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Enochsson, Ola
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Publications (10 of 48) Show all publications
Sabourova, N., Grip, N., Tu, Y., Wang, C., Enochsson, O., Blanksvärd, T., . . . Elfgren, L. (2019). Railway Concrete Arch Bridge over Kalix River at Långforsen: Dynamic Properties and Load-Carrying Capacity. Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Railway Concrete Arch Bridge over Kalix River at Långforsen: Dynamic Properties and Load-Carrying Capacity
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2019 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The concrete arch bridge over Kalix River at Långforsen was built in 1960 and has a mid-span of 89,5 m and a height of 13,7 m. The bridge owner, Trafikverket, wanted to increase its allowable axle load from 225 to 300 kN. Field tests were carried out under service condition and with ambient vibrations. The test results were used to update and validate Finite Element Models. At last, the refined models were used to check the possibility to increase the axle load.

According to earlier assessments, most parts of the bridge is capable of carrying an axle load of 330 kN. The only critical sections are located in the beams carrying the rail on top of the arch in the section where the beams are united with the arch. Here the stresses in the longitudinal bottom reinforcement are slightly too high.

These sections have been studied in a FEM model for different loads and results show maximum strains of about 50·10-6 corresponding to stresses of only about 10 MPa in the reinforcement in the critical sections. Live load vertical deflections of the crown of the arch is of the order of only ± 6 mm. Dynamic studies have also been made showing that fatigue is no issue. Altogether the studies show that the bridge is able to carry an increased axle load of 300 kN without problems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019. p. 44
Series
Research report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1528
Keywords
Concrete Arch Bridge, Railway, Dynamic Properties, Load-Carrying Capacity
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76116 (URN)978-91-7790-473-1 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2019-09-25 Created: 2019-09-25 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Puurula, A., Enochsson, O., Sas, G., Blanksvärd, T., Ohlsson, U., Bernspång, L., . . . Elfgren, L. (2015). Assessment of the Strengthening of an RC Railway Bridge with CFRP utilizing a Full-Scale Failure Test and Finite-Element Analysis (ed.). Journal of Structural Engineering, 141(1 (Special Issue)), D4014008-1-D4014008-11, Article ID D4014008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of the Strengthening of an RC Railway Bridge with CFRP utilizing a Full-Scale Failure Test and Finite-Element Analysis
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Structural Engineering, ISSN 0733-9445, E-ISSN 1943-541X, Vol. 141, no 1 (Special Issue), p. D4014008-1-D4014008-11, article id D4014008Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A finite element (FE) model was calibrated using the data obtained from a full-scale test to failure of a 50 year old reinforced concrete (RC) railway bridge. The model was then used to assess the effectiveness of various strengthening schemes to increase the loadcarrying capacity of the bridge. The bridge was a two-span continuous single-track trough bridge with a total length of 30 m, situated in Örnsköldsvik in northern Sweden. It was tested in situ as the bridge had been closed following the construction of a new section of the Railway line. The test was planned to evaluate and calibrate models to predict the load-carrying capacity of the bridge and assess the strengthening schemes originally developed by the European research project called Sustainable bridges. The objective of the test was to investigate shear failure, rather than bending failure for which good calibrated models are already available. To that end, the bridge was strengthened in flexure before the test using near-surface mounted square section carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars. The ultimate failure mechanism turned into an interesting combination of bending, shear, torsion, and bond failures at an applied load of 11.7 MN (2,630 kips). A computer model was developed using specialized software to represent the response of the bridge during the test. It was calibrated using data from the test and was then used to calculate the actual capacity of the bridge in terms of train loading using the current Swedish load model which specifies a 330 kN (74 kips) axle weight. These calculations show that the unstrengthened bridge could sustain a load 4.7 times greater than the current load requirements (which is over six times the original design loading), whilst the strengthened bridge could sustain a load 6.5 times greater than currently required. Comparisons are also made with calculations using codes from Canada, Europe, and the United States.

