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Vidal, B., Hedström, A., Barraud, S., Kärrman, E. & Herrmann, I. (2019). Assessing the sustainability of on-site sanitation systems using multi-criteria analysis. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the sustainability of on-site sanitation systems using multi-criteria analysis
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, ISSN 2053-1400Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Small on-site sanitation systems are widely present in suburban and rural areas in many countries. As these systems often underperform and have an impact on receiving waters, understanding their overall sustainability is of interest for policy and decision-makers. However, the definition and estimation of indicators defining sustainability are challenging, as it is finding the methodological approach to combine qualitative and quantitative indicators into one comprehensive assessment. In this study, twelve indicators defined by environmental, economic, social, technical and health-related criteria were used to compare nine alternatives of on-site sanitation for single households. A non-compensatory method for multi-criteria decision analysis, ELECTRE III, was used for the assessment together with weights assigned to each indicator by a reference group. Several scenarios were developed to reflect different goals and a sensitivity analysis was conducted. Overall, the graywater–blackwater separation system resulted as the most sustainable option and, in terms of polishing steps for phosphorus removal, chemical treatment was preferred over the phosphorus filter, both options being implemented together with sand filters. Assessing the robustness of the systems was a crucial step in the analysis given the high importance assigned to the aforementioned indicator by the stakeholders, thus the assessment method must be justified. The proposed multi-criteria approach contributes to aid the assessment of complex information needed in the selection of sustainable sanitation systems and in the provision of informed preferences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
Keywords
ELECTRE III, package plant, phosphorus removal, sand filter, small-scale, source separation
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75465 (URN)10.1039/c9ew00425d (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 942-2015-758
Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2019-08-13
Pericault, Y., Bruaset, S., Ugarelli, R., Viklander, M. & Hedström, A. (2019). Correcting for the impact of past coordination on the estimation of pipe cohorts survival functions. In: : . Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Sewer Processes & Networks, Aalborg Denmark, August 27-30 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correcting for the impact of past coordination on the estimation of pipe cohorts survival functions
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Keywords
Asset management, coordinated replacement; cohort survival functions
National Category
Water Engineering Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75082 (URN)
Conference
9th International Conference on Sewer Processes & Networks, Aalborg Denmark, August 27-30 2019
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-06-27
Søberg, L., Viklander, M., Blecken, G.-T. & Hedström, A. (2019). Reduction of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalisand Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention: Effect of drying, temperature and submerged zone. Journal of Hydrology X, 3, Article ID 100025.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction of Escherichia coliEnterococcus faecalisand Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention: Effect of drying, temperature and submerged zone
2019 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology X, ISSN 2589-9155, Vol. 3, article id 100025Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of drying and temperature on the reduction of Escherichia coliEnterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention systems with and without a submerged zone was assessed using 16 pilot-scale bioretention columns under controlled laboratory conditions. The experimental design enabled analysis of possible interactions between the factors. First outflow and event-based samples were collected. Outflow concentrations were independent of inflow concentrations and hence controlled by internal processes. Overall TSS removal was high but sensitive to bacterial synthesis. Event-based samples had significantly higher bacteria concentrations than first outflow samples, suggesting that remaining/surviving bacteria in the bioretention cells have little effect on initial peak outflow concentrations. The effect of temperature varied between bacterial species and sample types. Long dry periods seemed beneficial for bacteria reduction, but outflow bacteria concentrations peaked during the second watering after long dry periods. Submerged zones significantly reduced bacteria outflow concentrations. However, sudden temperature increases caused bioretention cells with a submerged zone to produce significantly higher bacteria outflow concentrations than before the temperature increase, which was not the case for standard cells. Bioretention cells with submerged zones may thus be poor choices for reducing bacterial concentrations in stormwater runoff in areas experiencing winter conditions. Finally, our results suggest that adsorption (e.g. further enhanced by biofilm formation) is the major mechanism governing bacteria reduction in bioretention systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Bacteria, Submerged zone, Stormwater, Bioretention, Winter performance, Wet and dry periods
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73082 (URN)10.1016/j.hydroa.2019.100025 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Panasiuk, O., Hedström, A., Ashley, R., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). The feasibility of using flap gates as constriction flow meters for estimating sanitary sewer overflows (SSO). Desalination and Water Treatment, 155, 113-119
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The feasibility of using flap gates as constriction flow meters for estimating sanitary sewer overflows (SSO)
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2019 (English)In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 155, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increased awareness of the negative effects of sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) events on human health and aquatic life led to the development of various control measures, of which implementation is impeded by the lack of information on SSO occurrences, flows and volumes. The collection of such information requires data acquisition systems, which can be costly and are fully utilized just during limited time periods of the year. In search for inexpensive approaches to SSO monitoring, the feasibility of using existing flap gate installations, serving for prevention of back-up flows into sewers, as constriction flow meters was investigated, with promising results. An experimental pilotscale setup was designed to allow steady water flow through a flap gate built into a partition wall between two chambers. The stabilized water heads in the chambers and the flow rate through the flap gate were measured, for both dry and submerged flap gate conditions, and five flap gate sizes (200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm), with relatively heavy covers (6–102 kg). The measured data were used to develop flow rating curves, by non-linear regression, in the form Q = f (ΔH), where Q is the discharge through the flap gate and ΔH is the pressure differential upstream and downstream of the gate. The regression curves fitted the experimental data with high precision (R2 >0.99). The use of flow rating curves for estimation of the SSO volume was discussed. This study demonstrated that the water head measurements upstream and downstream of the flap gate can provide a reliable, accurate and inexpensive method for quantification of the SSO discharges and volumes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Desalination Publications, 2019
