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Manzoor, S., Gustafson, A. & Schunnesson, H. (2023). Dumping oversize rock fragments in orepasses: the impact on the production cycle of a sublevel caving operation. Mining Technology, 132(3), 215-224
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dumping oversize rock fragments in orepasses: the impact on the production cycle of a sublevel caving operation
2023 (English)In: Mining Technology, ISSN 2572-6668, Vol. 132, no 3, p. 215-224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Oversize rock fragments are highly undesired in a sublevel caving (SLC) operation as they affectthe production cycle, equipment, and infrastructure. In this study, afield test was carried out inMalmberget mine to analyse the impact of oversize fragments on the production cycle and thecosts of different procedures for handling such fragments. The tests involved monitoring ofdumping oversize fragments in two orepasses, one with a grizzly and the other one withouta grizzly, using cameras. The cycle times of load-haul-dump (LHD) machines weredetermined for both orepasses. The results indicate that the grizzly increased the availabilityand productivity of the orepass despite increasing the cycle time of the LHD machines.Moreover, installation of a boulder breaker system along with the grizzly can furtherincrease the productivity and the cost of such a system will be paid offin a shorter time interms of enhanced productivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Sublevel caving (SLC), orepass, oversize fragment, grizzly, boulder breaker, Load-Haul-Dump (LHD) machines, hang-ups, orepass screening
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering; Centre - Centre for Advanced Mining & Metallurgy (CAMM)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96670 (URN)10.1080/25726668.2023.2215560 (DOI)2-s2.0-85160944276 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Face-to-Surface II
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Energy AgencyVinnova
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-07 (sofila);

Available from: 2023-04-19 Created: 2023-04-19 Last updated: 2023-11-07Bibliographically approved
Manzoor, S., Gustafson, A. & Schunnesson, H. (2023). Modelling the relationship between oversize fragments and nature of rock mass for a sublevel caving operation. International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, 169, Article ID 105433.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling the relationship between oversize fragments and nature of rock mass for a sublevel caving operation
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 169, article id 105433Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rock fragmentation is vital in a sublevel caving operation. The oversize fragments are the most undesiredfragmentation category because of their challenges; as such, they require special attention. This study carried outa field test in one of the LKAB’s iron ore mines in northern Sweden to analyse the occurrence of oversizefragments. The analysis involved correlation and regression tests and was performed for different types of rockmasses. The results showed that an increase in the percentage of solid rock mass caused an increase in thepercentage of oversize fragments. The other rock types, including slightly fractured, highly fractured, and rockmass with minor and major cavities, tended to have a reduced percentage of oversize fragments. The resultsindicate that oversize fragments can be predicted using linear regression or partial least square regression modelswith R2 values of 0.78 and 0.73, respectively. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Oversize fragments, Measurement while drilling (MWD), Sublevel caving (SLC), Multiple linear regression, Partial least square (PLS) regression
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96669 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmms.2023.105433 (DOI)2-s2.0-85161352616 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council Formas
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-06-08 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Available from: 2023-04-19 Created: 2023-04-19 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Tariq, M., Gustafson, A. & Schunnesson, H. (2023). Training of load haul dump (LHD) machine operators: a case study at LKAB’s Kiirunavaara mine. Mining Technology, 132(4), 237-252
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Training of load haul dump (LHD) machine operators: a case study at LKAB’s Kiirunavaara mine
2023 (English)In: Mining Technology, ISSN 2572-6668, Vol. 132, no 4, p. 237-252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mining is a high-risk industry, so efficiency and safety are key priorities. Technological advancements, such as digitisation, digitalisation, and automation have made mines safer. These developments have also highlighted the need for operators with updated skills and improved education programs. This study analysed the training of semi-autonomous and manual Load Haul Dump (LHD) operators’ at LKAB’s Kiirunavaara mine, focusing on operators’ training, perspective and integration of more recent tool such as simulator training. The survey questionnaire was sent to all 120 LHD operators. 86 answers were received, giving response rate of 70%. Results showed that operators generally were satisfied with how the training was structured, organised, and delivered. However, they wanted to add more topics, including practical loading, spending time with departments of other sub-processes, etc. In addition, 36% of the operators, including 20% of those operating semi-autonomous LHDs, and 80% of those operating manual LHDs, found simulator training difficult.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
LHD, Mining education, Operator training, Simulators, Training, Training method, Underground, Underground mining equipment
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98585 (URN)10.1080/25726668.2023.2217669 (DOI)001000867300001 ()2-s2.0-85161500912 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 101003591
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-07 (sofila);