Abstract [en]

A finite element (FE) model was calibrated using the data obtained from a full-scale test to failure of a 50 year old reinforced concrete (RC) railway bridge. The model was then used to assess the effectiveness of various strengthening schemes to increase the load-carrying capacity of the bridge. The bridge was a two-span continuous single-track trough bridge with a total length of 30 m, situated in Örnsköldsvik in northern Sweden. It was tested in-situ as the bridge had been closed following the construction of a new section of the railway line. The test was planned to evaluate and calibrate models to predict the load-carrying capacity of the bridge and assess the strengthening schemes originally developed by the European Research Project “Sustainable Bridges”. The objective of the test was to investigate shear failure, rather than bending failure for which good calibrated models are already available. To that end, the bridge was strengthened in flexure before the test using near-surface mounted square section carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars. The ultimate failure mechanism turned into an interesting combination of bending, shear, torsion and bond failures at an applied load of 11.7 MN (= 2630 kips).A computer model was developed using Brigade software (based on Abaqus), to represent the response of the bridge during the test. It was calibrated using data from the test and was then used to calculate the actual capacity of the bridge in terms of train loading using the current Swedish load model which specifies a 330 kN (= 74 kips) axle weight. These calculations show that the unstrengthened bridge could sustain a load 4.7 times greater than the current load requirements (which is over 6 times the original design loading), whilst the strengthened bridge could sustain a load 6.5 times greater than currently required. Comparisons are also made with calculations using codes from Canada, Europe and the U.S.

Keywords
Bridge, Train load, Failure analysis, Ultimate load-carrying capacity, Shear, Near-surfacemounted reinforcement (NSMR), Civil engineering and architecture - Building engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Byggnadsteknik
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering; Attractive built environment (AERI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15842 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001116 (DOI)000346338100011 ()2-s2.0-84920771165 (Scopus ID)f66f5694-cfe1-40be-a43e-24618eb23eae (Local ID)f66f5694-cfe1-40be-a43e-24618eb23eae (Archive number)f66f5694-cfe1-40be-a43e-24618eb23eae (OAI)
Projects
Mainline-MAINtenance, renewaL and Improvement of rail transport iNfrastructure to reduce Economic and environmental impacts, Centrum för riskanalys och riskhantering, CRR, Sustainable Bridges
Note

Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; Bibliografisk uppgift: This work is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.; 20140524 (elfgren)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Bagge, N., Nilimaa, J., Enochsson, O., Sabourova, N., Grip, N., Emborg, M., . . . Tu, Y. (2015). Protecting a five span prestressed bridge against ground deformations (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), IABSE Conference Geneva 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges. Paper presented at IABSE Conference : Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges 23/09/2015 - 25/09/2015 (pp. 255-262). Geneva: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protecting a five span prestressed bridge against ground deformations
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2015 (English)In: IABSE Conference Geneva 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges, Geneva: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2015, p. 255-262Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A 55 year-old, 121.5 m long, five span prestressed bridge was situated in the deformation zone close to a mine in Kiruna in northern Sweden. There was a risk for uneven ground deformations so the bridge was analyzed and monitored. Results and measures taken to ascertain the robustness of the bridge are presented.The analysis resulted in an estimate that the bridge could sustain 24 mm in uneven horizontal and 83 mm in uneven vertical displacement of the two supports of a span. To be able to sustain larger deformations, the columns of the bridge were provided with joints, where shims could be inserted to counteract the settlements. To accomplish this, each one of the 18 columns of the bridge was unloaded by help of provisional steel supports. The column was then cut and a new foot was mounted to it. This made it possible to lift each individual column with two jacks, when needed, and to adjust its height by inserting or taking away shim plates.The deformations of the bridge and the surrounding ground were monitored. The eigenmodes of the bridge were studied with accelerometers and by analysis with finite elements (FE) models. Comparison indicated good agreement between the model and the actual bridge, with calculated eigenfrequencies of 2.17, 4.15 and 4.67 Hz, for the first transversal, vertical and torsional modes, respectively. Measurements during winter resulted in higher values due to increased stiffness caused by frozen materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Geneva: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2015
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Mathematical Analysis
Research subject
Structural Engineering; Mathematics; Attractive built environment (AERI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-34954 (URN)94595912-e47e-4600-8e52-15aff592265e (Local ID)9783857481406 (ISBN)94595912-e47e-4600-8e52-15aff592265e (Archive number)94595912-e47e-4600-8e52-15aff592265e (OAI)
Conference
IABSE Conference : Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges 23/09/2015 - 25/09/2015
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20150527 (nikbag)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
Puurula, A., Enochsson, O., Sas, G., Blanksvärd, T., Ohlsson, U., Bernspång, L., . . . Elfgren, L. (2014). Loading to failure and 3D nonlinear FE modelling of a strengthened RC bridge. (ed.). Paper presented at . Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 10(12), 1606-1619
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Loading to failure and 3D nonlinear FE modelling of a strengthened RC bridge.
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2014 (English)In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 1606-1619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A reinforced concrete railway trough bridge in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden, was strengthened in bending with rods of carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer and loaded to failure. The aim was to test and calibrate methods developed in the European Research Project ‘Sustainable Bridges’ regarding assessment and strengthening of existing bridges. A steel beam was placed in the middle of one of the two spans and was pulled downwards. Failure was reached at an applied load of 11.7 MN. It was initiated by a bond failure caused by a combined action of shear, torsion as well as bending after yielding in the longitudinal steel reinforcement and the stirrups. The bond failure led to a redistribution of the internal forces from the tensile reinforcement to the stirrups, causing the final failure. The computer models developed to simulate the loading process were improved step by step from linear shell models to more detailed models. The most developed model, a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model with discrete reinforcement, gave accurate accounts of the response of the bridge.

