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Hällmark, R., Collin, P. & Hicks, S. J. (2019). Post-installed shear connectors: Fatigue push-out tests of coiled spring pins. Journal of constructional steel research, 153, 298-309
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-installed shear connectors: Fatigue push-out tests of coiled spring pins
2019 (English)In: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 153, p. 298-309Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The number of heavy vehicles and their weight have been increasing over time, implying that many bridges are experiencing traffic loads with higher magnitude and frequency than they were originally designed for. In some cases, it will be necessary to either replace or strengthen the structures to keep the bridges in service. For existing non-composite steel girder bridges, post-installation of shear connectors can often be used to increase the traffic load capacity significantly. One type of shear connector that is suitable for post-installation, even though not commonly used, is the Coiled Spring Pin. These interference fit connectors can be installed from below the bridge deck during traffic, in order to minimize the impact on road users. This paper describes an experimental study on the fatigue strength of Coiled Spring Pins and a compilation of previously performed fatigue tests on this type of connector. The new test series, with nine specimens, are evaluated statistically and a fatigue strength design equation is proposed. The results show that there are large variations between different test series, while tests within the same series show good agreement. The reasons for this are discussed in the paper along with recommendations for future testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
push-out test, fatigue, coiled spring pin, shear studs, strengthening, shear connector, post installation, composite, steel, concrete
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70889 (URN)10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.10.017 (DOI)000457510200022 ()2-s2.0-85055559362 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-10-30 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-09-18 Created: 2018-09-18 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Hällmark, R. & Collin, P. (2019). Post-Installed Shear Connectors: Monitoring a Bridge Strengthened with Coiled Spring Pins. Structural Engineering International, 29(2), 225-233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-Installed Shear Connectors: Monitoring a Bridge Strengthened with Coiled Spring Pins
2019 (English)In: Structural Engineering International, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traffic density and vehicle weight have been increasing over time, which implies that many existing road bridges were not designed for the high service loads and increased number of load cycles that they are subjected to today. One way to increase the traffic load capacity of non-composite steel–concrete bridges is to post-install shear connectors. This paper presents a study of a steel–concrete bridge that has been strengthened with post-installed coiled spring pins, a type of connector which can be installed from below while the bridge is still in service. The strengthening method and design procedure are presented, along with the results from field monitoring performed to evaluate the behaviour of the strengthened structure. The results from the strengthened and non-strengthened sections show that the coiled spring pins counteract the slip and increases the degree of composite action. Finite-element models of the field tests were created in order to compare the results using different design assumptions and establish a suitable level of detail for modelling the shear connectors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
shear connector, composite action, monitoring, strengthening, coiled spring pin
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70192 (URN)10.1080/10168664.2018.1456893 (DOI)000472557400004 ()2-s2.0-85055508944 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-07-10 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-08-01 Created: 2018-08-01 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Hällmark, R., Collin, P. & Hicks, S. J. (2019). Post-installed Shear Connectors: Push-out Tests of Coiled Spring Pins vs. Headed Studs. Journal of constructional steel research, 161, 1-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-installed Shear Connectors: Push-out Tests of Coiled Spring Pins vs. Headed Studs
2019 (English)In: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 161, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Steadily increasing traffic volumes and traffic loads lead to a continuously growing demand for bridge rehabilitation, strengthening and replacement projects. For existing steel girder bridges with non-composite concrete decks, the traffic load capacity can often be increased significantly if composite action can be created afterwards. Different kinds of shear connectors are more or less suitable for post-installation. Coiled spring pins are one type of interference fit connector that can be installed from below the bridge deck during traffic, in order to minimize the impact on road users. This paper describes an experimental study on the static capacity and stiffness of coiled spring pins used as shear connectors at steel-concrete interfaces. Six push-out test series are presented, with a total of 28 tests, together with an alternative type of test set-up. The results show that the failure of the coiled spring pins is very ductile and that the load capacity is predictable and sufficient for a cost-effective application. The tests also indicate a significantly lower stiffness of the connectors in comparison to welded headed studs of similar dimensions, which might be of great importance if an existing shear connection is strengthened.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
