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Salama, Abubakary
Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Skawina, B., Salama, A., Svanberg, J. & Gustafson, A. (2018). The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine. The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, 118(4), 409-418
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine
2018 (English)In: The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 409-418Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Orepass failure is a well-known problem in deep mines, and the risk of losing an orepass is associated with severe production disturbances. In the near future, one possible scenario in the Loussavaara Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB) Malmberget mine is to concentrate the mining operation in fewer, but larger, production areas. In this paper we evaluate the effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates using discrete event simulation, by simulating part of the Malmberget mine loading and hauling system under different environmental and operational constraints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Johannesburg: South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2018
Keywords
LHDs, orepass loss, production simulation, underground iron ore mining
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68482 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/2018/v118n12a14 (DOI)000432973700011 ()2-s2.0-85048012580 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-08 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Salama, A., Nehring, M. & Greberg, J. (2017). Financial analysis of the impact of increasing mining rate in underground mining, using simulation and mixed integer programming. The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, 117(4), 365-372
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Financial analysis of the impact of increasing mining rate in underground mining, using simulation and mixed integer programming
2017 (English)In: The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 365-372Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper challenges the traditional notion that mine planners need to plan production so as to incur the lowest mining cost. For a given mine configuration, a mine that increases its mining rate will incur increased mining costs. In an environment in which operations are fixated on cost reduction, a proposal that increases costs will not be readily accepted. Such a proposal requires financial justification-the increase in costs might be recuperated by the additional production. This paper evaluates the net present value (NPV) across a range of copper prices for two underground orebodies located at different depths, using a production rate of 300 kt per quarter and a scenario that introduces additional equipment and costs for 450 kt per quarter. The evaluation was based on the changes of NPV for the orebody located at a shallow depth compared with the orebody at a greater depth. Discrete event simulation combined with mixed integer programming was used for analysis. Unlike traditional sensitivity analysis, this study re-optimizes the mine plan for each commodity price at each production rate. The results show that, for the low mining rate at the final copper price, an NPV of A$ 1530.64 million is achieved, whereas an NPV of A$ 1537.59 million is achieved at a higher mining rate. Even though pushing mining rates beyond traditional limits may increase mining costs, this option may be beneficial at certain commodity prices, particularly when prices are elevated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Southern African Institute of Mining, 2017
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65151 (URN)10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n4a8 (DOI)000406200400008 ()2-s2.0-85039842011 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-08-17 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Greberg, J., Salama, A., Gustafson, A. & Skawina, B. (2016). Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation (ed.). Minerals, 6(3), Article ID 65.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation
2016 (English)In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the near surface deposits are being mined out, underground mines will increasingly operate at greater depths. This will increase the challenges related to transporting materials from deeper levels to the surface. For many years, the ore and waste transportation from most deep underground mines has depended on some or all of the following: truck haulage, conveyor belts, shafts, rails, and ore pass systems. In sub-level caving, and where ore passes are used, trains operating on the main lower level transport the ore from ore passes to a crusher, for subsequent hoisting to the surface through the shaft system. In many mines, the use of the ore pass system has led to several problems related to the ore pass availability, causing production disturbances and incurred cost and time for ore pass rehabilitation. These production disturbances have an impact on the mining activities since they increase the operational costs, and lower the mine throughput. A continued dependency on rock mass transportation using ore passes will generate high capital costs for various supporting structures such as rail tracks, shaft extensions, and crushers for every new main level. This study was conducted at an existing underground mine and analyzed the transport of ore from loading areas at the lower levels up to the existing shaft points using trucks without employing ore passes. The results show that, when the costs of extending ore passes to lower levels become too great or ore passes cannot be used for production, haul trucks can be a feasible alternative method for transport of ore and waste up the ramp to the existing crusher located at the previous main level. The use of trucks will avoid installing infrastructure at the next main level and extending the ore passes to lower levels, hence reducing costs.

Keywords
rock mass transportation, sub-level caving, discrete event simulation, ore pass, trucks, haulage system, Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13724 (URN)10.3390/min6030065 (DOI)000385481400009 ()2-s2.0-84977104005 (Scopus ID)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (Local ID)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (Archive number)d0194113-8d86-4c29-94e0-390d4387791c (OAI)
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-11-14 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Salama, A., Nehring, M. & Greberg, J. (2016). Analysis of the impact of increasing mining rate in underground mining using simulation and mixed integer programming (ed.). International Journal of Mining Science and Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the impact of increasing mining rate in underground mining using simulation and mixed integer programming
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, ISSN 2095-2686Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This paper challenges the traditional notion that mine planners need to plan production at mining rates that result in a low mining cost. For a given mine configuration, a mine that considers increases to its mining rate most often increases mining costs. In an environment in which operations are fixated on cost reduction, a proposal to increase costs may be very difficult to implement. Such a proposal may need to be justified financially because the increase in costs might not be recuperated by the extra production gained. This paper evaluates the net present value (NPV) of the selected range of copper prices for two underground orebodies located at different depths using a production rate of 300,000 tonnes and one that introduces additional costs at 450,000 tonnes per quarter. Discrete event simulation combined with mixed integer programming was used for the analysis. The results shows that, for the low mining rate at the final copper price, an NPV of $755.65M is achieved, whereas an NPV of $773.45M is achieved at a high mining rate. Therefore, even though pushing mining rates beyond traditional limits increases mining costs, pursuing this option at certain commodity prices may be beneficial, particularly when prices are elevated.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15062 (URN)e8644dd8-4bef-47e4-9e78-65dbf8d8da46 (Local ID)e8644dd8-4bef-47e4-9e78-65dbf8d8da46 (Archive number)e8644dd8-4bef-47e4-9e78-65dbf8d8da46 (OAI)
Note

