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Rabén, Hans
Publications (8 of 8) Show all publications
Rabén, H., Johansson, J. & Borg, J. (2015). A CMOS Front-end for RFID Transponders Using Multiple Coil Antennas (ed.). Paper presented at . Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 83(2), 149-159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A CMOS Front-end for RFID Transponders Using Multiple Coil Antennas
2015 (English)In: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, E-ISSN 1573-1979, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 149-159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A front-end architecture for inductive RFID transponders using multiple coil antennas for reduced ori- entation sensitivity is presented. The front-end uses multiple antennas for reception and one antenna for transmission. A select function identifies the antenna that is most favorably oriented toward the reader for transmission by comparing the DC charge-up phases of multiple DC generation blocks during power-up of the transponder. CMOS circuit design and simulation results of a front-end for 125 kHz FSK modulation are presented for a pulsed RFID system as well as an archi- tecture for cascaded DC generation. This paper also includes an example of a coil antenna for spherical transponders using three independent orthogonal windings.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-5038 (URN)10.1007/s10470-015-0518-y (DOI)000353358800004 ()2-s2.0-84937763608 (Scopus ID)30f00f70-28c0-4400-923a-81773e09c2fa (Local ID)30f00f70-28c0-4400-923a-81773e09c2fa (Archive number)30f00f70-28c0-4400-923a-81773e09c2fa (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20140904 (hanrab)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Rabén, H. (2014). DC Generation for Inductively Coupled RFID Systems (ed.). (Doctoral dissertation). Paper presented at . : Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DC Generation for Inductively Coupled RFID Systems
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The ability to store information electronically in small tags that can be read wirelesslyhas great potential. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is used today in anumber of different areas, such as logistics, supply chain management, access control andenvironmental monitoring. Recently, research on RFID technology has focused on sensortags, localization techniques, antennas and propagation, data security, communicationprotocols and circuit design for the tags and the readers.In a typical RFID system, a passive tag is powered up remotely by a radio frequencysignal sent from a reader unit. The RF signal received by the tag antenna is convertedto a DC-supply voltage by the rectifier in the analog front-end of the tag. To avoidpower loss in the rectifying operation, low-voltage Schottky diodes are often used in amulti-stage rectifier. However, the use of Schottky diodes is not cost efficient becausethese diodes must be designed in advanced semiconductor processes. Because one of thedemands on future RFID technology is to reduce the cost, efficient rectifiers that canbe integrated in a low cost semiconductor process is highly desirable. For this reason,different rectifiers in standard CMOS have been proposed.This thesis discuss recent work and present new ideas on rectifiers in CMOS that havethe potential to replace Schottky diodes in rectifiers for low-power RFID applications.The design and modelling of multi-stage rectifiers for maximized DC generation in aninductive RFID system are also included. Furthermore this thesis presents techniquesfor inductive transponders that allow improved DC generation and reduced orientationsensitivity for transponders that trace moving objects.Part I of the thesis presents a theoretical analysis of the RF to DC generation usingsingle diode rectifiers. This analysis illustrates how different properties, such as the voltageand power conversion efficiency of the rectifier, the Q-factor of the resonance circuitand the coupling coefficient between coil antennas, affect the tag DC generation. Furthermore,Part I also discusses DC generation for inductive transponders using multiple coilantennas. In Part II, Paper A discusses the limitations with the CMOS cross-connectedbridge rectifier and proposes a modified bridge with active diodes to improve rectifierperformance. Paper B presents a theoretical model for diode-connected MOS transistorswith internal threshold cancellation (ITC), as well as a design procedure that describeshow to optimize a rectifier based on MOS ITC diodes. In Paper C a highly efficient activeMOS diode is presented that can be used in multi-stage low-power rectifiers. In addition,this study shows that active diodes in CMOS can be designed to have a diode voltagedrop of less than 100 mV and have a power consumption of a few μW. Paper D presentsa model for the DC charge-up phase in a rectifier driven by a coil antenna. This model was used to determine the available chip current in a typical pulsed RFID system. InPaper E, the modeling and design of multi-stage rectifiers for inductively coupled RFIDtags is presented. Finally, Paper