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Publications (10 of 147) Show all publications
Pusch, R., Kasbohm, J. & Hoang-Minh, T. (2019). Degradation Mechanisms in Smectitic Clay for Isolating Radioactive Waste. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(3), 115-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Degradation Mechanisms in Smectitic Clay for Isolating Radioactive Waste
2019 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 115-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most of the proposed techniques for chemical shielding of radioactive waste implies use of smectite clay, which degrades according to a well-known scheme. Since such “buffer” clay has to serve for many thousands of years, the mechanisms in the unavoidable long-term degradation process must be understood and accounted for as described in the paper. In addition to conversion of smectite to non-expandable minerals cementation by precipitation of siliceous matter created in the degradation process is of concern since it can reduce the self-sealing capacity of desiccated or mechanically damaged clay.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Scientific Press International Limited, 2019
Keywords
Smectite clays, diffractogram, radioactive wastes, montmorillonite, XRD, TEM, Holmehus clay
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75708 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-09-02 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Pusch, R., Kasbohm, J., Knutsson, S., Hoang-Minh, T. & Nguyen-Thanh, L. (2019). Disposal of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(3), 237-272
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disposal of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 237-272Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As for isolation of high-level radioactive waste by use of smectite clay it serves very well also for hindering radionuclides from low- and intermediate-level waste to contaminate groundwater. It can be used for minimizing groundwater flow through and along waste packages and for providing them with ductile embedment for eliminating the risk of damage caused by displacements in host rock or concrete vaults. The clay can have the form of liners placed and compacted on site over vaults constructed on the ground surface, or consist of compacted blocks of clay granules that are tightly placed around waste packages in underground drifts and rooms. In either case the initially incompletely water saturated clay will swell in conjunction with water uptake until tight contact with the confining medium has been established. The clay seals must be sufficiently dense to fulfill criteria set with respect to hydraulic conductivity and swelling capacity, paying due attention to the salt content in the porewater. Their physical and chemical stabilities must be acceptable in short- and long-term perspectives, which is a few hundred years for most low-level wastes up to tens of thousands of years for long-lived waste. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Scientific Press International Limited, 2019
Keywords
Low-level radioactive waste (LLW), smectite clay, radionuclides, underground disposal of radioactive waste, mineralogy of clays
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75712 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-09-02 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Popov, V., Adey, R., Pusch, R. & Kasbohm, J. (2019). Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Abandoned Mines. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(3), 1-38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Abandoned Mines
2019 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 1-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Countries using nuclear energy tend to favour disposal of Low-Level and Intermediate-Level radioactive waste in mined repositories consisting of series of tunnels or drifts connected to disposal tunnels at a few hundred meters depth. Abandoned mines can serve as repositories for such waste and the present study indicates that this would be possible also for High-Level Waste in the form of spent reactor fuel. The technique implies encapsulation of such waste in metal canisters surrounded by densely compacted smectite clay in relatively shallow mined repositories as well as in very deep bored holes. Intermediate-Level radioactive waste can be disposed of in caverns in the form of packages of metal containers cast in low-pH concrete and embedded in dense smectitic clay.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Scientific Press International Limited, 2019
Keywords
Low-Level and Intermediate-Level radioactive waste (LLW and ILW), smectite clay, compaction, excavation disturbed zone (EDZ), crystalline rock, numerical modelling.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75705 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-09-02 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Hussain, H. M., Laue, J., Hazim, A., Knutsson, S. & Pusch, R. (2019). Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Environmental science and pollution research international
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq
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2019 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2019
Keywords
MCDM, Change Detection, RSW, AHP, Landfill siting
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73400 (URN)10.1007/s11356-019-05064-7 (DOI)31044377 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065255296 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Nakano, M., Yong, R. N. & Pusch, R. (2019). Mathematical Method Re-examined for Assessment of Ground Contaminated by Radioactive-Contaminated Groundwater. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(3), 227-235
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mathematical Method Re-examined for Assessment of Ground Contaminated by Radioactive-Contaminated Groundwater
2019 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we re-examined the transfer equation of radioactive substances in the ground and offer a more realistic transfer equation and other equations available for assessment of the ground contamination from radioactive-contaminated groundwater. The transfer equation takes into account kinematic and hydrodynamic considerations on mass conservation of mobile radioactive substances in a porous medium that typifies the ground. The other equations available for contamination assessment are concerned with deposition in contaminated areas and discharge flow of contaminants to the areas contiguous to contaminated area. The equations are derived on the understanding that disintegration of the radioactive substances adhering onto solids in the ground porous medium occurs as a sink term during the transfer of mobile radioactive substances. Finally, it is noted that the discharge of groundwater due to advective flow will be predominant in comparison to the discharge by diffusion

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Scientific Press International Limited, 2019
Keywords
Radioactive contamination, Transfer equation, Deposition, Assessment, Discharge, Groundwater
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75711 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-09-02 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Pusch, R., Kasbohm, J., Hoang-Minh, T. & Nguyen-Thanh, L. (2019). Mechanisms Involved in Maturation of Clay Seals in Boreholes for Storing Spent Reactor Fuel. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(3), 197-226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms Involved in Maturation of Clay Seals in Boreholes for Storing Spent Reactor Fuel
2019 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 197-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Smectite clay, especially montmorillonite, is proposed for isolating canisters containing highly radioactive waste (HLW) like spent reactor fuel placed in deep boreholes. It is used for minimizing groundwater flow around and along waste packages (“Buffer Clay”) and for providing them with ductile embedment for eliminating risk of canister damage caused by displacements in the host rock. The clay has the form of heavily compacted blocks of granules that swell in conjunction with water uptake until their full hydration potential has been utilized. The dense clay blocks are fitted in perforated supercontainers that are submerged in smectite mud. The long-term chemical stability of the clay is sufficient for providing the required waste-isolating capacity, which is primarily supplied by the heavyness of stagnant, very salt groundwater at depth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Scientific Press International Limited, 2019