Funder: Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB, Sweden

Available from: 2023-06-19 Created: 2023-06-19 Last updated: 2023-11-07Bibliographically approved
Manzoor, S., Gustafson, A. & Schunnesson, H. (2022). Challenges with Density-Based Grade Estimation at LKAB’s Underground Iron Ore Mines. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, 39(6), 2301-2310
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges with Density-Based Grade Estimation at LKAB’s Underground Iron Ore Mines
2022 (English)In: Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, ISSN 2524-3462, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 2301-2310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sublevel caving operation relies on the estimation of ore grade at drawpoints, as the mine management uses grade to decide whether the material at a certain ring should be loaded or abandoned. Grade is estimated in various ways, including visual estimation, density-based calculation, and sampling and assay methods. The grade estimation at the world’s two largest underground iron ore mines owned by LKAB in northern Sweden is based on the density difference between ore and waste. The calculations assume a constant swell factor, a theoretical fill of 100%, and a linear relationship between bucket weight and material grade. This study evaluated these assumptions in detail based on the loading data for 12,237 buckets and concluded that the method has some shortcomings which render the assumptions invalid. Further research is required to deal with these shortcomings to improve estimation of the material grade.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
Keywords
Sublevel caving, Grade control, Fragmentation, Bucket weight, Bucket volume
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93634 (URN)10.1007/s42461-022-00688-9 (DOI)000869336800001 ()2-s2.0-85140017142 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-12-06 (joosat);

Funder: Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB)

Available from: 2022-10-18 Created: 2022-10-18 Last updated: 2023-04-20Bibliographically approved
Hoeft, M., Kronsell, S., Manzoor, S., Johansson, F., Gustafson, A., von Haslingen, T. & Eriksson, K. (2022). Construction Automation and Robotics in Infrastructure. KTH, Real Estate and Construction Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Construction Automation and Robotics in Infrastructure
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, as in many other countries, the construction andinfrastructure sector are of large and growing importance for the economyand society. For instance, the construction industry’s turnover equals 11% ofthe Swedish gross domestic product (GDP) (Byggföretagen 2021), and theSwedish Transport Administration plans to invest SEK 799 billion during theperiod 2022-2033 (Regeringen 2021). At the same time, the cost ofinfrastructure projects has increased more than the consumer price index(CPI) (Trafikverket (2021)), partly due to a poorer development of theproductivity compared to other industries. An improved productivity andefficiency in the transport infrastructure and construction industry istherefore necessary. One way to increase productivity, improve theoccupational health and safety, and sustainability is through automation anddigitalization of the construction industry.The aim of the present report has been to identify ongoing initiatives andexisting research trends in construction automation with a focus on civilengineering, both nationally and internationally; and to identify potentialsand challenges that exist for the development of construction automation.Furthermore, the prerequisites for the implementation of automation in theconstruction industry have been studied. The research questions were studiedthrough a literature study and two thematic days on the subject.The results from the literature study shows that a clear increasing trendexists, both nationally and internationally, in automation, digitization androbotisation in the construction industry. The same trend can also be seen incivil engineering for roads, bridges, tunnels, as well as in the mining industry.With the mining industry as a role model, construction companies,universities, suppliers and clients together with small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs) should come together to develop a common vision and astrategic roadmap to enforce automation and digitization of the constructionindustry. A development of both technical, organizational and financialstructures is required, where an attractive business ecosystem can bedeveloped, enabling the upscaling of construction automation.Interdisciplinary collaborations, test-beds at an early stage, competencedevelopment, new financing infrastructure and a common vision are crucialto create conditions for construction automation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH, Real Estate and Construction Management, 2022. p. 115
Series
TRITA-ABE-RPT ; 2121
Keywords
construction automation, robotics, infrastructure, lifecycle
National Category
Construction Management Robotics
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98035 (URN)
Funder
Svenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF), 13882Swedish Research Council Formas, 2020-00213
Available from: 2023-06-08 Created: 2023-06-08 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Manzoor, S., Danielsson, M., Söderström, E., Schunnesson, H., Gustafson, A., Fredriksson, H. & Johansson, D. (2022). Predicting rock fragmentation based on drill monitoring: A case study from Malmberget mine, Sweden. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 122(3), 155-165
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting rock fragmentation based on drill monitoring: A case study from Malmberget mine, Sweden
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2022 (English)In: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 2411-9717, Vol. 122, no 3, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fragmentation analysis is an essential part of the optimization process in any mining operation. The costs of loading, hauling, and crushing the rock are strongly influenced by the size distribution of the blasted rock. Several direct and indirect methods are used to analyse or predict fragmentation, but none is entirely applicable to fragmentation assessment in sublevel caving mines, mainly because of the limitations imposed by the underground environment and the lack of all the required data to adequately describe the rock mass. Over the past few years, measurement while drilling (MWD) data has emerged as a potential tool to provide more information about the in-situ rock mass. This research investigated if MWD can be used to predict rock fragmentation in sublevel caving. The MWD data obtained from a sublevel caving mine in northern Sweden were used to find the relationship between rock fragmentation and the nature of the rock mass. The loading operation of the mine was filmed for more than 12 months to capture images of loaded load-haul-dump (LHD) buckets. The blasted material in those buckets was classified into four categories based on the median particle size (X50). The results showed a strongercorrelation for fine and medium fragmented material with rock type (MWD data) than coarser material. The paper presents a model for prediction of fragmentation, which concludes that it is possible to use MWD data for fragmentation predict ion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Southern African Institute of Minning and Metallurgy, 2022
Keywords
rock fragmentation, measurement while drilling, quick rating system, partial least squares regression, sublevel caving
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80805 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/1587/2022 (DOI)000785742700007 ()2-s2.0-85131238807 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyEU, Horizon 2020, 869379
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-04-07 (hanlid);