Upprättat; 2014; 20140417 (abusal)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-24
Skawina, B., Greberg, J., Salama, A. & Novikov, E. (2016). Evaluation of near to face sorting plant in an underground mine: A case study from Kristineberg mine (ed.). In: (Ed.), 2016 SME Annual Conference and Expo: The Future for Mining in a Data-Driven World, Phoenix, United States, 21 - 24 February 2016. Paper presented at SME Annual Conference & Expo : 21/02/2016 - 24/02/2016 (pp. 379-383). New York: Society for Mining, Metalurgy and Exploration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of near to face sorting plant in an underground mine: A case study from Kristineberg mine
2016 (English)In: 2016 SME Annual Conference and Expo: The Future for Mining in a Data-Driven World, Phoenix, United States, 21 - 24 February 2016, New York: Society for Mining, Metalurgy and Exploration, 2016, p. 379-383Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mining of ore bodies that are located at great depths enforces long distances to move the excavated rock masses to the surface. The excavated rock mass contains not only ore that can be economically extracted from the face but also waste, which is usually discarded several steps further downstream in the process. As a result large amount of rock masses are transported to the surface, influencing the costs at which the ore is produced. Reducing the amount of waste being transported to the surface by introducing near to face sorting plant would improve the in many cases strained transport system in the deep mine. In this study, one of Boliden’s cut and fill mines was analysed with respect to the challenges related to mass movement and increasing mining depth. The study aims to evaluate the use of the new near to face sorting system in the operating underground mine. Discrete event simulation was used to study and analyse the mass movement with and without the near to face sorting plant. The paper shows how the underground mass movement system and the production were influenced when a near to face sorting equipment was added into the current system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Society for Mining, Metalurgy and Exploration, 2016
Keywords
Deep underground mining, Cut and fill mining, Transportation system, Near to face sorting, Discrete Event Simulation, Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28116 (URN)2-s2.0-84988353587 (Scopus ID)1caff48e-9d53-4601-81a1-16e959f205c4 (Local ID)9781510825659 (ISBN)1caff48e-9d53-4601-81a1-16e959f205c4 (Archive number)1caff48e-9d53-4601-81a1-16e959f205c4 (OAI)
Conference
SME Annual Conference & Expo : 21/02/2016 - 24/02/2016
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note

Godkänd; 2016; 20151013 (barska)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Greberg, J., Jonsson, K. & Salama, A. (2016). Ore pass loss mitigation approach in Malmberget mine (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Seventh International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining: (MassMin 2016). Paper presented at Conference & Exibition on Mass Mining : 09/05/2016 - 11/05/2016 (pp. 617-622). Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ore pass loss mitigation approach in Malmberget mine
2016 (English)In: Seventh International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining: (MassMin 2016), Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2016, p. 617-622Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In today’s underground mass mining the ore pass is an important part of the infrastructure, since it connects two or more of the mine levels and used for conveying or storing large amounts of material. One of the main risks related to an ore pass is when operational or structural failure occurs thus leading to long-term loss of functionality. Developing or rehabilitating an ore pass when major failure has occurred is a time-consuming and expensive operation, and the risk of a long-term ore pass loss motivates the development of alternative transportation strategies in order to ensure the continuation of smooth operations in large underground systems. The study presented in this paper has been done at the Loussavaara Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) Malmberget mine in Sweden, where the iron ore deposits are being extracted using sublevel caving. The study analyses the transportation system in one of the mine’s ore bodies using discrete event simulation (DES) with a focus on maintaining ore transportation in the event of the loss of an ore pass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2016
Keywords
Underground mining, Transportation system, Discrete Event Simulation, Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-32525 (URN)70c4736f-278d-4ccc-85f9-07338ad60586 (Local ID)9781925100433 (ISBN)70c4736f-278d-4ccc-85f9-07338ad60586 (Archive number)70c4736f-278d-4ccc-85f9-07338ad60586 (OAI)
Conference
Conference & Exibition on Mass Mining : 09/05/2016 - 11/05/2016
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note
Godkänd; 2016; 20151013 (barska)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
Skawina, B., Salama, A., Greberg, J. & Sundqvist, F. (2015). Alternative fleet configuration for Malmberget mine (ed.). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative fleet configuration for Malmberget mine
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report is part of the work done by Luleå University of Technology within the EU 7th framework project I2Mine, Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Sustainable and Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future. The work is performed within work package 2 Novel mining and underground processing methods, subtask 2.1.1 Novel mining methods and processes for deep, steeply dipping orebodies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2015
Series
Technical report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1536
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-22709 (URN)3e7a5d71-8e76-4e30-916f-1b868a01e724 (Local ID)978-91-7583-364-4 (ISBN)3e7a5d71-8e76-4e30-916f-1b868a01e724 (Archive number)3e7a5d71-8e76-4e30-916f-1b868a01e724 (OAI)
Projects
I2Mine, Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future
Note