Abstract [en]

A reinforced concrete railway trough bridge in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden, was strengthened in bending with rods of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and loaded to failure. The aim was to test and calibrate methods developed in the European Research Project "Sustainable Bridges" regarding assessment and strengthening of existing bridges. A steel beam was placed in the middle of one of the two spans and was pulled downwards. An interesting failure was reached, which included bond, shear and torsion as well as bending, for an applied load of 11,7 MN. Three dimensional nonlinear finite element calculations with discrete reinforcement were used to simulate the loading process. The developed models – after several trials and errors - gave accurate accounts of the response of the bridge during increasing loading.

Keywords
Civil engineering and architecture - Building engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Byggnadsteknik
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14810 (URN)10.1080/15732479.2013.836546 (DOI)000348944400001 ()2-s2.0-84908043589 (Scopus ID)e3ae0583-b31d-4593-bf2d-f796601dcca4 (Local ID)e3ae0583-b31d-4593-bf2d-f796601dcca4 (Archive number)e3ae0583-b31d-4593-bf2d-f796601dcca4 (OAI)
Projects
Sustainable Bridges
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20130606 (elfgren)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Elfgren, L., Enochsson, O., Täljsten, B. & Thun, H. (2013). Project: Sustainable Bridges. Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project: Sustainable Bridges
2013 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Ett EU-projekt med avsikt att förlänga livlängden för befinmtliga järnvägsbroar

National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36105 (URN)6e15e0f1-4235-40d5-99ca-bf29dfd7b1a6 (Local ID)6e15e0f1-4235-40d5-99ca-bf29dfd7b1a6 (Archive number)6e15e0f1-4235-40d5-99ca-bf29dfd7b1a6 (OAI)
Note

Publikationer: Defects in railway bridges and procedures for maintenance: UIC Code 778-4R; Loading to failure and 3D nonlinear FE modelling of a strengthened RC bridge.; Assessment of the Strengthening of an RC Railway Bridge with CFRP utilizing a Full-Scale Failure Test and Finite-Element Analysis; Tested versus code capacity of existing bridges: Three examples; Status: Avslutat; Period: 01/11/2003 → 31/10/2007

