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Grönlund, Anders
Publications (10 of 115) Show all publications
Fredriksson, M., Bomark, P., Broman, O. & Grönlund, A. (2015). A trapeze edging method for cross laminated timber panel production (ed.). In: (Ed.), Roger Hernández; Claudia Cáceres (Ed.), Proceedings of the 22nd International Wood Machining Seminar: . Paper presented at International Wood Machining Seminar : 14/06/2015 - 19/06/2015 (pp. 323-332). Quebec city, Kanada: Universite Laval
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A trapeze edging method for cross laminated timber panel production
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Wood Machining Seminar / [ed] Roger Hernández; Claudia Cáceres, Quebec city, Kanada: Universite Laval , 2015, p. 323-332Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Quebec city, Kanada: Universite Laval, 2015
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-30380 (URN)42931d02-f2a2-44c4-985e-2f52f33f5357 (Local ID)978-0-9947964-0-0 (ISBN)42931d02-f2a2-44c4-985e-2f52f33f5357 (Archive number)42931d02-f2a2-44c4-985e-2f52f33f5357 (OAI)
Conference
International Wood Machining Seminar : 14/06/2015 - 19/06/2015
Note

Godkänd; 2015; 20140930 (magfre)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Berglund, A., Broman, O., Oja, J. & Grönlund, A. (2015). Customer adapted grading of Scots pine sawn timber using a multivariate method (ed.). Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 30(1), 87-97
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Customer adapted grading of Scots pine sawn timber using a multivariate method
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 87-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To define new grading rules, or to customize the ones in use in a rule-based automatic grading system of boards, is a time-consuming job for a sawmill engineer. This has the effect that changes are rarely made. The objective of this study was to continue the development of a method that replaces the calibration of grading rule settings by a holistic-subjective automatic grading, using multivariate models. The objective was also to investigate if this approach can improve sawmill profitability and at the same time have a satisfied customer. For the study, 323 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) boards were manually graded according to preferences of an important customer. That is, a customer that regularly purchases significant volumes of sawn timber. This manual grading was seen as reference grading in this work. The same boards were also scanned and graded by a rule-based automatic grading system, calibrated for the same customer. Multivariate models for prediction of board grade based on aggregated knot variables, obtained from the scanning, were calibrated using partial least squares regression. The results show that prediction of board grades by the multivariate models were more correct, with respect to the manual grading, than the grading by the rule-based automatic grading system. The prediction of board grades based on multivariate models resulted in 76-87% of the boards graded correctly, according to the manual grading, while the corresponding number was 63% for the rule-based automatic grading system.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-12739 (URN)10.1080/02827581.2014.968359 (DOI)000349118400008 ()2-s2.0-84926255283 (Scopus ID)be6cca49-b5fa-4769-b182-a4dfe5d69400 (Local ID)be6cca49-b5fa-4769-b182-a4dfe5d69400 (Archive number)be6cca49-b5fa-4769-b182-a4dfe5d69400 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20140804 (bendar)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Guo, X., Li, R., Cao, P., Ekevad, M., Cristovao, L., Marklund, B. & Grönlund, A. (2015). Effect of average chip thickness and cutting speed on cutting forces and surface roughness during peripheral up milling of wood flour/polyvenyl chloride composite (ed.). Wood research, 60(1), 147-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of average chip thickness and cutting speed on cutting forces and surface roughness during peripheral up milling of wood flour/polyvenyl chloride composite
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2015 (English)In: Wood research, ISSN 1336-4561, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wood flour/polyvinyl chloride composite (WFPVCC) is a kind of composite material that, over the years, is becoming more popular in constructions applications. In this work, cutting forces and machined surface roughness were studied during peripheral up milling of WFPVCC under different average chip thickness which was obtained by adjusting rotation speed and feed rate at both high and low speed cutting conditions. The results indicated that cutting forces components, parallel force (F-x) and normal force (F-y) greatly varied during the cutting process. Maximum F-x, maximum F-y and surface roughness increased with the increase of average chip thickness. Maximum F-x and maximum F-y at high speed cutting conditions were lower than that at low speed cutting conditions at a same average chip thickness. The machined surface roughness at high speed cutting conditions was better than that at low speed cutting conditions at a same average chip thickness. When meeting the requirement of certain surface roughness, higher cutting speed can allow higher chip thickness and then decrease the tool wear than lower speed cutting condition. Maximum negative F-y had great impact in machined surface roughness. Machined surface roughness increased with the increase of maximum negative F-y. Thus, high speed cutting conditions not only increase the machining productivity, but also decrease machined surface roughness during the peripheral up milling of WFPVCC