F presents front-end circuit solutions for transpondersusing multiple coil antennas.The work presented in this thesis demonstrates that highly efficient RF to DC conversioncan be achieved using CMOS rectifiers for low-power applications. New techniquesin CMOS with the potential to replace Schottky diodes in RFID rectifiers are demonstrated.Furthermore, new design criteria for voltage multipliers to achieve maximizedDC generation in inductively coupled RFID tags and techniques for reduced orientationsensitivity are presented. These results are promising for improving and reducing cost ofinductively coupled RFID systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-25659 (URN)a6d55527-4597-4af2-a176-3aaf91292447 (Local ID)978-91-7583-099-5 (ISBN)978-91-7583-100-8 (ISBN)a6d55527-4597-4af2-a176-3aaf91292447 (Archive number)a6d55527-4597-4af2-a176-3aaf91292447 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20141007 (hanrab); Nedanstående person kommer att disputera för avläggande av teknologie doktorsexamen. Namn: Hans Rabén Ämne: Industriell elektronik/Industrial Electronics Avhandling: DC Generation for Inductively Coupled RFID Systems Opponent: Adjunct professor Catherine Dehollain, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Schweiz, Ordförande: Docent Jonny Johansson, EISLAB, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå Tid: Tisdag den 12 december 2014, kl 09.30 Plats: A1547, Luleå tekniska universitetAvailable from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Rabén, H., Borg, J. & Johansson, J. (2014). Design of voltage multipliers for maximized DC generation in inductively coupled RFID tags (ed.). Paper presented at . IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Part 1: Regular Papers, 61(11), 3309-3317
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of voltage multipliers for maximized DC generation in inductively coupled RFID tags
2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Part 1: Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328, E-ISSN 1558-0806, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 3309-3317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents models, circuit solutions and design procedures for maximized DC generation in inductively coupled RFID tags. An analytical model for the DC generation is derived, and relationships between the received signal in the tag coil antenna and the generated DC supply voltage using a voltage multiplier, based on both passive and active diodes, are presented. Derived from the trade-off between voltage gain in the multiplier and the tag coil at resonance, an equation for the optimum number of multiplier stages to achieve maximized DC generation is presented. Based on the derived equation, design examples are included with two typical tag coil antennas given a specification of the DC supply voltage and current. Also included in this paper is the design of a voltage multiplier based on active diodes implemented and manufactured in AMS 0.35 $mu{rm m}$ CMOS process. The active diodes are based on a concept of threshold cancellation of MOS diodes and make use of reverse leakage control to achieve full threshold cancellation.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14347 (URN)10.1109/TCSI.2014.2327305 (DOI)000344467500026 ()2-s2.0-84908419065 (Scopus ID)db2f26c2-8d9c-484d-9675-c667ac0b9966 (Local ID)db2f26c2-8d9c-484d-9675-c667ac0b9966 (Archive number)db2f26c2-8d9c-484d-9675-c667ac0b9966 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140616 (hanrab)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Rabén, H., Borg, J. & Johansson, J. (2013). A discrete model of the DC charge-up phase in RFID rectifiers (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Proceedings of the 20th International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems: MIXDES 2013; Gdynia; 20 June 2013 through 22 June 2013. Paper presented at International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems : 20/06/2013 - 22/06/2013 (pp. 341-345). Piscataway NJ: IEEE Communications Society, Article ID 6613370.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A discrete model of the DC charge-up phase in RFID rectifiers
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems: MIXDES 2013; Gdynia; 20 June 2013 through 22 June 2013, Piscataway NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 341-345, article id 6613370Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a discrete model of the DC charge-up phase in a single MOS diode rectifier for an inductively coupled RFID system. The model was derived for a rectifier driven by a coil antenna and with a storage capacitor connected to the output. A comparison between the model and a simulation of a rectifier implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS process demonstrated fast and accurate modeling of the charge up-phase for both LF and HF RFID applications. The model was used to determine the relationship between the voltage induced in the coil antenna and the available chip current based on a specification for the durations of the charge-up and the data-communication phases in a typical LF RFID application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-35584 (URN)a2a900b9-5d2e-4c9b-a800-e6f7a6df664c (Local ID)978-83-63578-01-5 (ISBN)a2a900b9-5d2e-4c9b-a800-e6f7a6df664c (Archive number)a2a900b9-5d2e-4c9b-a800-e6f7a6df664c (OAI)
