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Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Altuntov, F. K., Skawina, B., Greberg, J., Engberg, H. & Niia, I. (2023). An initial review of conceptual alternative layouts for production areas in Kiirunavaara mine. In: Underground Operators Conference 2023: Conference Proceedings. Paper presented at Underground Operators Conference 2023, Premier Underground Mining Conference, Brisbane, Australia, March 27-29, 2023 (pp. 200-208). The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An initial review of conceptual alternative layouts for production areas in Kiirunavaara mine
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2023 (English)In: Underground Operators Conference 2023: Conference Proceedings, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2023, p. 200-208Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2023
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98924 (URN)
Conference
Underground Operators Conference 2023, Premier Underground Mining Conference, Brisbane, Australia, March 27-29, 2023
Note

Funder: LKAB, Sweden

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-922395-13-9

Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2023-06-26Bibliographically approved
Sredniawa, W., Skawina, B., Garcia, J. R. & Rapp, J. (2023). Analyzing degradation of ore pass walls in Kiirunavaara mine using scanning data. Frontiers in Built Environment, 9, Article ID 1250671.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing degradation of ore pass walls in Kiirunavaara mine using scanning data
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Built Environment, E-ISSN 2297-3362, Vol. 9, article id 1250671Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ore passes play a vital role in underground mining operations by facilitating the gravity-driven movement of ore from production levels to lower levels. Failure of the ore pass has serious consequences, including possible production disruptions and substantial financial investments in reconstruction or rehabilitation. Failure mechanisms are often associated with rock mass quality, stress conditions, and wear of the ore pass walls. This study investigated the degradation of ore pass walls using scanning data at LKAB’s Kiirunavaara mine in Sweden. Geotechnical information obtained from various sources aided in further understanding the ore passes’ conditions. The study revealed variations in the ore pass growth rates, highlighting potential stability concerns and the correlation between throughput and pass growth. The findings underscore the need for continuous monitoring and regular inspection to manage wall degradation. The paper proposes potential rehabilitation measures to ensure the stability and safety of ore passes in mining operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
ore passes, wall degradation, growth rate, scanning data, monitoring, underground mining
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101484 (URN)10.3389/fbuil.2023.1250671 (DOI)001074851600001 ()2-s2.0-85173045031 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-09-29 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-09-29 Created: 2023-09-29 Last updated: 2024-03-11Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Salama, A., Gunillasson, J., Strömsten, M. & Wettainen, T. (2022). Comparison of Productivity When Running Filled, Near-Empty, or Flow-Through Orepass Using Discrete Event Simulation. Mining, 2(2), 186-196
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Productivity When Running Filled, Near-Empty, or Flow-Through Orepass Using Discrete Event Simulation
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2022 (English)In: Mining, ISSN 2673-6489, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 186-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ore passes are often the main part of sublevel caving transportation systems, and they use gravity to move material to lower levels in the mine. During operations, the ore pass structures are exposed to the risk of stoppage and failure, leading to a long-term reduction in operational capacity and affecting productivity. The failed ore passes can be restored or rehabilitated, but the rehabilitation cost is normally high and the time to restore is usually long. To minimize disturbances and stoppage of the ore pass, alternative strategies should be considered. The appropriate design and operation of an ore pass is crucial. Therefore, this study compared running ore pass systems in a filled, near-empty, or flow-through manner using discrete event simulation. The aim was to compare the ore pass operational performance and impact on reaching the daily and 90-day production targets of 76.4 Ktonnes and 6.9 Mtonnes, respectively. The results showed that running the ore pass in flow-through mode, filled manner, and near-empty manner achieved 96%, 80%, and 81% of the production target, respectively. In mining operations where ore pass systems are used to transfer material, running them in a flow-through mode can ensure higher production and fewer hang-ups, as it lessens the chance of blocks arching over a chute throat and leads to less blasting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
ore pass, sublevel caving, discrete event simulation
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90056 (URN)10.3390/mining2020011 (DOI)
Note

Godkänd;2022;Nivå 0;2022-04-19 (hanlid)

