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Shekhar, G., Gustafson, A., Hersinger, A., Jonsson, K. & Schunnesson, H. (2019). Development of a model for economic control of loading in sublevel caving mines. Mining Technology:Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy, 128(2), 118-128
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a model for economic control of loading in sublevel caving mines
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2019 (English)In: Mining Technology:Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2572-6668, Vol. 128, no 2, p. 118-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an economic model for optimizing loading at the draw point in sublevel caving (SLC) operations. The input data consist of estimated bucket grades based on bucket weights from Load Haul Dump machines. This information, together with average operational mining costs, was used to create an economic model providing a real-time economic assessment of the draw point performance for SLC rings. The results demonstrate the importance of continuous draw point monitoring to optimize SLC operations. The proposed model provides an economic assessment of operating draw points and will help mine personnel to decide when to stop loading from a blasted ring. It can also help mine management understand the complexity of material flow in SLC operations. Finally, it provides operational flexibility for the mine to optimize loading at the draw point by increasing ore recovery while maintaining operational control of draw point performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Draw control, mine economics, sublevel caving (SLC), draw point performance, Load Haul Dump (LHD)
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Civil Engineering Business Administration
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering; Accounting and Control
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73175 (URN)10.1080/25726668.2019.1586371 (DOI)000471557200005 ()2-s2.0-85064570087 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 1832144
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-05-03 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Ghosh, R., Gustafson, A. & Schunnesson, H. (2018). Development of a geological model for chargeability assessment of borehole using drill monitoring technique. International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, 109, 9-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a geological model for chargeability assessment of borehole using drill monitoring technique
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 109, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the mining industry, the ability to charge and blast a production borehole is fundamental. However, if rock mass conditions are challenging, with cavities, fracture zones or even unstable boreholes, the charging crew may fail to insert the required amount of explosives, resulting in bad fragmentation and significant production disturbances in the downstream process. Prior detailed knowledge of the chargeability of each production fan or ring will improve both the planning and execution of the charging work in a mine. The paper describes a study using the drill monitoring technique to assess the chargeability of production boreholes. For the study, data were collected on four drill parameters, penetration rate, rotation pressure, feed pressure and percussive pressure, from 23 drill fans with a total of 186 boreholes. A parameter called fracturing was calculated based on penetration rate variability and rotation pressure variability. Sixty-three boreholes were filmed to establish different rock mass conditions: solid rock, cavities, fractured zones and cave-ins. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to model the relationship between drill monitoring data and the geological features. The developed model shows high potential by identifying charging problems directly from drill monitoring data, and has been verified and validated in a real charging operation in an operating mine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70266 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmms.2018.06.015 (DOI)000440458000002 ()2-s2.0-85049528017 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-08-08 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Shekhar, G., Gustafson, A., Boeg-Jensen, P., Malmgren, L. & Schunnesson, H. (2018). Draw control strategies in sublevel caving mines: A baseline mapping of LKAB's Malmberget and Kiirunavaara mines. The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, 118(7), 723-733
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Draw control strategies in sublevel caving mines: A baseline mapping of LKAB's Malmberget and Kiirunavaara mines
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2018 (English)In: The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 723-733Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Malmberget and Kiirunavaara mines are the two largest underground iron ore operations in the world. Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) uses sublevel caving (SLC) to operate the mines while maintaining a high level of productivity and safety. The paper enumerates the loading criteria and loading constraints at the mines and outlines details of mine design, layout, and geology affecting the draw control. A study of the various draw control strategies used in sublevel caving operations globally has also been done to establish the present state-of-the-art. An analysis of the draw control and loading operations at the Malmberget and Kiirunavaara mines is summarized using information collected through interviews, internal documents, meetings, and manuals. An optimized draw control strategy is vital for improving ore recovery and reducing dilution in SLC. Based on the literature review and baseline mapping study, a set of guidelines for designing a new draw control strategy is presented. The draw control strategy at Malmberget and Kiirunavaara is guided by a bucket-weightbased drawpoint monitoring system that is part of the overall framework. Both mines employ a draw control strategy that considers the production requirements and mining constraints while regulating the loading process through an empirical method based on bucket weights and grades. However, in the present scenario of fluctuating metal prices and increasing operational costs a new draw control strategy is needed which is probabilistic in nature and can handle the uncertainties associated with caving operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2018