push-out test, coiled spring pin, headed shear studs, strengthening, shear connector, post installation, composite, steel, concrete
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70888 (URN)10.1016/j.jcsr.2019.06.009 (DOI)000488660300001 ()2-s2.0-85068071491 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-07-08 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-09-18 Created: 2018-09-18 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Pipinato, A., Collin, P. & Hällmark, R. (2019). Prolonging the Lifetime of Old Steel and Steel–Concrete Bridges: Assessment Procedures and Retrofitting Interventions. Structural Engineering International
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prolonging the Lifetime of Old Steel and Steel–Concrete Bridges: Assessment Procedures and Retrofitting Interventions
2019 (English)In: Structural Engineering International, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The structural analysis of existing bridges is not widely covered by the various codes and standards, resulting in the insecure and, in some cases, critical condition of this type of structure. Regarding national regulation, few states include compulsory codes that define the methods and procedures of inspection, assessment, maintenance and retrofitting of bridges. Although an accurate retrofitting procedure can prolong the life of an existing bridge, the more accurate management of national infrastructure assets can result in financial savings in the long term. This article deals with: (a) the assessment step-level procedure, (b) suggestions for bridge load tests and bridge categories, (c) bridge material analysis, (d) structural testing analysis, and (e) the main retrofitting interventions to prolong the life of existing steel and steel composite bridges. Furthermore, a representative case study is analysed and discussed, including examples of the retrofitting solutions implemented to prolong the service life of the bridge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
steel bridges, composite bridges, multi-criteria decision analysis, existing bridges, inspection, assessment, retrofitting
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76127 (URN)10.1080/10168664.2019.1660602 (DOI)000491251700001 ()
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-11-06
Hällmark, R., Jackson, P., Collin, P. & White, H. (2019). Strengthening Bridges with Postinstalled Coiled Spring Pin Shear Connectors: State-of-the-Art Review. Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, 24(1), Article ID 03118001.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strengthening Bridges with Postinstalled Coiled Spring Pin Shear Connectors: State-of-the-Art Review
2019 (English)In: Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, ISSN 1084-0680, E-ISSN 1943-5576, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 03118001Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many existing bridge structures experience much more significant loads and load cycles than were anticipated when the bridges were originally designed. An effective way to increase the load capacity and fatigue resistance of steel girder with non-composite concrete deck bridge structures is to retrofit the structure with shear connectors to create a composite girder-deck structure. This paper presents a state-of the art study of post-installed shear connectors in general and coiled spring connectors in particular. The strengthening method is described together with experiences from real bridge strengthening projects, along with a study of load capacity and structural behavior.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2019
Keywords
Shear connector, composite action, coiled spring pin, bridge strengthening, rehabilitation, bridge
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70887 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)SC.1943-5576.0000394 (DOI)000453221500002 ()2-s2.0-85056078406 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-12-05 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-09-18 Created: 2018-09-18 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
Arason, M., Collin, P. & Hällmark, R. (2019). Strengthening of steel girder bridges using coiled pins. In: Proceedings from the 2019 IABSE Congress New York City: The Evolving Metropolis. Paper presented at 2019 IABSE Congress New York City.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strengthening of steel girder bridges using coiled pins
2019 (English)In: Proceedings from the 2019 IABSE Congress New York City: The Evolving Metropolis, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A requirement for heavier vehicular transport on the Norwegian road network has resulted in a demand forincreased bearing capacity for many of the older bridges in the country. Many of the bridges that have beenfound to have insufficient capacity against present-day demands are steel girder bridges with concrete slabswithout a shear connection between steel and concrete. There is a large number of bridges of this type inNorway and the paper presents strengthening of two of those, in Aust-Agder county in the south of thecountry. These bridges are approximately 30 m long, single span. The bearing capacity has been upgraded byinstalling composite action between the steel girders and the concrete slab using coiled pins, in conjunctionwith thickening of the bottom flange of the steel girders. To obtain composite action, the pins are fitted totightly drilled holes through the top flange of girders up into the concrete slab. Coiled pins have not been usedmuch for bridge applications. In the work presented, the method has been found to have advantages in termsof cost and workability. Furthermore, the method has benefits when viewed from an environmentalstandpoint, since it allows strengthening