Funder: Centre for Advanced Mining and Metallurgy (CAMM2), Luleå University of Technology

Available from: 2020-09-16 Created: 2020-09-16 Last updated: 2024-02-16Bibliographically approved
Manzoor, S., Gustafson, A., Schunnesson, H., Tariq, M. & Wettainen, T. (2022). Rock fragmentation measurements in sublevel caving: Field tests at LKAB’s Malmberget mine. In: Y. Potvin (Ed.), Caving 2022: Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving Volume One. Paper presented at Caving 2022 - Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving, Adelaide, Australia, August 30 - September 1, 2022 (pp. 381-392). Australian Centre for Geomechanics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rock fragmentation measurements in sublevel caving: Field tests at LKAB’s Malmberget mine
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2022 (English)In: Caving 2022: Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving Volume One / [ed] Y. Potvin, Australian Centre for Geomechanics , 2022, p. 381-392Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ground vibrations from blasting are one of the main challenges faced by mines located near populated areas. To confront this challenge, Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag’s Malmberget underground iron ore mine in Sweden tested a change in blast design. Specifically, it tested production holes with smaller diameter to decrease the explosive detonated per delay and thereby lower the ground vibrations. However, smaller holes normally increase hole deviation and may also influence the chargeability of the holes, both of which have a negative effect on fragmentation. Therefore, a detailed evaluation was required before a final decision could be made. To evaluate the fragmentation, field tests were carried out in two drifts of an ore body in the mine. Cameras were mounted in both drifts to record the fragmentation in every loaded bucket. The recording was configured to start by a motion detection parameter; consequently, every movement underneath the cameras was captured. The recording process continued for over a year and resulted in more than 15,000 videos. To analyse such an enormous data for fragmentation, an internally developed quick rating system (QRS) was used to evaluate a total of 7,258 loaded buckets. Blasted rock in the load–haul–dump buckets was classified as fine, medium, coarse, or oversize based on the median fragment size (X50). This paper explains the experimental setup of the test and the analysis procedures. The test results showed that smaller diameter boreholes tend to reduce the median fragment size slightly, and therefore favour the reduction of borehole diameter to deal with the ground vibration problem. The influence of borehole deviation and chargeability was not specifically investigated in this test and need further research to better understand subsequent fragmentation variations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Australian Centre for Geomechanics, 2022
Keywords
borehole diameter, rock fragmentation, sublevel caving, quick rating system
National Category
Geophysics
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93146 (URN)10.36487/ACG_repo/2205_26 (DOI)
Conference
Caving 2022 - Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving, Adelaide, Australia, August 30 - September 1, 2022
Projects
Face-to-Surface II
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council Formas
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-0-6450938-3-4