Available from: 2022-04-02 Created: 2022-04-02 Last updated: 2022-04-19Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B. & Salama, A. (2021). Analyzing the Electricity Consumption and Costs of Electrical-Powered Machines When There is Orepass Failure in Underground Mine. Tanzania Journal of Science, 47(1), 180-193
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing the Electricity Consumption and Costs of Electrical-Powered Machines When There is Orepass Failure in Underground Mine
2021 (English)In: Tanzania Journal of Science, ISSN 0856-1761, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 180-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In underground mining environment where the loss of orepasses is a dominant factor, the mine may face a challenge of improving the loading and hauling operations. Some of the options will be to rehabilitate the lost orepasses, or developing the new ones. When the rehabilitation cost is high, alternative strategies should be applied to compensate for the orepasses failure. One of the possible options is to use diesel or electric Load-Haul-Dumps (LHDs). The use of diesel-powered LHDs will increase heat and gas emissions which increase environmental concerns and ventilation costs, while adoption of electric-powered vehicles needs to be analysed. Therefore, this study was conducted at an existing underground mine in Sweden, to determine the electricity consumption and costs of electric-powered LHDs when there is a loss of orepasses. The AutoModTM discrete event simulation tool was used during the analysis. The results show that, electric-powered LHDs have significant cost saving when used in case of orepass loss to move materials compared to diesel-powered units. However, the source of electricity to fully adopt electric-powered units may need further financial justifications to evaluate the impacts to the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Dar es Salaam, 2021
Keywords
Electricity costs, production rate, discrete event simulation, loading operations
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86825 (URN)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

Godkänd;2021;Nivå 0;2021-09-01 (alebob)

Available from: 2021-08-26 Created: 2021-08-26 Last updated: 2021-08-26Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Astrand, M., Sundqvist, F., Greberg, J., Salama, A. & Ekbeck, P. (2021). Automatic closed-loop scheduling in underground mining using discrete event simulation. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 121(6), 277-282
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic closed-loop scheduling in underground mining using discrete event simulation
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2021 (English)In: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 2411-9717, Vol. 121, no 6, p. 277-282Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today's mining operations require fast reporting and rapid rescheduling based on updated information. An automatic mine scheduling system could not only quickly reschedule but also propose alternative solutions. To avoid the financial and physical risks associated with testing such a system directly in operation, it could be first evaluated via discrete event simulation models. This would offer a safe environment to evaluate different operating rules and algorithms. In this study, this is achieved by integrating automatic scheduling software with a discrete event simulation model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2021
Keywords
discrete event simulation, production planning, scheduling system, underground mining
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86824 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/679/2021 (DOI)000684541700002 ()2-s2.0-85113396616 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-09-01 (alebob)

Available from: 2021-08-26 Created: 2021-08-26 Last updated: 2024-02-16Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B. (2019). Load-Haul-Dump operations in underground mines. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Load-Haul-Dump operations in underground mines
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Lastning och transport i underjordsgruvor
Abstract [en]

The research presented in this thesis addresses several aspects of loading operations inunderground mines, in particular tools and equipment selection. It also addresses the flexibilityof the fleet when subject to substantial disturbances, such as ore pass loss, and proposes integration of the scheduling system with discrete event simulation. The thesis begins with a study of discrete event simulation (DES) tools for loading operations in an underground mining system. The results show the benefits of using simulation but also the drawbacks.The thesis presents an analysis of energy consumption and exhaust gas emissions from diesel and electric LHDs. The results show the potential energy savings with the use of electric LHDs. Next, it focuses on the LHD operations affected by long-term ore pass loss (unavailability). It shows the effects on the production system (the ventilation requirements, production and waiting times when too many LHDs operate in the area affected by an ore pass loss) and highlights the need for a flexible solution and a mitigation strategy. Finally, the thesis studies the integration of ABB’s Ability Operations Management System (OMS) with the SimMine simulation model and how this affects LHD operations. The results show the benefits of using the joined platformas a testbed and decision support system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019. p. 155
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
LHD, DES, simulation, underground mine, energy consumption, ventilation requirements, orepass loss, production scheduling, process control
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72950 (URN)978-91-7790-316-1 (ISBN)978-91-7790-317-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-24, F1031, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-02-20 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2022-03-15Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Salama, A. & Greberg, J. (2019). Simulating the effect of LHD operations on production rates and ventilation costs in a sublevel cave underground mine. CIM Journal, 10(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulating the effect of LHD operations on production rates and ventilation costs in a sublevel cave underground mine
2019 (English)In: CIM Journal, ISSN 1923-6026, Vol. 10, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Load-haul-dump machines (LHDs) are typically used in underground metal mining opera-tions. Delays or inappropriate use of LHDs can result in production loss. Optimized LHD use is especially crucial in larger mines because longer travel distances increase heat, dust, and gas emissions, which in turn increase ventilation costs. This study, conducted at an existing Swedish sublevel cave underground mine, used discrete event simulation and the AutoMod™ DES tool to determine the ventilation costs related to using too many diesel LHDs in a production area with reduced ore pass availability. When fewer ore passes are available, ventilation costs related to operating LHDs in the production area were found to increase by as much as 200, 224, and 306% for one, three, and six LHDs in operation, respectively.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canada: Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, 2019
Keywords
Discrete event simulation (DES), Loading operations, Production rate, Ventilation costs, coûts de l’aérage, opérations de chargement, simulation à événements discrets (SED), taux de production
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75482 (URN)10.15834/cimj.2019.12 (DOI)
Projects
Sustainable Intelligent Mining Systems (SIMS)
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2022-03-15Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Greberg, J., Salama, A. & Gustafson, A. (2018). The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 118(4), 409-418
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine
2018 (English)In: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 2411-9717, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 409-418Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Orepass failure is a well-known problem in deep mines, and the risk of losing an orepass is associated with severe production disturbances. In the near future, one possible scenario in the Loussavaara Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB) Malmberget mine is to concentrate the mining operation in fewer, but larger, production areas. In this paper we evaluate the effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates using discrete event simulation, by simulating part of the Malmberget mine loading and hauling system under different environmental and operational constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Johannesburg: South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2018
Keywords
LHDs, orepass loss, production simulation, underground iron ore mining
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68482 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/2018/v118n4a11 (DOI)000432973700011 ()2-s2.0-85048012580 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-08 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2024-02-16Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B. (2017). Rock mass transportation systems in underground mines: consequences and solutions when mining at greater depths. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rock mass transportation systems in underground mines: consequences and solutions when mining at greater depths
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The research presented in this thesis addresses a number of challenges related to rock mass transportation in deep underground mines. In particular, high energy consumption and high exhaust gas emissions from diesel and electric LHDs, the effects of ore pass loss on the loading, hauling and dumping operations due to increasing stresses and increasing costs due to the longer vertical transportation of the rock masses. These critical challenges have been identified by a literature review and analysis of data collected from 15 international deep mines. In order to answer the formulated research questions, three studies on various issues related to rock mass transportation in deep underground mines were made, and the analysis was performed mainly using discrete event simulation.