Keywords
Flap gates, Sanitary sewer overflows (SSO), SSO volumes
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74804 (URN)10.5004/dwt.2019.24011 (DOI)000470121900011 ()2-s2.0-85067931662 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-20 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Panasiuk, O., Hedström, A., Ashley, R., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). The feasibility of using flap gates as constriction flow meters for estimating sanitary sewer overflows (SSO). Desalination and Water Treatment (155), 113-119
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The feasibility of using flap gates as constriction flow meters for estimating sanitary sewer overflows (SSO)
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2019 (English)In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, no 155, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increased awareness of the negative effects of sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) events on human health and aquatic life led to the development of various control measures, of which implementation is impeded by the lack of information on SSO occurrences, flows and volumes. The collection of such information requires data acquisition systems, which can be costly and are fully utilized just during limited time periods of the year. In search for inexpensive approaches to SSO monitoring, the feasibility of using existing flap gate installations, serving for prevention of back-up flows into sewers, as constriction flow meters was investigated, with promising results. An experimental pilot-scale setup was designed to allow steady water flow through a flap gate built into a partition wall between two chambers. The stabilized water heads in the chambers and the flow rate through the flap gate were measured, for both dry and submerged flap gate conditions, and five flap gate sizes (200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm), with relatively heavy covers (6–102 kg). The measured data were used to develop flow rating curves, by non-linear regression, in the form Q = f (ΔH), where Q is the discharge through the flap gate and ΔH is the pressure differential upstream and downstream of the gate. The regression curves fitted the experimental data with high precision (R2 >0.99). The use of flow rating curves for estimation of the SSO volume was discussed. This study demonstrated that the water head measurements upstream and downstream of the flap gate can provide a reliable, accurate and inexpensive method for quantification of the SSO discharges and volumes.

Keywords
Flap gates, Sanitary sewer overflows (SSO), SSO volumes
National Category
Water Treatment Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75546 (URN)10.5004/dwt.2019.24011 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2012-618
Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2019-08-15
Nyström, F., Nordqvist, K., Herrmann, I., Hedström, A. & Viklander, M. (2019). Treatment of road runoff by coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation. Water Science and Technology, 79(3), 518-525
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of road runoff by coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation
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2019 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 518-525Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A laboratory investigation of the treatment potential of a coagulation process in the context of stormwater treatment was undertaken. The initial 25 L road runoff generated from four rain events was collected and subjected to a jar-testing regime with two commercial coagulants. The treatment effect was assessed by analysing the runoff before and after treatment for turbidity, suspended solids and metal content. The coagulation process resulted in particle and total metal reduction of more than 90% compared to 40% for only sedimentation. Up to 40% reduction of dissolved Cr, Cu and Pb was also observed compared to 0% for sedimentation. This study shows that coagulation may be a useful process for stormwater treatment systems when the treatment requirements are high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IWA Publishing, 2019
Keywords
advanced stormwater treatment, coagulation, metals, particles, road runoff, suspended solids
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73090 (URN)10.2166/wst.2019.079 (DOI)30924806 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85063686388 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-20075Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01447
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-04-08 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Panasiuk, O., Hedström, A., Langeveld, J., de Haan, C., Liefting, E., Schilperoort, R. & Viklander, M. (2019). Using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) forLocating and Characterising Infiltration and Inflowinto Foul Sewers before, during and afterSnowmelt Period. Water, 11, Article ID 1529.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) forLocating and Characterising Infiltration and Inflowinto Foul Sewers before, during and afterSnowmelt Period
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2019 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, article id 1529Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Infiltration and inflow (I/I) into sewers cause negative effects on the sewer system,wastewater treatment plant and environment. Identifying the causes and locating the inflows isnecessary in order to address the I/I problem. This paper focuses on using distributed temperaturesensing (DTS) for identifying, locating and characterising I/I into a sewer system during the endof winter–beginning of summer transition period under dry and wet weather conditions. Duringsnowmelt, several locations with I/I were identified, while these locations did not show I/I duringstorm events after the snowmelt. In addition, during a very heavy storm after the snowmelt period,I/I was found at other locations. Therefore, DTS was demonstrated to be effective in identifying thetype of I/I and in locating I/I. Finally, I/I monitoring campaigns in cold climates should take intoaccount the variety of pathways of I/I during snowmelt and during rainfall.