Available from: 2022-09-19 Created: 2022-09-19 Last updated: 2024-02-22Bibliographically approved
Manzoor, S., Gustafson, A., Johansson, D. & Schunnesson, H. (2022). Rock fragmentation variations with increasing extraction ratio in sublevel caving: a case study. International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, 36(3), 159-173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rock fragmentation variations with increasing extraction ratio in sublevel caving: a case study
2022 (English)In: International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, ISSN 1748-0930, E-ISSN 1748-0949, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 159-173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Variations in rock fragmentation are very likely to occur in a sublevel-caving operation. This study conducted a comprehensive test in an iron ore mine to monitor rock fragmentation. The results show a clear trend in fragmentation variations from start to end of production from a ring. These variations suggest an increase in coarse and oversized fragments with increasing material extraction from the rings that can be linked to increased overburden and drill hole deviations in the upper part of the rings. These problems can be addressed by shortening the drill hole length or directional drilling but need further investigations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
extraction ratio, quick rating system, Rock fragmentation, sublevel caving
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88934 (URN)10.1080/17480930.2021.2000826 (DOI)000736802800001 ()2-s2.0-85122511409 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-01-28 (johcin)

Available from: 2022-01-26 Created: 2022-01-26 Last updated: 2023-04-20Bibliographically approved
Castaño Arranz, M., Gustafson, A. & Al-Chalabi, H. (2020). A generic framework for data quality analytics. International Journal of COMADEM, 23(1), 31-38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A generic framework for data quality analytics
2020 (English)In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 31-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The challenge of generalizing Data Quality assessment is hindered by the fact that Data Quality requisites depend on the purpose for which the data will be used and on the subjectivity of the data consumer. The approach proposed in this paper to address this challenge is to employ a semi-automated user-guided Data Quality assessment. This paper introduces a generic framework for data quality analytics which is mainly composed by a set of software units to perform semi-automated Data Quality analytics and a set of Graphical User Interfaces to enable the user to guide the Data Quality assessment. The framework has been implemented and can be customized according to the needs of the purpose and of the consumer. The framework has been instantiated in a case study on Long-hole drill rigs, where several Data Quality issues have been discovered and their root cause investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
COMADEM International, 2020
Keywords
Data Quality, Maintenance, Long-hole drilling, Mining
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance; Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78501 (URN)2-s2.0-85088900505 (Scopus ID)
Projects
IDQ4LCCAIF/R
Funder
Vinnova
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 1;2020-04-21 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-04-15 Created: 2020-04-15 Last updated: 2020-09-02Bibliographically approved
Shekhar, G., Gustafson, A., Jonsson, K., Martinsson, J. & Schunnesson, H. (2020). Development of an optimal draw control strategy for a sublevel caving operation at Malmberget mine. Mining Technology, 129(2), 104-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of an optimal draw control strategy for a sublevel caving operation at Malmberget mine
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2020 (English)In: Mining Technology, ISSN 2572-6668, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the identification of the optimal draw control strategy for a sublevel caving (SLC) operation at Malmberget mine in Sweden. Two mathematical models, a probability model and an economic model, were created using five datasets: bucket weights, bucket grades, extraction ratio, mine economics parameters and production constraints. The probability model was used to generate a set of simulated bucket weights and corresponding bucket grades which acts as a ‘virtual mine’ environment. The economic model assesses the economic impact of loading at the draw point. Two approaches to draw control were tested using the ‘virtual mine’ created by the probability model. Based on the results of the simulation tests, an optimal draw control strategy is suggested for a field test at the mine. The new draw control strategy optimises further the loading operation at Malmberget mine. The paper shows a roadmap for optimising draw control strategy for SLC operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2020
Keywords
Draw control strategy, optimised underground mining, Load Haul Dump (LHD), sublevel caving (SLC), mine economics, heuristics, process control optimisation
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Mathematical Analysis
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering; Applied Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-79641 (URN)10.1080/25726668.2020.1775432 (DOI)000546908600005 ()2-s2.0-85087385397 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-12-10 (marisr)

Available from: 2020-06-16 Created: 2020-06-16 Last updated: 2020-12-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5347-0853

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