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-8970 (URN)7863da3d-6e30-4ff2-9909-941a81f4f331 (Local ID)7863da3d-6e30-4ff2-9909-941a81f4f331 (Archive number)7863da3d-6e30-4ff2-9909-941a81f4f331 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20150410 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Fredriksson, M., Bomark, P., Broman, O. & Grönlund, A. (2015). Using Small Diameter Logs for Cross Laminated Timber Production (ed.). BioResources, 10(1), 1477-1486
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Small Diameter Logs for Cross Laminated Timber Production
2015 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1477-1486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sawing small diameter logs results in lower yield compared to sawing large diameter logs. This is due to geometry; fitting rectangular blocks inside an approximately cylindrical shape is more difficult for small than for large diameters. If small diameter logs were sawn in a way that follows the outer shape, yield would increase. The present study considers whether this can be done by sawing flitches into trapeze shapes. These can be glued together into rectangular products. Cross laminated timber (CLT) products are suitable for this. The study was based on 4,860 softwood logs that where scanned, and the scanning data was used for sawing simulation. The log top diameters ranged from 92 to 434 mm. The volume yield of CLT production using trapeze edging was compared to cant sawing of boards. The trapeze edging and CLT production process improved yield compared to cant sawing by 17.4 percent units, for logs of a top diameter smaller than 185 mm. For all logs, the yield decreased using the trapeze edging method. To conclude, a trapeze edging method shows promise in terms of increasing volume yield for small diameter logs, if boards can be properly taken care of in a CLT production process

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14792 (URN)e36814b4-8cf7-4fb9-9c77-1d0cd6528cba (Local ID)e36814b4-8cf7-4fb9-9c77-1d0cd6528cba (Archive number)e36814b4-8cf7-4fb9-9c77-1d0cd6528cba (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20141019 (magfre)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Guo, X., Ekevad, M., Marklund, B., Li, R., Cao, P. & Grönlund, A. (2014). Cutting Forces and Chip Morphology during Wood Plastic Composites Orthogonal Cutting (ed.). Paper presented at . BioResources, 9(2), 2090-2106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cutting Forces and Chip Morphology during Wood Plastic Composites Orthogonal Cutting
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2014 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 2090-2106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Materials science - Other processing/assembly, wood plastic composites, cutting force, chip morphology, chip thickness, rake angle, edge radius, Teknisk materialvetenskap - Övrig bearbetning/sammanfogning
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7955 (URN)665348cc-3dc2-425b-885d-0cc0894c72a3 (Local ID)665348cc-3dc2-425b-885d-0cc0894c72a3 (Archive number)665348cc-3dc2-425b-885d-0cc0894c72a3 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140225 (matse)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Ekevad, M., Cristovao, L., Grönlund, A. & Öhman, M. (2014). Geometry of kerf when curve sawing with a circular rip-saw (ed.). Paper presented at . European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 72(6), 809-814
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geometry of kerf when curve sawing with a circular rip-saw
2014 (English)In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 809-814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rip-sawing following the curvature of a crooked log means advantages for yield. However, the possibility to saw in a narrow curve with a circular saw blade is limited because of the inherently flat geometry of circular saw blades. For a double arbour circular saw the situation is even more problematic because the two blades have a certain overlap and thus, the two arbours are not positioned in the same horizontal position. In this study, a theoretical geometrical study of the creation of a kerf with a single circular saw blade and with a double arbour circular saw with two saw blades was examined. Results for stiff saw blades show that the kerfs become in general curved and inclined (tilted) in the vertical direction and also that the width of the kerfs for double arbour saws becomes wider at the top and bottom of the cant than in the middle. Additionally, the sawn boards obtain varying thickness along their width because of the varying kerf width. A comparison with experimental thickness data from four test sawings at a sawmill indicates that the theoretical results are valid and that curve sawn boards become thinner than straight sawn boards.