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Paniagua, C., Eliasson, J. & Delsing, J. (2020). Efficient Device-to-Device Service Invocation Using Arrowhead Orchestration. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 7(1), 429-439
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient Device-to-Device Service Invocation Using Arrowhead Orchestration
2020 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 429-439Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) enables interaction from real-world physical objects using sensors to the virtual world of computers and the Internet. The use of service-oriented architecture (SOA) is one step in the creation of basic and complex interactions between several sensors and actuators. However, the use of SOA-enabled technologies alone does not meet all requirements of how sensor and actuator systems could be integrated to create distributed monitoring and control applications. The centralized, traditional method of communication in wireless sensor networks via a gateway presents drawbacks that have to be addressed; device-to-cloud communication adds higher latency and higher power consumption and is less robust than the device-to-device (D2D) communication approach. Moreover, all these characteristics reduce the scalability of the network, thus limiting the use of IoT in the industry. In this article, the proposed method utilizes the arrowhead framework orchestration system to generate service composition within a (wireless) network formed by IoT devices. The aim is to achieve efficient D2D service invocation to reduce the drawbacks of today's widely used device-to-cloud approach. The method in this article performs efficient service composition for industrial IoT, including mapping SOA service composition in very small resource-constrained devices using the arrowhead orchestration. The results presented in this article at the service level can increase performance and robustness in fog computing on resource-constrained devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2020
Keywords
Arrowhead framework, fog computing, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), service orchestration, service-oriented architecture (SOA)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronic systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76821 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2019.2952697 (DOI)000508181000033 ()2-s2.0-85078272969 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-02-26 (alebob)

Available from: 2019-11-22 Created: 2019-11-22 Last updated: 2020-02-26Bibliographically approved
Garcia Represa, J. & Delsing, J. (2019). Autonomous Production Workstation Operation, Reconfiguration and Synchronization. Paper presented at 25th International Conference on Production ResearchManufacturing Innovation, Cyber Physical Manufacturing; August 9-14, 2019; Chicago, Illinois (USA). Procedia Manufacturing, 39, 226-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autonomous Production Workstation Operation, Reconfiguration and Synchronization
2019 (English)In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 39, p. 226-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The decoupling of production line’s workstations and its equipment from the higher layers in an automation architecture has thepotential to provide the following benefits: 1. Dynamic workstation reconfiguration; 2. Autonomous synchronization of workstationequipment; 3. Autonomous workstation operation.Each of these benefits will improve the automation flexibility at each workstation and for the whole production line.Introducing IoT equipment into workstations and making use of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) fundamentals such as lookup,late binding and loose coupling are shown here to provide the above benefits. In addition, the cost of such an implementationand deployment seems to be significantly less than the comparable cost for legacy technology.An implementation, using the SOA approach on a workstation, at the Volvo Trucks production facility in Gothenburg was madepossible thanks to the Arrowhead framework, which has been shown to provide all three listed improvements.The analysis of the above-mentioned demonstration clearly shows how the workstation reconfiguration is made simple usingthe arrowhead ServiceRegistry system. Autonomous synchronization is achieved through the look-up and late binding capabilitiesprovided by the arrowhead Orchestration system in cooperation with the ServiceRegistry system. Finally, autonomous workstationoperation is provided through the support of the arrowhead Workflow Manager and Workflow Executor systems.All these benefits were achieved at a significantly reduced cost compared to comparable legacy implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Autonomous production workstation, Production Workstation reconfiguration, Production Workstation synchronisation, Arrowhead framework, Smart factory, Intelligent manufacturing
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronic systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75613 (URN)10.1016/j.promfg.2020.01.329 (DOI)2-s2.0-85082752789 (Scopus ID)
Conference
25th International Conference on Production ResearchManufacturing Innovation, Cyber Physical Manufacturing; August 9-14, 2019; Chicago, Illinois (USA)
Projects
Far-EdgeProductive 4.0
Note

Godkänd;2020;Nivå 0;2020-02-26 (alebob)

Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2020-04-22Bibliographically approved
Delsing, J. (2019). Evolutionary Architecture and Engineering Concepts for Very Large-scale Sensor-based Solutions: (Invited Paper). In: IEEE SENSORS 2019: 2019 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. Paper presented at IEEE SENSORS 2019, 27-30 October, 2019, Montreal, Canada. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolutionary Architecture and Engineering Concepts for Very Large-scale Sensor-based Solutions: (Invited Paper)
2019 (English)In: IEEE SENSORS 2019: 2019 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, IEEE, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The design and engineering of solutions based on sensor data is currently based on legacy low-level sensor communication. The transition to IoT-based sensors has started to provide IP-based sensor communication based on service concepts. This requires radically different solution architectures and the associated engineering process. Here, IoT sensors will provide services instead of a communication interface, as a means of integrating into application solutions. It is further anticipated that the size of the solution will reach well beyond that of the current legacy automation implementations.This paper addresses architectural concepts for very large-scale SoS- and IoT-based solutions. Architecture concepts and their associated engineering concepts are considered. IoT and SoS evolvability, run-time dynamics, scalability and segmentation, run-time engineering, self-engineering, self-mitigation, and machine-to-machine business are some examples of such concepts. These concepts must be coupled with the requirements such as the management of IoT/SoS solution functionality, security, safety, maintenance, and evolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Series
IEEE SENSORS, ISSN 1930-0395, E-ISSN 2168-9229
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronic systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78691 (URN)10.1109/SENSORS43011.2019.8956716 (DOI)2-s2.0-85078698368 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IEEE SENSORS 2019, 27-30 October, 2019, Montreal, Canada
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-7281-1634-1, 978-1-7281-1635-8

Available from: 2020-04-27 Created: 2020-04-27 Last updated: 2020-04-27Bibliographically approved
Maksuti, S., Tauber, M. & Delsing, J. (2019). Generic Autonomic Management as a Service in a SOA-based Framework for Industry 4.0. In: Proceedings: IECON 2019 - 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. Paper presented at IECON 2019 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 14-17 October, 2019, Lisbon, Portugal (pp. 5480-5485). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generic Autonomic Management as a Service in a SOA-based Framework for Industry 4.0
2019 (English)In: Proceedings: IECON 2019 - 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE, 2019, p. 5480-5485Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cyber-physical production systems are engineered systems that are built from, and depend upon, the seamless integration of computational algorithms and physical components. In order to make these systems interoperable with each other for addressing Industry 4.0 applications a number of service-oriented architecture frameworks are developed. Such frameworks are composed by a number of services, which are inherently dynamic by nature and thus imply the need for self-adaptation. In this paper we propose generic autonomic management as a service and show how it can be integrated in the Arrowhead framework. We propose generic and reusable interfaces for each phase of the autonomic control loop in order to increase the usability of the service for other frameworks and application systems, while reducing the software engineering effort. To show the utility of our approach in the Arrowhead framework we use a climate control application as a representative example.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Series
Annual Conference of Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 1553-572X, E-ISSN 2577-1647
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronic systems; Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78700 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2019.8927245 (DOI)000522050605077 ()
Conference
IECON 2019 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 14-17 October, 2019, Lisbon, Portugal
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-7281-4878-6, 978-1-7281-4879-3

Available from: 2020-04-28 Created: 2020-04-28 Last updated: 2020-05-14Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, J., Sandin, F. & Delsing, J. (2019). Interoperability and machine-to-machine translation model with mappings to machine learning tasks. In: Proceedings: 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN). Paper presented at 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 22-25 July, 2019, Helsinki, Finland (pp. 284-289). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interoperability and machine-to-machine translation model with mappings to machine learning tasks
2019 (English)In: Proceedings: 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE, 2019, p. 284-289Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Modern large-scale automation systems integrate thousands to hundreds of thousands of physical sensors and actuators. Demands for more flexible reconfiguration of production systems and optimization across different information models, standards and legacy systems challenge current system interoperability concepts. Automatic semantic translation across information models and standards is an increasingly important problem that needs to be addressed to fulfill these demands in a cost-efficient manner under constraints of human capacity and resources in relation to timing requirements and system complexity. Here we define a translator-based operational interoperability model for interacting cyber-physical systems in mathematical terms, which includes system identification and ontology-based translation as special cases. We present alternative mathematical definitions of the translator learning task and mappings to similar machine learning tasks and solutions based on recent developments in machine learning. Possibilities to learn translators between artefacts without a common physical context, for example in simulations of digital twins and across layers of the automation pyramid are briefly discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), ISSN 1935-4576, E-ISSN 2378-363X
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronic systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73562 (URN)10.1109/INDIN41052.2019.8972085 (DOI)
Conference
2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 22-25 July, 2019, Helsinki, Finland
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 737459
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-7281-2928-0, 978-1-7281-2927-3

Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2020-04-24Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, J., Sandin, F. & Delsing, J. (2019). Interoperability automation considered as machine learning tasks. In: : . Paper presented at 2nd Productive4.0 Consortium Conference, Budapest, March 12-14, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interoperability automation considered as machine learning tasks
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Keywords
Interoperability, machine learning, optimization, translation, semantics
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73578 (URN)
Conference
2nd Productive4.0 Consortium Conference, Budapest, March 12-14, 2019
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 737459
Available from: 2019-04-11 Created: 2019-04-11 Last updated: 2019-09-06
Acharya, S., Chouhan, S. S. & Delsing, J. (2019). Realization of Embedded Passives using an additive Covalent bonded metallization approach. In: 2019 22nd European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference & Exhibition (EMPC): Technical Papers. Paper presented at 2019 22nd European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference & Exhibition (EMPC), 16-19 September, 2019, Pisa, Italy. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Realization of Embedded Passives using an additive Covalent bonded metallization approach
2019 (English)In: 2019 22nd European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference & Exhibition (EMPC): Technical Papers, IEEE, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Miniaturization is the call of the day. Electronics shrinking and scaling technology is the priority of all manufacturers. PCBA Industry is working towards the elimination of solder joints, reduction in use of discrete and bulky components, lowering of assemble span, minimized latency etc. Embedded passive technology is playing a significant role in this roadmap by providing better signal performance, reduced parasitic and crosstalk. In this work, the primary focus is to develop a cost-efficient and flexible fabrication methodology that will be suitable for bulk production. A sequential build up (SBU) procedure is adopted with an additive lithography process to realize the passives with minimum possible feature size (<; 10 μm). A low cost insulating material, promising grafting solution and Laser assisted writing machine with optimized fabrication parameters are the highlights of this production method. A Computer Aided Design (CAD) software i.e. clewin is used during this process to pattern the mask for the entire process. Covalent bonded metallization (CBM) is the key process for the adhesion of copper layer on the desired site of the pattern. In the CBM process, a polymer surface is modified by grafting. The position of the surface modification is optically defined using a laser lithography system. Such surface modified samples are, then treated in an electroless copper process. Resulting in copper metallization only at the locations with a CBM modified surface. The verification of the copper deposition on the substrate is investigated using a high-resolution microscope followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The confirmation of passive formation has been checked using kethley's source (electrical two-probe measurement). The first-order measured results showed the capacitance formed in the range of 0.3-8 pF. Further concrete measurements using standard methods are undergoing. One of the key advantage of this proposed process is its easiness and feasibility of at room temperature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Series
European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference, EMPC
Keywords
CBM, additive process, embedded passives, grafting material, Urethane coat, LASER patterning, Electroless Copper Plating, SBU process, PCB
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronic systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78689 (URN)10.23919/EMPC44848.2019.8951871 (DOI)2-s2.0-85078823665 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2019 22nd European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference & Exhibition (EMPC), 16-19 September, 2019, Pisa, Italy
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-0-9568086-6-0, 978-1-7281-6291-1