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-03-20Bibliographically approved
Sas, G., Blanksvärd, T., Enochsson, O., Täljsten, B. & Elfgren, L. (2012). Full scale failure testing of a reinforced concrete bridge: photographic strain monitoring (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Proceedings of The 6th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering: CICE 2012. Paper presented at International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering : 13/06/2012 - 15/06/2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Full scale failure testing of a reinforced concrete bridge: photographic strain monitoring
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2012 (English)In: Proceedings of The 6th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering: CICE 2012, 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Full-scale failure tests are rarely performed on structures, primarily due to their high costs and the lack of suitable test objects. The main aim of this test was to study shear failure of the bridge, which is a less understood and more difficult to predict mode of failure in RC structures than is bending. In order to prevent bending failure, it was necessary to strengthen the bridge using near surface mounted (NSM) reinforcements made of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars. The bridge was heavily monitored during the test, using both traditional sensors such as electrical strain gauges and linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs) alongside new monitoring systems such as fibre optic sensors, strain rosette LVDTs, and a novel photographic monitoring system. This paper presents the results obtained from the photographic strain measurements and describes the use of the photographic tools in monitoring and characterising the behaviour of the failure zone during the full scale test. The strains measured using this method were found to agree well with those measured using classical strain gauges. In addition, the strain contour plots generated using the photographic method provided important insights into the strains within the bridge’s failure zone.

National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-29319 (URN)2c1e9c62-d9c2-491e-ae9c-d3a39624dd0c (Local ID)2c1e9c62-d9c2-491e-ae9c-d3a39624dd0c (Archive number)2c1e9c62-d9c2-491e-ae9c-d3a39624dd0c (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering : 13/06/2012 - 15/06/2012
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20120619 (gabsas)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-03-20Bibliographically approved
Sas, G., Blanksvärd, T., Enochsson, O., Täljsten, B. & Elfgren, L. (2012). Photographic strain monitoring during full-scale failure testing of Örnsköldsvik Bridge (ed.). Paper presented at . Structural Health Monitoring, 11(4), 489-498
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photographic strain monitoring during full-scale failure testing of Örnsköldsvik Bridge
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2012 (English)In: Structural Health Monitoring, ISSN 1475-9217, E-ISSN 1741-3168, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 489-498Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Full-scale failure tests are rarely performed on structures, primarily due to their high costs and the lack of suitable test objects. This article reports the results of a ‘test-to-failure’ performed using a real bridge. The results obtained in such tests are valuable for assessing analytical models, updating finite element models and investigating the real behaviour of structures. The specific intention in these experiments was to study the shear failure of the bridge, which is a less well-understood mode of failure than is bending. To this end, it was necessary to strengthen the bridge using near-surface-mounted reinforcements made of carbon fibre–reinforced polymer bars in order to prevent bending failure. The bridge was heavily monitored during the test, using both traditional sensors such as electrical strain gauges and linear variable differential transducers alongside new monitoring systems such as fibre-optic sensors, strain rosette linear variable differential transducers and a novel photographic monitoring system. This article presents the photographic strain measurements and describes the use of the photographic tools in monitoring and characterizing the behaviour of the failure zone during the full-scale test. The strains measured using the photographic method were found to agree well with those measured using classical strain gauges. In addition, the strain contour plots generated using the photographic method provided crucial insights into the strains within the bridge’s failure zone. This study was conducted under the remit of the EU ‘Sustainable Bridges’ Project.