National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76128 (URN)
Conference
2019 IABSE Congress New York City
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-10-22
Hällmark, R. (2018). Composite Bridges: Innovative ways of achieving composite action. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composite Bridges: Innovative ways of achieving composite action
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Samverkansbroar : Innovativa sätt att skapa samverkan
Abstract [en]

The topic of this thesis is steel-concrete composite bridges and innovative ways of achieving composite action. The typical superstructure consists of three main components: the steel girders, the concrete deck slab and the shear connectors. The latter connects the steel and the concrete parts to each other, which enables a design where the parts are assumed to act as one structural member, the composite beam.

The research presented in this thesis is primarily focused on different construction- and strengthening-methods, developed to reduce the impact on the road users, mainly by reducing the time spent on the construction site and the need of traffic restrictions.

The prefabricated steel girders give composite bridges some advantages in the construction stage, in comparison to the more common in-situ cast concrete bridges, since the girders can be launched or lifted into their final positions. Such an installation procedure is often favourable in case of crossings over roads, railways, rivers etc., since it minimizes the impact on the citizens using the infrastructure below the bridges and the need of temporary supports. In order to shorten the time spent on the construction site and to reduce the impact on the road users even more, prefabrication of the concrete deck can also be considered.

In this thesis, a review of different prefabrication techniques for composite bridges is presented, along with a study of one specific prefabrication concept that reduces the need of in-situ cast deck joints. This concept, with prefabricated concrete deck elements with dry joints, utilizes concrete shear keys to transfer shear forces over the transverse deck joints, while in-situ cast joints are used for the longitudinal connection between the steel girders and the concrete deck slab.

The structural behaviour of composite bridges with dry deck joints has been investigated by large scale beam tests, along with field measurements on a composite bridge built with this prefabrication concept. The load capacity of the shear keys has also been investigated by laboratory tests. The test results have been compared to numerical analyses and different design models, with the aim of developing design recommendations.

The results indicate that this type of bridges do not behave as conventional composite bridges with in-situ cast deck slabs. For single span bridges, which only experience positive bending moments, the structural behaviour in the ultimate limit state is close to the structural behaviour of conventional composite bridges. However, the degree of composite action is strongly reduced at lower load levels. This should be taken into account in the design in the fatigue- and the serviceability-limit states. Sections under negative bending moments behave in general as non-composite sections, which was expected due to the dry deck joints.

Based on the evaluation of the test results and the state -of-the-art review, design recommendations and design criteria are presented, along with production and execution recommendations for this type of prefabricated bridges.

Strengthening of existing bridges is another activity that often leads to traffic restrictions, which causes costs and troubles for the road users and the society. One method for strengthening non-composite steel-concrete bridges is post-installation of shear connectors, to create composite action. The composite cross-section has a larger stiffness and bending capacity, implying that a larger traffic load often can be allowed. It must however also be assured that other structural parts do not limit the load capacity of the structure.

There are several different types of shear connectors that can be used for post-installation, and some are more suitable than others. This thesis presents a state-of-the-art review on post-installed shear connectors in general and Coiled Spring Pins in particular. The latter is an interference fit connector that can be installed from below the bridge, with no or minor impact on the traffic on the bridge.

The behaviour of Coiled Spring Pins, used as shear connectors in composite bridges, has been investigated by experimental methods. Push-out tests have been used to study the static strength and the fatigue lifetime, while field monitoring of a real bridge structure has been used to study the behaviour on a structural level. The tests results have been evaluated and design criteria and design recommendations have been suggested.

The static tests and the following analysis show that Coiled Spring Pins are a very ductile type of shear connector, with a slightly different load-deformation behaviour than headed shear studs. The static strength of the shear connection shows a quite small spread even when different parameters are varied quite a lot. The performed fatigue tests in dicate a fatigue strength that are somewhat lower than headed studs, in terms of detail category, while previous test series by other researchers indicate a higher fatigue strength than headed studs. It can be noted that there is a large scatter between the results from different test series, performed by different researchers. The reasons to this scatter are discussed in the thesis and a conservative fatigue design criterion is presented.

The results from the field monitoring indicate that a bridge strengthened with Coiled Spring Pins behaves as a composite structure and that the Coiled Spring Pins reduce the slip significantly. The analysis of the test results shows that a design assuming full composite action, with rigid shear connection, describes the measured behaviour in a good way.

Based on the state-of-the-art review and the different tests performed, design recommendations and criteria are presented, along with production and execution recommendations for post-installation of Coiled Spring Pins.

Abstract [sv]

Ämnet för denna avhandling är samverkansbroar och innovativa sätt att skapa samverkan. Broöverbyggnaden består i regel av tre huvudkomponenter: stålbalkarna, betongfarbanan samt skjuvförbindarna. De sistnämnda binder samman stål- och betong-delarna, vilket möjliggör en dimensionering där de ingående delarna antas agera som en konstruktionsenhet, samverkansbalken.

Forskningen som presenteras i denna avhandling är framförallt fokuserad på olika konstruktions- och förstärknings-metoder, utvecklade för att minska påverkan på trafikanterna, huvudsakligen genom att reducera den tid som tillbringas på byggarbetsplatsen och därmed behovet av restriktioner för trafikanterna.

De prefabricerade stålbalkarna ger samverkansbroar en del fördelar i byggskedet, i jämförelse med de mer vanliga platsgjutna betongbroarna, eftersom stålbalkarna kan lanseras eller lyftas på plats. En sådan installationsprocedur är ofta fördelaktig för broar över vägar, järnvägar, älvar etc., eftersom den minimerar påverkan på de trafikanter som nyttjar infrastrukturen under bron samt behovet av temporära stöd. För att ytterligare reducera tiden på byggarbetsplatsen och påverkan på trafikanterna, kan även prefabricering av betongfarbanan övervägas.