The thesis presents a study of energy consumption and exhaust gas emissions from diesel and electric LHDs with similar bucket sizes. The results show the possible energy savings and a decrease in CO2 emissions when using electric LHDs instead of diesel ones. The thesis also presents a study of the effects of ore pass loss on LHD operations and on the mine production. Maintaining the production with a lower number of operational ore pass structures by increasing the number of LHDs can have a negative effect on the production. This is because an increased number of LHDs in operation will results in increased waiting times for the LHDs and cause variations in the production rate. These variations can be large, causing severe consequences if not managed correctly. The results also show the importance of developing alternative plans for underground loading and hauling operations in case of an ore pass loss. Transportation of rock, especially when mining depth increases, is often associated with high costs and long transportation times. To decrease the amount of unnecessary rock transportation, near-to-face sorting plants may be one alternative. In the thesis, a study was performed on a possible reduction in rock mass transportation to the surface when using this technique. The results conclude that near-to-face sorting plants could lower the environmental effects generated by unnecessary rock transportation to the surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63089 (URN)978-91-7583-886-1 (ISBN)978-91-7583-887-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-05-29, F1031, Luleå, 10:00
Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-19 Last updated: 2022-03-04Bibliographically approved
Greberg, J., Salama, A., Gustafson, A. & Skawina, B. (2016). Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation (ed.). Minerals, 6(3), Article ID 65.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation
2016 (English)In: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the near surface deposits are being mined out, underground mines will increasingly operate at greater depths. This will increase the challenges related to transporting materials from deeper levels to the surface. For many years, the ore and waste transportation from most deep underground mines has depended on some or all of the following: truck haulage, conveyor belts, shafts, rails, and ore pass systems. In sub-level caving, and where ore passes are used, trains operating on the main lower level transport the ore from ore passes to a crusher, for subsequent hoisting to the surface through the shaft system. In many mines, the use of the ore pass system has led to several problems related to the ore pass availability, causing production disturbances and incurred cost and time for ore pass rehabilitation. These production disturbances have an impact on the mining activities since they increase the operational costs, and lower the mine throughput. A continued dependency on rock mass transportation using ore passes will generate high capital costs for various supporting structures such as rail tracks, shaft extensions, and crushers for every new main level. This study was conducted at an existing underground mine and analyzed the transport of ore from loading areas at the lower levels up to the existing shaft points using trucks without employing ore passes. The results show that, when the costs of extending ore passes to lower levels become too great or ore passes cannot be used for production, haul trucks can be a feasible alternative method for transport of ore and waste up the ramp to the existing crusher located at the previous main level. The use of trucks will avoid installing infrastructure at the next main level and extending the ore passes to lower levels, hence reducing costs.

Keywords
rock mass transportation, sub-level caving, discrete event simulation, ore pass, trucks, haulage system
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13724 (URN)10.3390/min6030065 (DOI)000385481400009 ()2-s2.0-84977104005 (Scopus ID)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (Local ID)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (Archive number)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (OAI)
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-11-14 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7334-4934

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