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-2796 (URN)10.1007/s00107-014-0832-6 (DOI)000343877800011 ()2-s2.0-84920710494 (Scopus ID)07eca113-84d7-496c-b1a7-08a88b00e9e3 (Local ID)07eca113-84d7-496c-b1a7-08a88b00e9e3 (Archive number)07eca113-84d7-496c-b1a7-08a88b00e9e3 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140806 (matse)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Guo, X., Ekevad, M., Grönlund, A., Marklund, B. & Cao, P. (2014). Tool wear and machined surface roughness during wood flour/polyethylene composite peripheral upmilling using cemented tungsten carbide grades (ed.). Paper presented at . BioResources, 9(3), 3779-3791
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tool wear and machined surface roughness during wood flour/polyethylene composite peripheral upmilling using cemented tungsten carbide grades
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2014 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 3779-3791Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of sharpness angle on tool wear and the effect of tool wear on machined surface roughness were investigated in wood flour/polyethylene composite (WFPEC) peripheral up-milling using cemented tungsten carbide (TC) tools. It was shown that nose width and edge recession increased with increasing feeding length. During the milling process, the wear of the nose width was smallest for the tool with a sharpness angle of 45°, followed by tools with sharpness angles of 55° and 65°. The wear of edge recession was highest for the tool with a sharpness angle of 45°, followed by tools with sharpness angles of 55° and 65°. The nose width increased with increasing sharpness angle, the edge recession decreased with increasing sharpness angle, and the machined surface roughness increased with increasing sharpness angle after a feeding length of 40 m. The nose width had a positive effect on the machined surface roughness, and the machined surface roughness increased with increasing nose width. The edge recession had little effect on the machined surface roughness. The clearance face roughness of the worn tool increased with increasing sharpness angle. The analysis of the SEM micrographs and EDS of the clearance face of the worn tool showed that the wear mechanisms of the cemented tungsten carbide tool were oxidation and abrasion in the range tested during cutting. Thus, a slight wear of the edge recession is gained in exchange for a lower machined surface roughness by decreasing the sharpness angle.

Keywords
Materials science - Other processing/assembly, tool wear, Teknisk materialvetenskap - Övrig bearbetning/sammanfogning
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14535 (URN)de68546f-846e-4c57-9a0c-517037034d7b (Local ID)de68546f-846e-4c57-9a0c-517037034d7b (Archive number)de68546f-846e-4c57-9a0c-517037034d7b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140507 (matse)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Berglund, A. & Grönlund, A. (2013). An industrial test of measuring saw mismatch using laser triangulation (ed.). Paper presented at International Wood Machining Seminar : 04/08/2013 - 07/08/2013. Paper presented at International Wood Machining Seminar : 04/08/2013 - 07/08/2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An industrial test of measuring saw mismatch using laser triangulation
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sawing yield is an important parameter for the sawmill profit. One way to increase the sawing yield is by a reduced saw kerf width, an adapted shrinking allowance, and a lower sawing allowance. The Swedish sawmills on the other hand see a risk of poorer sawing accuracy and sawing precision and at worst, more frequent saw blade failures. One problem with a reduced saw kerf width is the saw mismatch that may occur in double arbor saw machines. Saw mismatch occurs when the saw blades are displaced in axial direction with respect to each other due to wear, heat or mechanical disturbance. In this study the aim was to test the robustness of a laser triangulation unit used for measuring saw mismatch during sawmill operation. The aim was also to find a suitable response variable for saw mismatch which was evaluated by using the cant height, feed speed and average top diameter of the logs as predicting variables in a partial least squares regression. The goodness of prediction for each response variable was used to compare the response variables with each other. The results showed that the robustness when measuring saw mismatch by laser triangulation during ongoing sawmill production was satisfactory. The response variable with the best goodness of prediction (Q2 = 0.135) was defined using a sliding window with a size of 500 boards. Each element of the response variable was calculated as the share of boards within the sliding window exceeding a threshold value of 0.5 mm. This response variable was positively correlated with the cant height, feed speed and average top diameter of the log. Future work requires a designed experiment where the predicting variables are varied systematically and where the effect of characteristics and wear of the saw blades is also considered.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-34634 (URN)8e33c356-cd79-4cc6-a373-7301aea3b0aa (Local ID)8e33c356-cd79-4cc6-a373-7301aea3b0aa (Archive number)8e33c356-cd79-4cc6-a373-7301aea3b0aa (OAI)