Keywords
Sublevel caving, draw control, optimization, draw point monitoring
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71770 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/2018/v118n7a6 (DOI)000442393900006 ()2-s2.0-85053623244 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SIP-STRIM
Funder
VINNOVA, 1832144
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-12-07 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Salama, A., Svanberg, J. & Gustafson, A. (2018). The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine. The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, 118(4), 409-418
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine
2018 (English)In: The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 409-418Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Orepass failure is a well-known problem in deep mines, and the risk of losing an orepass is associated with severe production disturbances. In the near future, one possible scenario in the Loussavaara Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB) Malmberget mine is to concentrate the mining operation in fewer, but larger, production areas. In this paper we evaluate the effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates using discrete event simulation, by simulating part of the Malmberget mine loading and hauling system under different environmental and operational constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Johannesburg: South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2018
Keywords
LHDs, orepass loss, production simulation, underground iron ore mining
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68482 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/2018/v118n12a14 (DOI)000432973700011 ()2-s2.0-85048012580 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-08 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Ghosh, R., Danielsson, M., Gustafson, A., Falksund, H. & Schunnesson, H. (2017). Assessment of rock mass quality using drill monitoring technique of Hydraulic ITH drills (ed.). International Journal of Mining and Mineral Engineering, 8(3), 169-186
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of rock mass quality using drill monitoring technique of Hydraulic ITH drills
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Mining and Mineral Engineering, ISSN 1754-890X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 169-186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A rock drilling system always responds to variations in the mechanical properties of the penetrated rock mass. Combining the drill response with a detailed understanding of the drill system has the potential to give a detailed and high-resolution characterisation of the penetrated rock mass along the borehole. This paper analyses 186 boreholes, drilled using a water powered in-the-hole (ITH) drilling technique considering drill parameters; penetration rate, rotation pressure, feed pressure and percussive pressure. In addition, it suggests, calculates and uses a parameter reflecting rock fracturing. Sixty-three of the holes were filmed with a borehole camera to reveal the geo-mechanical features. The results show that the responses from the drill monitoring system can distinguish between solid rock, fracture zones, cavities and damaged rock. The ability to extract this information directly from the drilling operation provides unique prior information and can be useful to adjust production planning before charging and blasting boreholes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2017
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14546 (URN)10.1504/IJMME.2017.10006862 (DOI)2-s2.0-85027419669 (Scopus ID)deb3ea8d-3a3b-4f92-a89c-67863f4661bf (Local ID)deb3ea8d-3a3b-4f92-a89c-67863f4661bf (Archive number)deb3ea8d-3a3b-4f92-a89c-67863f4661bf (OAI)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 1;2017-08-16 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
Gustafson, A., Paraszczak, J., Tuleau, J. & Schunnesson, H. (2017). Impact of technical and operational factors on effectiveness of automatic load-haul-dump machines. Mining Technology, 126(4), 185-190
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of technical and operational factors on effectiveness of automatic load-haul-dump machines
2017 (English)In: Mining Technology, ISSN 1474-9009, E-ISSN 1743-2863, Vol. 126, no 4, p. 185-190Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of automatic load-haul-dump (LHD) machines in underground metal mines is a promising way to overcome some of the challenges now facing mining companies. They offer several potential benefits over man-operated units, mostly in terms of safety and health of the workers, but also in terms of higher availability, increased productivity, and reduced mining cost. That said, using such systems at their full capacity is a challenging and complex task. In this context, after describing some commercially available equipment and systems, the paper examines factors affecting reliability, availability and productivity of automatic LHDs and notes several technical and operational concerns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62122 (URN)10.1080/14749009.2017.1285980 (DOI)2-s2.0-85038357365 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 1;2017-12-21 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Shekhar, G., Gustafson, A. & Schunnesson, H. (2017). Loading Procedure and Draw Control in LKAB’s Sublevel Caving Mines: Baseline Mapping Report. Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Loading Procedure and Draw Control in LKAB’s Sublevel Caving Mines: Baseline Mapping Report
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sublevel caving (SLC) is an underground mass mining method used to extract iron ore from the Kiirunavaara and Malmberget mines. Although both mines use SLC as the mining method, their implementation varies in terms of mine design, ring design and draw control strategy. The Kiirunavaara mine has a continuous and massive ore deposit which allows a standard mine design layout, while the Malmberget mine has scattered ore bodies with varying mine design parameters. The two mines also employ different opening techniques for production drifts.

Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) uses different information systems to run these highly mechanized mines. The information generated by the various systems is transferred between the different unit operations and is used to optimize the mining process. The mines use GIRON to create, store and display different information related to the mining operation. Information on all unit operations is stored in a number of databases inside GIRON. The two loading related information systems which support the loading operation are the Wireless Loader Information System (WOLIS) and the Loadrite system. The Loadrite system measures the bucket weights being loaded by the Load Haul Dump (LHD) machines at the draw point. This information, along with information on planned ring tonnage etc., is displayed to the LHD operator inside the LHD machine using WOLIS. WOLIS provides online data on the ring performance such as grades, tonnage extracted etc. to the LHD operators and the production team.

In SLC, the different aspects of loading at the draw point include loading procedures, loading issues, loading criteria and loading constraints. Loading procedures include the practices and precautions taken during loading at the draw point. Loading issues include events observed at both mines, such as brow failure, ring freeze, hang-ups etc. Although most loading issues are handled in a similar manner, hang-up handling techniques are different at the Kiirunavaara and Malmberget mines. Loading criteria and constraints along with the nature of material flow collectively provide a complete understanding of the draw control strategy. Loading criteria comprise a set of rules or guidelines for loading and closing a draw point. LKAB uses WOLIS to enforce the loading criteria for its SLC operations. Loading constraints include production constraints, grade control and mining constraints which must be followed for a safe and sustainable mining operation.

A baseline analysis of the draw control and loading operations at the Kiirunavaara and Malmberget mines is summarized in this report using information collected through internal documents, meetings, e-mails and manuals.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2017. p. 60
Series
Research report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1528
Keywords
Draw control, Kiirunavaara, Kiruna, Malmberget, Sublevel caving, SLC, LHD, Loading, Drawpoint, loading constraints, Drill design, mining, underground mining, Information systems in Mining
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61938 (URN)978-91-7583-807-6 (ISBN)978-91-7583-943-1 (ISBN)
Projects
Improved Resource Efficiency through Dynamic Loading Control
Funder
VINNOVA, 1832144
Available from: 2017-02-10 Created: 2017-02-10 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Ghosh, R., Schunnesson, H. & Gustafson, A. (2017). Monitoring of Drill System Behavior for Water-Powered in-the-hole (ITH) drilling. Minerals, 7(7), Article ID 121.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring of Drill System Behavior for Water-Powered in-the-hole (ITH) drilling
2017 (English)In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 7, no 7, article id 121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A detailed understanding of the drilling system and the drilling control is required to correctly interpret rock mass conditions based on monitored drilling data. This paper analyses data from hydraulic in-the-hole (ITH) drills used in LKAB’s Malmberget mine in Sweden. Drill parameters, including penetration rate, percussive pressure, feed pressure, and rotation pressure, are monitored in underground production holes. Calculated parameters, penetration rate variability, rotation pressure variability, and fracturing are included in the analysis to improve the opportunity to predict rock mass conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to address non-linearity and variable interactions. The results show that the data contain pronounced hole length-dependent trends, both linear and step-wise linear, for most parameters. It is also suggested that monitoring can be an efficient way to optimize target values for drill parameters, as demonstrated for feed force. Finally, principal component analysis can be used to transfer a number of drill parameters into single components with a more straightforward geomechanical meaning

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2017
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63802 (URN)10.3390/min7070121 (DOI)000407363800015 ()2-s2.0-85026226267 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-08-15 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-06-08 Created: 2017-06-08 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Morant, A., Gustafson, A., Söderholm, P., Larsson-Kråik, P.-O. & Kumar, U. (2017). Safety and availability evaluation of railway operation based on the state of signalling systems (ed.). Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, 231(2), 226-238
