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Skawina, B. (2019). Load-Haul-Dump operations in underground mines. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Load-Haul-Dump operations in underground mines
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Lastning och transport i underjordsgruvor
Abstract [en]

The research presented in this thesis addresses several aspects of loading operations inunderground mines, in particular tools and equipment selection. It also addresses the flexibilityof the fleet when subject to substantial disturbances, such as ore pass loss, and proposes integration of the scheduling system with discrete event simulation. The thesis begins with a study of discrete event simulation (DES) tools for loading operations in an underground mining system. The results show the benefits of using simulation but also the drawbacks.The thesis presents an analysis of energy consumption and exhaust gas emissions from diesel and electric LHDs. The results show the potential energy savings with the use of electric LHDs. Next, it focuses on the LHD operations affected by long-term ore pass loss (unavailability). It shows the effects on the production system (the ventilation requirements, production and waiting times when too many LHDs operate in the area affected by an ore pass loss) and highlights the need for a flexible solution and a mitigation strategy. Finally, the thesis studies the integration of ABB’s Ability Operations Management System (OMS) with the SimMine simulation model and how this affects LHD operations. The results show the benefits of using the joined platformas a testbed and decision support system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019. p. 155
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
LHD, DES, simulation, underground mine, energy consumption, ventilation requirements, orepass loss, production scheduling, process control
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72950 (URN)978-91-7790-316-1 (ISBN)978-91-7790-317-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-24, F1031, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-02-20 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Salama, A. & Greberg, J. (2019). Simulating the effect of LHD operations on production rates and ventilation costs in a sublevel cave underground mine. CIM Journal, 10(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulating the effect of LHD operations on production rates and ventilation costs in a sublevel cave underground mine
2019 (English)In: CIM Journal, ISSN 1923-6026, Vol. 10, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Load-haul-dump machines (LHDs) are typically used in underground metal mining opera-tions. Delays or inappropriate use of LHDs can result in production loss. Optimized LHD use is especially crucial in larger mines because longer travel distances increase heat, dust, and gas emissions, which in turn increase ventilation costs. This study, conducted at an existing Swedish sublevel cave underground mine, used discrete event simulation and the AutoMod™ DES tool to determine the ventilation costs related to using too many diesel LHDs in a production area with reduced ore pass availability. When fewer ore passes are available, ventilation costs related to operating LHDs in the production area were found to increase by as much as 200, 224, and 306% for one, three, and six LHDs in operation, respectively.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canada: Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, 2019
Keywords
Discrete event simulation (DES), Loading operations, Production rate, Ventilation costs, coûts de l’aérage, opérations de chargement, simulation à événements discrets (SED), taux de production
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75482 (URN)10.15834/cimj.2019.12 (DOI)
Projects
Sustainable Intelligent Mining Systems (SIMS)
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Salama, A., Svanberg, J. & Gustafson, A. (2018). The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine. The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, 118(4), 409-418
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine
2018 (English)In: The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 409-418Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Orepass failure is a well-known problem in deep mines, and the risk of losing an orepass is associated with severe production disturbances. In the near future, one possible scenario in the Loussavaara Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB) Malmberget mine is to concentrate the mining operation in fewer, but larger, production areas. In this paper we evaluate the effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates using discrete event simulation, by simulating part of the Malmberget mine loading and hauling system under different environmental and operational constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Johannesburg: South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2018
Keywords
LHDs, orepass loss, production simulation, underground iron ore mining
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68482 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/2018/v118n12a14 (DOI)000432973700011 ()2-s2.0-85048012580 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-08 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B. (2017). Rock mass transportation systems in underground mines: consequences and solutions when mining at greater depths. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rock mass transportation systems in underground mines: consequences and solutions when mining at greater depths
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The research presented in this thesis addresses a number of challenges related to rock mass transportation in deep underground mines. In particular, high energy consumption and high exhaust gas emissions from diesel and electric LHDs, the effects of ore pass loss on the loading, hauling and dumping operations due to increasing stresses and increasing costs due to the longer vertical transportation of the rock masses. These critical challenges have been identified by a literature review and analysis of data collected from 15 international deep mines. In order to answer the formulated research questions, three studies on various issues related to rock mass transportation in deep underground mines were made, and the analysis was performed mainly using discrete event simulation.