Conference
International Wood Machining Seminar : 04/08/2013 - 07/08/2013
Projects
Processuppföljning sågverk
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20130730 (bendar)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Berglund, A., Dahlquist, S. & Grönlund, A. (2013). Detection of saw mismatch in double arbor saw machines using laser triangulation (ed.). Paper presented at . Wood Material Science & Engineering, 8(4), 219-225
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection of saw mismatch in double arbor saw machines using laser triangulation
2013 (English)In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 219-225Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the sawing process of a sawmill, not only are the target sizes of great importance. The saw mismatch that may occur in double arbor saw machines is also an essential parameter that affects the planing allowance, as well as the quality of the sawn products. In this study, a newly developed measurement equipment for detecting saw mismatch in the green sorting line of a sawmill has been evaluated in an initial experimental test. The obtained data has been compared to manual measurements of saw mismatch with good results. Also, based on a small sample, 75 – 95% of the boards with a maximal saw mismatch exceeding 0.5 mm are detected. The rate of detection depends on the number of cameras used.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13381 (URN)10.1080/17480272.2013.834966 (DOI)2-s2.0-84887206798 (Scopus ID)c9aa22ba-da5c-4948-b1a6-0e30f0c12480 (Local ID)c9aa22ba-da5c-4948-b1a6-0e30f0c12480 (Archive number)c9aa22ba-da5c-4948-b1a6-0e30f0c12480 (OAI)
Projects
Processuppföljning sågverk
Note
Validerad; 2013; 20130730 (bendar)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Breinig, L., Berglund, A., Grönlund, A., Bruechert, F. & Sauter, U. (2013). Effect of knot detection inaccuracy on value recovery improvement when using a CT log scanner for sawing control (ed.). Paper presented at . Forest products journal, 63(7-8), 263-274
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of knot detection inaccuracy on value recovery improvement when using a CT log scanner for sawing control
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2013 (English)In: Forest products journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 63, no 7-8, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Roundwood scanners utilizing X-ray computed tomography (CT) provide the information required for individual log-sawing optimization. However, errors in the automated detection of quality-relevant internal wood features for sawing control may lead to improper log positioning at breakdown, impairing the realization of value recovery potential. It is thus of interest to have an estimation of the impact of feature detection errors on the performance of sawing optimization. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to quantify the effect of errors in knot detection on a breakdown optimization by adjustment of log rotation. Therefore, sawing simulations were performed with the geometric descriptions of log shape and internal knots extracted from the CT scans of 57 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) logs. Three types of artificially set knot description errors were tested under different pricing and product scenarios, each in different magnitudes as systematic or random error. Errors in knot diameter were found to have the greatest impact for both systematic and random errors. The effect of errors in dead knot border radial position was less pronounced but still substantial for higher error levels, while errors in knot rotational position could be neglected even for the highest magnitudes of error tested. The assumed price differentiation between product qualities had a major influence on the impact of the errors. It could be observed that with errors of higher magnitudes than those reported for present knot detection algorithms, an improvement in value recovery compared with outer-shape–based optimization still resulted in the simulated rotation optimization.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9478 (URN)10.13073/FPJ-D-13-00068 (DOI)2-s2.0-84904812070 (Scopus ID)81ec3190-dd15-49c2-8005-5a3312b137de (Local ID)81ec3190-dd15-49c2-8005-5a3312b137de (Archive number)81ec3190-dd15-49c2-8005-5a3312b137de (OAI)
Projects
CT-Pro
Note
Validerad; 2013; 20130730 (bendar)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
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