Conference
International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems : 20/06/2013 - 22/06/2013
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20121223 (hanrab)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Rabén, H., Borg, J. & Johansson, J. (2012). A model for MOS diodes with vth-cancellation in RFID rectifiers (ed.). Paper presented at . IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, 59(11), 761-765
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model for MOS diodes with vth-cancellation in RFID rectifiers
2012 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, E-ISSN 1558-3791, Vol. 59, no 11, p. 761-765Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A theoretical model for diode-connected MOS transistors with a threshold cancellation technique is developed. The model is based on a detailed analysis of the technique with internal threshold cancellation (ITC) and reveals design insight and performance limitations. Derived design equations illustrate the tradeoff between the voltage drop and the reverse leakage of the diode. Furthermore, a design procedure for the optimization of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a bridge rectifier with ITC MOS diodes was developed based on the model. A rectifier was designed and implemented in an austriamicrosystems 0.35-$muhbox{m}$ CMOS process, and Cadence simulation results of the PCE and the voltage conversion efficiency show good agreement with the model.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14932 (URN)10.1109/TCSII.2012.2220691 (DOI)000313426100013 ()2-s2.0-84872128324 (Scopus ID)e5e47fb2-e83e-4d77-bc1c-9f49c71c8ad7 (Local ID)e5e47fb2-e83e-4d77-bc1c-9f49c71c8ad7 (Archive number)e5e47fb2-e83e-4d77-bc1c-9f49c71c8ad7 (OAI)
Projects
ESIS
Note
Validerad; 2013; 20120201 (hanrab)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Rabén, H., Borg, J. & Johansson, J. (2012). An active MOS diode with V th-cancellation for RFID rectifiers (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), 2012 IEEE International Conference on RFID (RFID 2012): Orlando, Florida, USA, 3 - 5 April 2012. Paper presented at Annual IEEE International Conference on RFID : 03/04/2012 - 05/04/2012 (pp. 54-57). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An active MOS diode with V th-cancellation for RFID rectifiers
2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE International Conference on RFID (RFID 2012): Orlando, Florida, USA, 3 - 5 April 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 54-57Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An active MOS diode for low voltage and low power RFID rectifiers is presented. The diode is based on the technique with internal threshold cancellation (ITC) for MOS diodes and uses a simple control scheme to minimize the diode reverse leakage so that full threshold cancellation is achieved. A theoretical background that illustrates the limitations with the ITC diode and a detailed presentation of the proposed diode with a short design procedure is included. The proposed diode is implemented in AMS 0.35 μm CMOS and simulated in Cadense Spectre in a single diode rectifier. With a diode voltage ranging from 50 to 100 mV, the proposed diode simultaneously demonstrates improved voltage and power conversion efficiency of more than 20 % each for frequencies up to 1 MHz, as compared to the MOS diode with internal threshold cancellation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-40549 (URN)10.1109/RFID.2012.6193056 (DOI)2-s2.0-84862060041 (Scopus ID)fb95c50a-3699-4164-a506-b55323da7c7a (Local ID)9781467303286 (ISBN)fb95c50a-3699-4164-a506-b55323da7c7a (Archive number)fb95c50a-3699-4164-a506-b55323da7c7a (OAI)
Conference
Annual IEEE International Conference on RFID : 03/04/2012 - 05/04/2012
Projects
ESIS
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20120621 (andbra)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Rabén, H. (2012). Rectifiers in CMOS for RFID Applications (ed.). (Licentiate dissertation). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rectifiers in CMOS for RFID Applications
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is used today in a number of differentareas, such as logistics, supply chain management, access control and environmentalmonitoring. The ability to store information electronically in small tags that can be readwirelessly has great potential. Recently, research on RFID technology has focused onsensor-tags, localization techniques, antennas and propagation, data security, communicationprotocols and circuit design for the tags and the readers.In a typical RFID system, a passive tag is powered up remotely by a radio frequencysignal sent from a reader unit. The RF signal received by the tag antenna is convertedto a DC-supply voltage in the rectifier in the analog front-end of the tag. To avoid lossin the rectifying operation, low-voltage Schottky diodes are often used