Keywords
distributed temperature sensing, infiltration and inflow, snowmelt, foul sewers
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75547 (URN)10.3390/w11081529 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2012-618Vinnova, 2011-03232
Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2019-08-15
Pericault, Y., Kärrman, E., Viklander, M. & Hedström, A. (2018). Data supporting the life cycle impact assessment and cost evaluation of technical alternatives for providing water and heating services to a suburban development in Gällivare Sweden. Data in Brief, 21, 1204-1208
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data supporting the life cycle impact assessment and cost evaluation of technical alternatives for providing water and heating services to a suburban development in Gällivare Sweden
2018 (English)In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 21, p. 1204-1208Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The article presents input data that were used in Pericault et al. (2018) for life cycle impact assessment and total cost assessment of five technical alternatives for heat and water services provision in a suburban development in Sweden. The data consists of a list of environmental impacts (cumulative exergy demand of energy carriers – CExDe, global warming potential – GWP, abiotic depletion potential of elements – ADPE), costs, amortisation periods, lifetimes and output flows of the system processes composing the alternatives. The data was derived from values collected in lifecycle databases, environmental product declarations, scientific publications and personal communications with companies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71489 (URN)10.1016/j.dib.2018.10.058 (DOI)000457925900164 ()
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Pericault, Y., Kärrman, E., Viklander, M. & Hedström, A. (2018). Expansion of Sewer, Water and District Heating Networks in Cold Climate Regions: an Integrated Sustainability Assessment. Sustainability, 10(10), Article ID 3743.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expansion of Sewer, Water and District Heating Networks in Cold Climate Regions: an Integrated Sustainability Assessment
2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 3743Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents an integrated sustainability assessment of technical alternatives for water and heating services provision in suburban areas affected by a cold climate. Each alternative combines a drinking water supply, sewerage (gravity or low-pressure), pipe freeze protection (deep burial or shallow burial with heat tracing) and heating solution (district heating or geothermal heat pumps). An innovative freeze protection option was considered, in which low-temperature district heating (LTDH) is used to heat trace shallow sewer and water pipes. First, the performance of each alternative regarding seven sustainability criteria was evaluated on a projected residential area in Sweden using a systems analysis approach. A multi-criteria method was then applied to propose a sustainability ranking of the alternatives based on a set of weights obtained from local stakeholders. The alternative with a deep buried gravity sewer and geothermal heat pumps was found to have the highest sustainability score in the case study. In the sensitivity analysis, the integrated trench solution with a gravity sewer, innovative heat tracing and LTDH was found to potentially top the sustainability ranking if geothermal energy was used as the district heating source, or if the weight of the cost criterion increased from 24% to 64%. The study highlights the need for integrated decision-making between different utility providers as an integrated solution can represent sustainability gains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2018
Keywords
low pressure sewer, low temperature district heating, freeze protection, life cycle assessment, multi-criteria
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71253 (URN)10.3390/su10103743 (DOI)000448559400385 ()2-s2.0-85055094129 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-10-30 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, J., Hedström, A., Westerlund, L., Dahl, J., Ashley, R. & Viklander, M. (2018). Impacts on rural wastewater systems in subarctic regions due to changes in inputs from households (ed.). Journal of cold regions engineering, 32(1), Article ID 04017019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts on rural wastewater systems in subarctic regions due to changes in inputs from households
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2018 (English)In: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 32, no 1, article id 04017019Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of water-saving appliances and heat exchangers is becoming increasingly popular to decrease water consumption and recover energy from preheated water. However, such in-household changes can bring particular implications for subarctic rural areas, in terms of solids deposition in sewers and drops in performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), because these are already experiencing diminishing wastewater flows due to depopulation and seasonal dips in wastewater temperature resulting from infiltration into sewers. Hence, this study has considered two communities in Sweden, postulating three different cases with various scales of retrofitting and usage. The results indicate that the decrease in in-pipe velocities when all households are retrofitted with water-saving appliances could be counteracted by sewer relining, but not by the inclusion of a conventional estimate of infiltration. However, for the case in which retrofitting was combined with decreased usage of the appliances, the decrease in self-cleansing capacity could not be counteracted. The retrofitting of heat exchangers under shower trays in all households did not have a significant effect on treatment processes at the WWTP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2018
National Category
Water Engineering Energy Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14539 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)CR.1943-5495.0000145 (DOI)000428257200005 ()2-s2.0-85030121882 (Scopus ID)de948167-31d8-4bac-a3d7-ca6af781096b (Local ID)de948167-31d8-4bac-a3d7-ca6af781096b (Archive number)de948167-31d8-4bac-a3d7-ca6af781096b (OAI)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-09-25 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-20Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9541-3542

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