National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7102 (URN)10.1177/1475921712438568 (DOI)000305901900010 ()2-s2.0-84863435603 (Scopus ID)56c4fd12-e4c1-465d-9c25-6fecf3dd8c12 (Local ID)56c4fd12-e4c1-465d-9c25-6fecf3dd8c12 (Archive number)56c4fd12-e4c1-465d-9c25-6fecf3dd8c12 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2012; 20120104 (gabsas)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Sabourova, N., Grip, N., Puurula, A., Enochsson, O., Tu, Y., Ohlsson, U., . . . Thun, H. (2012). The railway concrete arch bridge over Kalix river: dynamic properties and load carrying capacity (ed.). In: (Ed.), Dirch H Bager; Johan Silfwerbrand (Ed.), Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community: proceedings of the International FIB Symposium 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, 11 - 14 June 2012. Paper presented at FIB Symposium : Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community 11/06/2012 - 14/06/2012 (pp. 609-612). Stockholm: Swedish Concrete Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The railway concrete arch bridge over Kalix river: dynamic properties and load carrying capacity
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2012 (English)In: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community: proceedings of the International FIB Symposium 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, 11 - 14 June 2012 / [ed] Dirch H Bager; Johan Silfwerbrand, Stockholm: Swedish Concrete Association , 2012, p. 609-612Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Swedish Concrete Association, 2012
National Category
Mathematical Analysis Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Mathematics; Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-27231 (URN)0995d66a-9097-44cb-838f-92a00c30f8bf (Local ID)978-91-980098-1-1 (ISBN)0995d66a-9097-44cb-838f-92a00c30f8bf (Archive number)0995d66a-9097-44cb-838f-92a00c30f8bf (OAI)
Conference
FIB Symposium : Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community 11/06/2012 - 14/06/2012
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20120328 (grip)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-03-27Bibliographically approved
Sas, G., Blanksvärd, T., Enochsson, O., Emborg, M., Täljsten, B., Puurula, A. & Elfgren, L. (2011). Flexural-shear failure of a full scale tested RC bridge strengthened with NSM CFRP: Shear capacity analysis (ed.). Paper presented at . Nordic Concrete Research, 2/2011(44), 189-206
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexural-shear failure of a full scale tested RC bridge strengthened with NSM CFRP: Shear capacity analysis
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2011 (English)In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 2/2011, no 44, p. 189-206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Civil engineering and architecture - Building engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Byggnadsteknik
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6082 (URN)44720aad-6930-482c-9a97-744e29ae60f0 (Local ID)44720aad-6930-482c-9a97-744e29ae60f0 (Archive number)44720aad-6930-482c-9a97-744e29ae60f0 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2011; 20111215 (mem)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
Enochsson, O., Sabourova, N., Emborg, M. & Elfgren, L. (2011). Gruvvägsbron I Kiruna: Deformationskapacitet (ed.). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå University of Technology. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Division of Structural Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gruvvägsbron I Kiruna: Deformationskapacitet
2011 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

En bedömning har gjorts av hur stora deformationer Gruvvägsbron i Kiruna kan klara med bibehållen bärförmåga. I projektet har mätningar av brons beteende vid statisk och dynamisk belastning utförts under vinter- respektive sommarförhållanden. Mätningarna har utvärderats och analyserats med FEMprogram för att kunna bedöma brons styvhet och deformationskapacitet. Syftet har varit att undersöka hur mycket bron klarar av i stödförändringar på grund av gruvdriften. Preliminära gränsvärden för stödförändringar har tagits fram.Brons statiska funktionssätt är tillfredsställande. Enligt hittillsvarande mätningar (t o m dec 2010) har endast små markrörelser ägt rum vilket inte nämnvärt påverkar brons funktion.Brons dynamiska funktionssätt är också tillfredsställande. Uppmätta egenmoder och egenfrekvenser är normala för denna typ av förspänd balkbro. Bron är förhållandevis styv och de analytiska och numeriska beräkningar(FEM-analyser) som gjorts tyder på att den har förhållandevis begränsad deformationskapacitet. Vi bedömer att bron klarar följande lokala deformationsskillnad mellan två närliggande pelare: (a) i horisontalled ca 40mm och (b) i vertikalled ca 80 mm. Om tillåtna värden sätts till hälften av de möjliga erhålls:Tillåten differens för rörelse(a) i tvärled mellan en pelares över- och underkant till = ca 20 mm(b) i höjdled mellan två intilliggande stöd till = ca 40 mmVärdena kan komma att revideras (förfinas) i samband med att resultat blir tillgängliga från fortsatta mätningar och observationer av brons beteende.Några markrörelser av betydelse inträffade inte mellan november 2006 och 2008, men under 2009 och 2010 har rörelser skett med några mm. Brons längdändring på grund av temperaturvariationer är dock betydligt större. Bronär ca 3 – 4 cm längre på sommaren än på vintern. Eftersom markrörelserna förväntas bli betydligt större i samband med att gruvans brytningsfront närmar sig bron försågs brons pelare under sommaren2010 med en anordning rdning så att deras läge kan justeras om markrörelserna blirojämna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Division of Structural Engineering, 2011. p. 108
Series
Technical report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1536
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering; Attractive built environment (AERI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-24749 (URN)c4d99b90-e07e-4831-84a9-7a82c3dde9c9 (Local ID)c4d99b90-e07e-4831-84a9-7a82c3dde9c9 (Archive number)c4d99b90-e07e-4831-84a9-7a82c3dde9c9 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2011; 20150519 (elfgren)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
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