Available from: 2020-04-27 Created: 2020-04-27 Last updated: 2020-04-27Bibliographically approved
Acharya, S., Chouhan, S. S. & Delsing, J. (2019). Scalability of Copper-Interconnects down to 3μm on Printed Boards by Laser-assisted-subtractive process. In: Proceedings of: 2019 IMAPS Nordic Conference on Microelectronics Packaging (NordPac): . Paper presented at 2019 IMAPS Nordic Conference on Microelectronics Packaging (NordPac), 11-13 June 2019, Copenhagen, Denmark (pp. 206-209). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scalability of Copper-Interconnects down to 3μm on Printed Boards by Laser-assisted-subtractive process
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of: 2019 IMAPS Nordic Conference on Microelectronics Packaging (NordPac), IEEE, 2019, p. 206-209Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As per the latest roadmap of iNEMI, the global electronics market is emphasizing to identify disruptive technologies that can contribute towards denser, robust and tighter integration on the board level. Therefore, reduction in packaging factor of printed board can accommodate greater number of ICs to support miniaturization. This paper has shown an experimental method to pattern the metallic layer on a Printed circuit Board (PCB) to the smallest feature size. To investigate this, a commercially available FR-4 PCB with photosensitive material coat and a Copper (Cu) layer on it, is used. A reverse-mode Laser assisted writing is implemented to pattern the desired copper tracks. Soon after, a well-controlled development and chemical etching of the Laser-activated regions are done using Sodium Hydroxide solution followed by an aqueous solution of Sodium Persulfate. Current PCB interconnects used by the industries are of the order (~20 μm). Whereas the present work is a contribution towards achieving Copper interconnects with feature size 3.0μm. This miniaturization corresponds to 70% reduction in the feature size from 20 μm to 3μm. The natural adhesion of the Cu layer has remained intact even after the etching, shows the efficiency of the method adopted. Also, variation in the parameters such as etching time, etchant solution concentrations, temaperature, gain and exposure time of Laser beam and their corresponding effects are discussed. Other highlights of this subtractive method includes its cost-efficiency, lesser production time and repeatability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Subtractive process, FR-4 PCB, Laser assisted writing, etching, copper tracks, reverse-mode
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronic systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75980 (URN)10.23919/NORDPAC.2019.8760349 (DOI)
Conference
2019 IMAPS Nordic Conference on Microelectronics Packaging (NordPac), 11-13 June 2019, Copenhagen, Denmark
Available from: 2019-09-12 Created: 2019-09-12 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved
Derhamy, H., Eliasson, J. & Delsing, J. (2019). System of System Composition based on Decentralized Service Oriented Architecture. IEEE Systems Journal, 13(4), 3675-3686
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System of System Composition based on Decentralized Service Oriented Architecture
2019 (English)In: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 3675-3686Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As society has progressed through periods of evolution and revolution, technology has played a key role as an enabler. In the same manner, mechanical machines of the 1800s drove the industrial revolution, now digitalized machines are driving another industrial revolution. Manufacturers are increasing the digital footprint on the factory floor. It is challenging to harness the vast amounts of data generated, stored, analyzed, archived, and returned. Data centralization has several well-known challenges, such as collection bottlenecks, secure retrieval, single point of failure, and data scheme fragility as data heterogeneity increases. This paper proposes a method of information distribution based on the principle of data at its source . It proposes that contextual data be used at runtime through the creation of dynamic queries that build compositions of different systems. Such system of systems (SoS) compositions handle the flow of data across its life cycle and present it as information to the initiating system. The proposal starts by creating a graph model of the Arrowhead framework. Then, building on the graph model, the query-based approach for specifying, validating, and forming the SoS is proposed. The proposed graph model allows for unambiguous description of systems and their interrelations, including security relations. The proposed composer operates on the edge computing hardware and gives the production floor the ability to extract information without impacting the overall operation of the factory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Arrowhead framework (AF), edge computing, graph theory, Hypermedia as the engine of application state (HATEOAS), industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), information centric networking, RAMI4.0, RESTful, service-oriented architecture, system of systems (SoS), systems theory
National Category
Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronic systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68462 (URN)10.1109/JSYST.2019.2894649 (DOI)000503182300008 ()2-s2.0-85075753917 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-11-27 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-04-23 Created: 2018-04-23 Last updated: 2020-02-25Bibliographically approved
Kolluru, K. K., Paniagua, C., van Deventer, J., Eliasson, J., Delsing, J. & DeLong, R. J. (2018). An AAA Solution for Securing Industrial IoT Devices using Next Generation Access Control. In: : . Paper presented at 1st IEEE International Conference on Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems, ICPS 2018, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 15-18 May 2018 (pp. 737-742). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An AAA Solution for Securing Industrial IoT Devices using Next Generation Access Control
Show others...
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Industry 4.0 is advancing the use of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in industrial applications, which enablesefficient device-to-device (D2D) communication. However, these devices are often heterogeneous in nature, i.e. from different manufacturers, use different protocols, etc. and adds requirements such as security, interoperability, etc.To address these requirements, the Service-Oriented Architecture-Based (SOA) Arrowhead Framework was previously proposed using the concept of local clouds. These local clouds provide a set of mandatory and support core systems to enable industrial automation applications. One of these mandatory core systems is an Authentication, Authorisationand Accounting (AAA) system, which is used to authenticate and provide access control to the devices in a local cloud. In an industrial context, with multiple stakeholders, the AAA mustsupport fine-grain access control. For example, in a distributed control loop, a controller should only have read access to its sensor such as a flow meter and write access to its actuator, such as a valve. The controller should not have access to anyother information besides what is needed to implement the desired functionality. In this work, an NGAC-based AAA solution to achieve fine-grain service level access control between IoT devices has been proposed and implemented. The solution is presented using a district heating use case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
National Category
Embedded Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Embedded Systems; Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69313 (URN)10.1109/ICPHYS.2018.8390799 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050142256 (Scopus ID)9781538665312 (ISBN)
Conference
1st IEEE International Conference on Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems, ICPS 2018, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 15-18 May 2018
Projects
Productive 4.0OPTi Optimisation of District Heating Cooling systems, OPTi
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 649796
Available from: 2018-06-11 Created: 2018-06-11 Last updated: 2019-05-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4133-3317

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