The thesis presents a study of energy consumption and exhaust gas emissions from diesel and electric LHDs with similar bucket sizes. The results show the possible energy savings and a decrease in CO2 emissions when using electric LHDs instead of diesel ones. The thesis also presents a study of the effects of ore pass loss on LHD operations and on the mine production. Maintaining the production with a lower number of operational ore pass structures by increasing the number of LHDs can have a negative effect on the production. This is because an increased number of LHDs in operation will results in increased waiting times for the LHDs and cause variations in the production rate. These variations can be large, causing severe consequences if not managed correctly. The results also show the importance of developing alternative plans for underground loading and hauling operations in case of an ore pass loss. Transportation of rock, especially when mining depth increases, is often associated with high costs and long transportation times. To decrease the amount of unnecessary rock transportation, near-to-face sorting plants may be one alternative. In the thesis, a study was performed on a possible reduction in rock mass transportation to the surface when using this technique. The results conclude that near-to-face sorting plants could lower the environmental effects generated by unnecessary rock transportation to the surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63089 (URN)978-91-7583-886-1 (ISBN)978-91-7583-887-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-05-29, F1031, Luleå, 10:00
Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-19 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
Greberg, J., Salama, A., Gustafson, A. & Skawina, B. (2016). Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation (ed.). Minerals, 6(3), Article ID 65.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation
2016 (English)In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the near surface deposits are being mined out, underground mines will increasingly operate at greater depths. This will increase the challenges related to transporting materials from deeper levels to the surface. For many years, the ore and waste transportation from most deep underground mines has depended on some or all of the following: truck haulage, conveyor belts, shafts, rails, and ore pass systems. In sub-level caving, and where ore passes are used, trains operating on the main lower level transport the ore from ore passes to a crusher, for subsequent hoisting to the surface through the shaft system. In many mines, the use of the ore pass system has led to several problems related to the ore pass availability, causing production disturbances and incurred cost and time for ore pass rehabilitation. These production disturbances have an impact on the mining activities since they increase the operational costs, and lower the mine throughput. A continued dependency on rock mass transportation using ore passes will generate high capital costs for various supporting structures such as rail tracks, shaft extensions, and crushers for every new main level. This study was conducted at an existing underground mine and analyzed the transport of ore from loading areas at the lower levels up to the existing shaft points using trucks without employing ore passes. The results show that, when the costs of extending ore passes to lower levels become too great or ore passes cannot be used for production, haul trucks can be a feasible alternative method for transport of ore and waste up the ramp to the existing crusher located at the previous main level. The use of trucks will avoid installing infrastructure at the next main level and extending the ore passes to lower levels, hence reducing costs.

Keywords
rock mass transportation, sub-level caving, discrete event simulation, ore pass, trucks, haulage system, Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13724 (URN)10.3390/min6030065 (DOI)000385481400009 ()2-s2.0-84977104005 (Scopus ID)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (Local ID)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (Archive number)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (OAI)
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-11-14 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Greberg, J., Salama, A. & Novikov, E. (2016). Evaluation of near to face sorting plant in an underground mine: A case study from Kristineberg mine (ed.). In: (Ed.), 2016 SME Annual Conference and Expo: The Future for Mining in a Data-Driven World, Phoenix, United States, 21 - 24 February 2016. Paper presented at SME Annual Conference & Expo : 21/02/2016 - 24/02/2016 (pp. 379-383). New York: Society for Mining, Metalurgy and Exploration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of near to face sorting plant in an underground mine: A case study from Kristineberg mine
2016 (English)In: 2016 SME Annual Conference and Expo: The Future for Mining in a Data-Driven World, Phoenix, United States, 21 - 24 February 2016, New York: Society for Mining, Metalurgy and Exploration, 2016, p. 379-383Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mining of ore bodies that are located at great depths enforces long distances to move the excavated rock masses to the surface. The excavated rock mass contains not only ore that can be economically extracted from the face but also waste, which is usually discarded several steps further downstream in the process. As a result large amount of rock masses are transported to the surface, influencing the costs at which the ore is produced. Reducing the amount of waste being transported to the surface by introducing near to face sorting plant would improve the in many cases strained transport system in the deep mine. In this study, one of Boliden’s cut and fill mines was analysed with respect to the challenges related to mass movement and increasing mining depth. The study aims to evaluate the use of the new near to face sorting system in the operating underground mine. Discrete event simulation was used to study and analyse the mass movement with and without the near to face sorting plant. The paper shows how the underground mass movement system and the production were influenced when a near to face sorting equipment was added into the current system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Society for Mining, Metalurgy and Exploration, 2016
Keywords
Deep underground mining, Cut and fill mining, Transportation system, Near to face sorting, Discrete Event Simulation, Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28116 (URN)2-s2.0-84988353587 (Scopus ID)1caff48e-9d53-4601-81a1-16e959f205c4 (Local ID)9781510825659 (ISBN)1caff48e-9d53-4601-81a1-16e959f205c4 (Archive number)1caff48e-9d53-4601-81a1-16e959f205c4 (OAI)
Conference
SME Annual Conference & Expo : 21/02/2016 - 24/02/2016
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note

