design for a sub-Arctic climate using a CFD technique
2019 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 160, article id 106164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The thermal comfort in a residential building equipped with an air heating system and located in a sub-Arctic region was investigated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) was used to identify flaws with the heating system during winter conditions. New scenarios were simulated and compared to each other to see potential improvements of the thermal indoor climate. Comparison was done by combining the discomfort spaces inside rooms, the level of the discomfort and the time spent in these spaces. The discomfort covered 8–38% of the interior volume depending on the test case. The results provide the necessary means to create a satisfactory thermal indoor climate if an air heating system is to be utilized in sub-Arctic regions during the winter. The correct heat demand for each floor and appropriate placement of the supply devices are required. Adding air transfer units or grilles in rooms from which exhaust air is removed further improves the comfort. The results also show the strength of using CFD technique when investigating the indoor discomfort with PPD, and how a fair assessment can be done by combining the PPD with time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Air heating, CFD, Cold climate, PPD, Sub-Arctic climate, Thermal comfort
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75062 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106164 (DOI)000474204100002 ()2-s2.0-85066465960 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-27 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2023-09-04Bibliographically approved
Risberg, D., Risberg, M. & Westerlund, L. (2019). Investigation of thermal indoor climate for a passive house in a sub-Arctic region using computational fluid dynamics. Indoor + Built Environment, 28(5), 677-692
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of thermal indoor climate for a passive house in a sub-Arctic region using computational fluid dynamics
2019 (English)In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 677-692Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is currently an increasing trend in Europe to build passive houses. In order to reduce the cost of installation, an air-heating system may be an interesting alternative. Heat supplied through ventilation ducts located at the ceiling was studied with computational fluid dynamics technique. The purpose was to illustrate the thermal indoor climate of the building. To validate the performed simulations, measurements were carried out in several rooms of the building. Furthermore, this study investigated if a designed passive house located above the Arctic Circle could fulfil heat requirements for a Swedish passive house standard. Our results show a heat loss factor of 18.8 W/m2 floor area and an annual specific energy use of 67.9 kWh/m2 floor area, would fulfils the criteria. Validation of simulations through measurements shows good agreement with simulations if the thermal inertia of the building was considered. Calculation of heat losses from a building with a backward weighted moving average outdoor temperature produced correct prediction of the heat losses. To describe the indoor thermal climate correctly, the entire volume needs to be considered, not only one point, which normally is obtained with building simulation software. The supply airflow must carefully be considered to fulfil a good indoor climate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
CFD simulations, Indoor climate, Passive houses, Sub-Arctic climate, Validation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67697 (URN)10.1177/1420326X17753707 (DOI)000469879100008 ()2-s2.0-85042533660 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-24 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-02-20 Created: 2018-02-20 Last updated: 2022-10-27Bibliographically approved
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