in a multi-stagerectifier. However, using Schottky diodes is not cost-efficient because these diodes mustbe designed in advanced semiconductor processes. Because one of the demands on futureRFID technology is to reduce the cost, efficient rectifiers that can be integrated in alow cost semiconductor process is highly desirable. For this reason, different rectifiers instandard CMOS has been proposed.This thesis discuss recent work as well as present new ideas on rectifiers in CMOSthat have the potential to replace Schottky diodes in low-power, multistage rectifiers formagnetically coupled RFID systems. As a brief summary of this thesis, Part I includesa theoretical analysis of the RF to DC generation block. The analysis illustrates howdifferent properties, such as voltage and power conversion efficiency of the rectifier, the Qfactor of the resonance circuit and coupling coefficient between coil antennas, affect thetag DC generation. In Part II, paper A discusses the limitations with the CMOS crossconnectedbridge rectifier and proposes a modified bridge with active diodes to improverectifier performance. The proposed bridge was manufactured, and an evaluation ofthe chip show good agrement between simulated and measured performance. Paper Bpresents a theoretical model for diode connected MOS transistors with internal thresholdcancelation (ITC), as well as a design procedure that describes how to optimize a rectifierbased on MOS ITC diodes. In Paper C a highly efficient active MOS diode is presentedthat can be used in multi-stage low-power rectifiers. In addition, this study shows thatactive diodes in CMOS can be designed to have a diode voltage drop below 100 mV thatconsumes a small amount of μW. These results are promising in the improvement andcost reduction of inductively coupled RFID systems.The work in this thesis has shown that highly efficient RF to DC conversion can beachieved in CMOS rectifiers for low power applications. New techniques in CMOS havebeen demonstrated with the potential to replace Schottky diodes in RFID rectifiers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-17595 (URN)42de58fc-f77a-4e87-a01b-f7e4222e234c (Local ID)978-91-7439-454-2 (ISBN)42de58fc-f77a-4e87-a01b-f7e4222e234c (Archive number)42de58fc-f77a-4e87-a01b-f7e4222e234c (OAI)
Projects
ESIS
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20120514 (hanrab); LICENTIATSEMINARIUM Ämnesområde: Industriell elektronik/Industrial Electronics Examinator: Docent Jonny Johansson, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Luleå tekniska universitet Diskutant: Tekn Dr Fredrik Jonsson, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm Tid: Måndag den 18 juni 2012 kl 10.15 Plats: A109, Luleå tekniska universitetAvailable from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Rabén, H., Borg, J. & Johansson, J. (2011). Improved efficiency in the CMOS cross-connected bridge rectifier for RFID applications (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Proceedings of the 18th International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems: MIXDES 2011; Gliwice; 16 June 2011 through 18 June 2011. Paper presented at International Conference Mixdes Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems : 16/06/2011 - 18/06/2011 (pp. 334-339). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved efficiency in the CMOS cross-connected bridge rectifier for RFID applications
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems: MIXDES 2011; Gliwice; 16 June 2011 through 18 June 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, p. 334-339Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A bridge rectifier based on the cross-connected NMOS-PMOS bridge that avoids the inherent degradation of power conversion efficiency for increasing input levels is presented. Instead of PMOS switches, the proposed rectifier uses diode-connected MOS transistors with static threshold cancellation and minimised diode reverse leakage. With a simple and power efficient circuit solution the new rectifier allows for low-power, passive tag implementation in standard CMOS for both LF and HF RFID applications. Simulation results of the proposed rectifier in a 0.35 µm CMOS process show a power conversion efficiency over 60 % for all input levels above 0.75 V with a 100 kΩ load and an input signal frequency of 13.56 MHz. The simulated DC output voltage at the same conditions is approximately Vin - 0.3 V. A model for the PCE of the new rectifier that includes the impact of the Vth-generator is developed and compared with simulated results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-40640 (URN)fd53b63d-f5ec-4acb-a429-35d6a9b3c690 (Local ID)978-83-932075-0-3 (ISBN)978-83-932075-1-0 (ISBN)fd53b63d-f5ec-4acb-a429-35d6a9b3c690 (Archive number)fd53b63d-f5ec-4acb-a429-35d6a9b3c690 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference Mixdes Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems : 16/06/2011 - 18/06/2011
Projects
ESIS
Note
Godkänd; 2011; Bibliografisk uppgift: Article number 6015936; 20110916 (ysko)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
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