Godkänd; 2016; 20151013 (barska)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Greberg, J., Jonsson, K. & Salama, A. (2016). Ore pass loss mitigation approach in Malmberget mine (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Seventh International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining: (MassMin 2016). Paper presented at Conference & Exibition on Mass Mining : 09/05/2016 - 11/05/2016 (pp. 617-622). Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ore pass loss mitigation approach in Malmberget mine
2016 (English)In: Seventh International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining: (MassMin 2016), Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2016, p. 617-622Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In today’s underground mass mining the ore pass is an important part of the infrastructure, since it connects two or more of the mine levels and used for conveying or storing large amounts of material. One of the main risks related to an ore pass is when operational or structural failure occurs thus leading to long-term loss of functionality. Developing or rehabilitating an ore pass when major failure has occurred is a time-consuming and expensive operation, and the risk of a long-term ore pass loss motivates the development of alternative transportation strategies in order to ensure the continuation of smooth operations in large underground systems. The study presented in this paper has been done at the Loussavaara Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) Malmberget mine in Sweden, where the iron ore deposits are being extracted using sublevel caving. The study analyses the transportation system in one of the mine’s ore bodies using discrete event simulation (DES) with a focus on maintaining ore transportation in the event of the loss of an ore pass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2016
Keywords
Underground mining, Transportation system, Discrete Event Simulation, Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-32525 (URN)70c4736f-278d-4ccc-85f9-07338ad60586 (Local ID)9781925100433 (ISBN)70c4736f-278d-4ccc-85f9-07338ad60586 (Archive number)70c4736f-278d-4ccc-85f9-07338ad60586 (OAI)
Conference
Conference & Exibition on Mass Mining : 09/05/2016 - 11/05/2016
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note
Godkänd; 2016; 20151013 (barska)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Salama, A., Greberg, J. & Sundqvist, F. (2015). Alternative fleet configuration for Malmberget mine (ed.). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative fleet configuration for Malmberget mine
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report is part of the work done by Luleå University of Technology within the EU 7th framework project I2Mine, Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Sustainable and Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future. The work is performed within work package 2 Novel mining and underground processing methods, subtask 2.1.1 Novel mining methods and processes for deep, steeply dipping orebodies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2015
Series
Technical report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1536
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-22709 (URN)3e7a5d71-8e76-4e30-916f-1b868a01e724 (Local ID)978-91-7583-364-4 (ISBN)3e7a5d71-8e76-4e30-916f-1b868a01e724 (Archive number)3e7a5d71-8e76-4e30-916f-1b868a01e724 (OAI)
Projects
I2Mine, Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note

För godkännande; 2015; 20150526 (barska)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
Salama, A., Greberg, J., Skawina, B. & Gustafson, A. (2015). Analyzing energy consumption and gas emissions of loading equipment in underground mining (ed.). CIM Journal, 6(4), 179-188
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing energy consumption and gas emissions of loading equipment in underground mining
2015 (English)In: CIM Journal, ISSN 1923-6026, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an environment of rising energy prices and mining at greater depths, cost-efficient loading and hauling equipment is essential. Conducted at an underground mining operation, this study analyzes the energy consumption and gas emissions of diesel and electric load-haul-dump machines (LHDs) with similar bucket capacities. Based on energy prices from the first quarter of 2014, results of discrete event simulation show that energy costs for diesel and electric LHDs are US$0.24/t and US$0.07/t, respectively. Also, diesel LHDs emit 2.68 kg CO2 per litre of diesel fuel, whereas using electric machines reduces the need for ventilation to mitigate engine heat and emissions and reduces energy costs.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15252 (URN)10.15834/cimj.2015.24 (DOI)ebfbfc7e-7ebf-4eae-8ca1-67316147c07b (Local ID)ebfbfc7e-7ebf-4eae-8ca1-67316147c07b (Archive number)ebfbfc7e-7ebf-4eae-8ca1-67316147c07b (OAI)
Note

Godkänd; 2015; 20141021 (abusal)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
Salama, A., Skawina, B., Greberg, J. & Sundqvist, F. (2015). Future loading system at Kiirunavaara underground mine (ed.). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future loading system at Kiirunavaara underground mine
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report is part of the work done by Luleå University of Technology within the EU 7th framework project I2Mine, Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Sustainable and Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future. The work is performed within work package 2 Novel mining and underground processing methods, subtask 2.1.1 Novel mining methods and processes for deep, steeply dipping orebodies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2015. p. 4
Series
Technical report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1536
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-23228 (URN)6218736b-2c41-4363-b3d0-009884f6767f (Local ID)978-91-7583-363-7 (ISBN)6218736b-2c41-4363-b3d0-009884f6767f (Archive number)6218736b-2c41-4363-b3d0-009884f6767f (OAI)
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future, I2Mine
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20150526 (barska)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7334-4934

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