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety and availability evaluation of railway operation based on the state of signalling systems
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 231, no 2, p. 226-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A framework is presented to evaluate the safety and availability of the railway operation, and quantifying the probability of the signalling system not to supervise the railway traffic. Since a failure of the signalling systems still allows operation of the railway, it is not sufficient to study their effect on the railway operation by considering only the failures and delays. The safety and availability are evaluated, handling both repairs and replacements by using a Markov model. The model is verified with a case study of Swedish railway signalling systems with different scenarios. The results show that the probability of being in a state where operation is possible in a degraded mode is greater than the probability of not being operative at all, which reduces delays but requires other risk mitigation measures to ensure safe operation. The effects that different improvements can have on the safety and availability of the railway operation are simulated. The results show that combining maintenance improvements to reduce the failure rate and increase the repair rate is more efficient at increasing the probability of being in an operative state and reducing the probability of operating in a degraded state.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Reliability and Maintenance
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance; Mining and Rock Engineering; Quality Technology & Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9431 (URN)10.1177/0954409715624466 (DOI)000394085100008 ()2-s2.0-85009809587 (Scopus ID)80be67df-554a-4524-a31a-4fdc3fcfb204 (Local ID)80be67df-554a-4524-a31a-4fdc3fcfb204 (Archive number)80be67df-554a-4524-a31a-4fdc3fcfb204 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-02-06 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Greberg, J., Salama, A., Gustafson, A. & Skawina, B. (2016). Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation (ed.). Minerals, 6(3), Article ID 65.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation
2016 (English)In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the near surface deposits are being mined out, underground mines will increasingly operate at greater depths. This will increase the challenges related to transporting materials from deeper levels to the surface. For many years, the ore and waste transportation from most deep underground mines has depended on some or all of the following: truck haulage, conveyor belts, shafts, rails, and ore pass systems. In sub-level caving, and where ore passes are used, trains operating on the main lower level transport the ore from ore passes to a crusher, for subsequent hoisting to the surface through the shaft system. In many mines, the use of the ore pass system has led to several problems related to the ore pass availability, causing production disturbances and incurred cost and time for ore pass rehabilitation. These production disturbances have an impact on the mining activities since they increase the operational costs, and lower the mine throughput. A continued dependency on rock mass transportation using ore passes will generate high capital costs for various supporting structures such as rail tracks, shaft extensions, and crushers for every new main level. This study was conducted at an existing underground mine and analyzed the transport of ore from loading areas at the lower levels up to the existing shaft points using trucks without employing ore passes. The results show that, when the costs of extending ore passes to lower levels become too great or ore passes cannot be used for production, haul trucks can be a feasible alternative method for transport of ore and waste up the ramp to the existing crusher located at the previous main level. The use of trucks will avoid installing infrastructure at the next main level and extending the ore passes to lower levels, hence reducing costs.

Keywords
rock mass transportation, sub-level caving, discrete event simulation, ore pass, trucks, haulage system, Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13724 (URN)10.3390/min6030065 (DOI)000385481400009 ()2-s2.0-84977104005 (Scopus ID)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (Local ID)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (Archive number)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (OAI)
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-11-14 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5347-0853

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