Keywords
Smectite clay, montmorillonite, isolating canisters, highly radioactive waste (HLW), supercontainers, dry density, settlement, creep settlement, microstructure of smectite clay
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75710 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-09-02 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Pusch, R. & Popov, V. (2019). Micro- and macroscopic ion diffusion controlled by clay micro-structure. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(3), 99-114
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micro- and macroscopic ion diffusion controlled by clay micro-structure
2019 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 99-114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Very dense smectite clay surrounding canisters with high-level radioactive waste effectively stops migration of radionuclides due to flowing porewater, however, does not stop their movement by diffusion. The paper explains how the diffusion rate of released waste ions depends on the microstructural constitution referring to the mechanisms in diffusive transport and the sorption by the clay matrix of varying density. In general, diffusion refers to the transport of elements by action of random motions and works to eliminate distinct discontinuities in concentration. For smectite clay this process is complex since interlamellar diffusion is a 2-dimensional process on the microscale and takes place in diffuse electrical double-layers on the basal planes of the clay crystallites. This is in contrast with pore diffusion which is a 3-dimensional process. By making use of microstructural parameters one can distinguish the different contributions to bulk diffusion migration and create a basis for theoretical modelling of diffusive ion migration.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Scientific Press International Limited, 2019
Keywords
Smectite clay, canisters, diffusion, montmorillonite, ion migration, clay microstructure
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75707 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-09-02 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Pusch, R. (2019). Microstructure controls physical properties of smectite clay. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(3), 63-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure controls physical properties of smectite clay
2019 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 63-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental protection by isolation of radionuclides escaped from High-Level Radioactive Waste stored underground in crystalline rock can be achieved by surrounding the metal canisters by smectite clay, which provides hindrance of radionuclides to migrate into the surroundings, and ductile embedment of them for absorbing seismic and tectonic displacements in the host rock. The waste-isolating capacity of the expansive clay is explained by its high hydrophilic capacity and large specific surface area giving low porosity and limited interconnectivity of the voids, which both makes such clay low-permeable and gives it a very low through-diffusion rate of anionic species like iodine, and of some cationic radionuclides. The expandability of such clay means that it can swell and undergo self-healing in case of microstructural contraction caused by heating. The mechanisms involved in permeation and ion exchange are described based on conceptual microstructural models and their theoretical analogies. Stress/strain phenomena involved in saturation with fluids, desiccation, shearing under deviatoric conditions, and creep strain under stable conditions or at failure are described as well. Longevity matters, which have been richly treated in the literature, is given limited space. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Scientific Press International Limited, 2019
Keywords
Smectite clay, montmorillonite, microscopy, clay microstructure
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75706 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-09-02 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Sissakian, V., Al-Ansari, N., Laue, J., Knutsson, S. & Pusch, R. (2019). Siting of Landfills for Hazardous Waste in Iraq from a Geological Perspective. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(3), 295-311
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Siting of Landfills for Hazardous Waste in Iraq from a Geological Perspective
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 295-311Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iraq has been involved with two major wars in 1991 and 2003 (Gulf war I and II), which resulted in leaving large amounts of wrecked tanks, vehicles, weapons and ammunition. A considerable amount of the military waste contains depleted uranium (DU), which is a by-product of the enrichment of natural uranium for nuclear reactor-grade or nuclear weapons-grade uranium. DU used during the second Gulf war is more than 1100 to 2000 tons. This has serious effects on humans in Iraq and the environment. There is no national or international program for cleaning Iraq of DU wastes. To protect humans and the environment, three locations for disposals were suggested according to the geological conditions. These locations fulfill the requirements so that radioactive waste does not affect human life and the environment. To use these sites there should be proper design for the landfills so that it can perform for long period of time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Scientific Press International Limited, 2019
Keywords
Landfill, Hazardous Waste, depleted uranium (DU), geological factor for siting, Iraq
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75723 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-09-02 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-28 Created: 2019-08-28 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Yang, T., Weston, R. & Pusch, R. (2019). Time-Dependent Physical Interaction of Clay and Rock in HLW Repositories. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(3), 273-293
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-Dependent Physical Interaction of Clay and Rock in HLW Repositories
2019 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 273-293Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Disposal of canisters with Highly Radioactive Waste (HLW) in boreholes in crystalline rock can be made by use of “supercontainers” with waste and clay seals, moved down in clay mud which undergoes consolidation under the swelling pressure exerted by the dense clay seals. The concept can be used for disposal in mined repositories at a few hundred meters depth and in very deep boreholes (VDH) with saline, stagnant formational waters that are unlikely to rise to contaminate shallow groundwater. For disposal in mined repositories the supercontainers are suitably placed in 8-10m long inclined boreholes with 1,900mm diameter. The concept for disposal of HLW in the lower halves of 4 km deep holes relies primarily on the sealing capacity of engineered barriers, clay and concrete, in the upper halves of the holes. The parts of a VDH that are located in fracture-poor rock are sealed with dense, expandable clay, and by concrete cast where pre-grouted fracture zones are intersected. The deep holes will undergo convergence and eventually expose the clay, concrete and waste packages to radial compression. Using the Kelvin rheological model for predicting the radial convergence of the holes these components will be subject to a small pressure increase in the first 10,000 years. In a longer time perspective, they will be compressed by the slowly increasing confining pressure causing improved sealing ability of the clay.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uk: Scientific Press International Limited, 2019
Keywords
Highly Radioactive Waste (HLW), boreholes, crystalline rock, clay seali, disposal, deep hole concept (VDH), supercontainer
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75713 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-09-02 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6851-4839

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