För godkännande; 2015; 20150526 (barska)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
Salama, A., Greberg, J., Skawina, B. & Gustafson, A. (2015). Analyzing energy consumption and gas emissions of loading equipment in underground mining (ed.). CIM Journal, 6(4), 179-188
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing energy consumption and gas emissions of loading equipment in underground mining
2015 (English)In: CIM Journal, ISSN 1923-6026, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an environment of rising energy prices and mining at greater depths, cost-efficient loading and hauling equipment is essential. Conducted at an underground mining operation, this study analyzes the energy consumption and gas emissions of diesel and electric load-haul-dump machines (LHDs) with similar bucket capacities. Based on energy prices from the first quarter of 2014, results of discrete event simulation show that energy costs for diesel and electric LHDs are US$0.24/t and US$0.07/t, respectively. Also, diesel LHDs emit 2.68 kg CO2 per litre of diesel fuel, whereas using electric machines reduces the need for ventilation to mitigate engine heat and emissions and reduces energy costs.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15252 (URN)10.15834/cimj.2015.24 (DOI)ebfbfc7e-7ebf-4eae-8ca1-67316147c07b (Local ID)ebfbfc7e-7ebf-4eae-8ca1-67316147c07b (Archive number)ebfbfc7e-7ebf-4eae-8ca1-67316147c07b (OAI)
Note

Godkänd; 2015; 20141021 (abusal)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
Salama, A., Nehring, M. & Greberg, J. (2015). Evaluation of the impact of commodity price change on the mine plan of deep underground mining (ed.). Paper presented at . International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 25(3), 375-382
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the impact of commodity price change on the mine plan of deep underground mining
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, ISSN 2095-2686, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 375-382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The fluctuations in commodity prices influences mining operations to continually update and adjust their mine plans in order to capture additional value under the new market condition. Some of the adjustments could include changes to the production sequencing, changes to the point at which the open pit transitions to the underground, and the time for changing or modifying the existing ore handling systems as a result of an increase in mine depth. This paper seeks to present a method for quantifying the net present value component of optimal mine plans that may be directly attributed to the change in commodity prices, and more importantly the changes in the mine plan itself. The evaluation is conducted on a deep underground copper deposit amenable to sublevel stoping whereby optimal mine plans were generated across a total of ten copper price scenarios ranging between $5250/t Cu and $9750/t Cu. Discrete event simulation in conjunction with mixed integer programming was used to attain a viable production strategy and then to generate optimal mine plans. The analysis indicates that the increase in prices results in an increase in net present value from $96.57M to ultimately reach $755.65M. In an environment where mining operations must be looking to gain as much value as possible from the rights to exploiting a finite resource, it is simply not appropriate to keep operating under the same mine plan if commodity prices have altered during the course of operation.

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-4324 (URN)10.1016/j.ijmst.2015.03.008 (DOI)2-s2.0-84929272787 (Scopus ID)240d6d7e-426e-44b7-aa8f-c580af54da7d (Local ID)240d6d7e-426e-44b7-aa8f-c580af54da7d (Archive number)240d6d7e-426e-44b7-aa8f-c580af54da7d (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20140116 (abusal)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Salama, A., Skawina, B., Greberg, J. & Sundqvist, F. (2015). Future loading system at Kiirunavaara underground mine (ed.). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future loading system at Kiirunavaara underground mine
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report is part of the work done by Luleå University of Technology within the EU 7th framework project I2Mine, Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Sustainable and Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future. The work is performed within work package 2 Novel mining and underground processing methods, subtask 2.1.1 Novel mining methods and processes for deep, steeply dipping orebodies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2015. p. 4
Series
Technical report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1536
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-23228 (URN)6218736b-2c41-4363-b3d0-009884f6767f (Local ID)978-91-7583-363-7 (ISBN)6218736b-2c41-4363-b3d0-009884f6767f (Archive number)6218736b-2c41-4363-b3d0-009884f6767f (OAI)
Projects
Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future, I2Mine
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20150526 (barska)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
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