I denna avhandling presenteras en genomgång av olika typer av prefabriceringstekniker för samverkansbroar, tillsammans med en studie av ett specifikt prefabriceringskoncept som reducerar behovet av platsgjutna fogar i farbanan. Detta koncept, med prefabricerade betongelement med torra fogar, nyttjar sig av betongklackar för att överföra skjuvkrafter i de tvärgående fogarna i brofarbanan, medan platsgjutna fogar används för den längsgående förbindningen mellan stålbalkarna och betongfarbanan.

Det statiska beteendet för samverkansbroar med torra farbanefogar har undersökts via storskaliga balktester, tillsammans med fältmätningar på en prefabricerad samverkansbro. Betongklackarnas lastkapacitet har också undersökts genom provning. Testresultaten har jämförts med numeriska analyser samt olika dimensioneringsmodeller, med målet att ta fram dimensionerings-rekommendationer.

Resultaten indikerar att denna typ av broar inte helt beter sig som konventionella samverkansbroar med platsgjutna farbanor. För enspanns-broar, som endast utsätts för positiva böjmoment, är beteendet i brottgränstillståndet snarlikt beteendet för en konventionell samverkansbro. Graden av samverkan är dock kraftigt reducerad vid lägre belastningsnivåer, vilket måste tas i beaktande vid dimensionering i bruksgränstillståndet respektive vid dimensionering för utmattning. Tvärsnitt utsatta för negativt böjmoment beter sig i allmänhet som icke-samverkans tvärsnitt, vilket var förväntat med tanke på de torra fogarna i farbanan.

Baserat på utvärderingen av testresultaten och litteraturstudien, presenteras dimensionerings-rekommendationer och -kriterier, tillsammans med produktions- och utförande-rekommendationer för denna typ av prefabriceringskoncept.

Förstärkning av befintliga broar är en annan aktivitet som ofta leder till trafikstörningar, vilket medför kostnader och problem för både trafikanterna och samhället i stort. En metod för att förstärka stål-betong balkbroar, som ursprungligen byggts utan samverkan, är att skapa samverkan genom efterinstallation av skjuvförbindare. Samverkanstvärsnittet har större styvhet och böjmotstånd, vilket innebär att högre trafiklaster ofta kan tillåtas. Det måste emellertid även säkerställas att andra konstruktionsdelar inte begränsar konstruktionens lastkapacitet.

Flertalet olika typer av skjuvförbindare kan användas för efterinstallation, vissa är dock mer lämpliga för detta än andra. Denna avhandling presenterar en litteraturstudie över efterinstallerade skjuvförbindare i allmänhet och spiralbultar (Coiled Spring Pins) i synnerhet. Den sistnämnda är en mekanisk presspassnings-förbindare som kan installeras underifrån bron, med ingen eller liten påverkan på trafiken uppe på bron.

Spiralbultarnas beteende, då de används som skjuvförbindare i samverkansbroar, har undersökts med experimentella metoder. Push-out-tester har använts för att studera den statiska lastkapaciteten och utmattningslivlängden, medan fältmätningar på en bro har använts för att studera konstruktionsbeteendet i större skala. Testresultaten har utvärderats och dimensionerings-kriterier och -rekommendationer har föreslagits.

De statiska testerna och den efterföljande analysen visar att spiralbultar är en väldigt duktil typ av skjuvförbindare, med ett något annorlunda last-deformations-samband än svetsbultar. Den statiska lastkapaciteten visar en ganska liten spridning även när olika parametrar varieras tämligen mycket. De utförda utmattningstesterna indikerar en utmattningskapacitet som är något lägre än den för svetsbultar, med avseende på detaljkategori, medan tidigare testserier av andra forskare indikerar en högre utmattningskapacitet än svetsbultar. Det kan noteras att det råder en stor spridning mellan resultaten från olika testserier, utförda av olika forskare. Anledningen till denna spridning diskuteras i avhandlingen och ett konservativt dimensioneringskriterium för utmattning presenteras.

Resultaten från fältmätningarna indikerar att en bro som förstärkts med spiralbultar beter sig som en samverkanskonstruktion och att spiralbultarna avsevärt reducerar glidningen i övergångsytan mellan stål och betong. Analysen av testresultaten visar att ett dimensioneringsantagande om full samverkan, med styv skjuvförbindning, beskriver det uppmätta beteendet på ett bra sätt.

Baserat på litteraturstudien och de utförda testerna, presenteras dimensionerings-rekommendationer och- kriterier, tillsammans med produktions- och utförande-rekommendationer för efterinstallation av spiralbultar.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Composite action, bridges, steel, concrete, shear connectors, prefabrication, coiled spring pins, shear studs, post-installation, design guidance
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70890 (URN)978-91-7790-201-0 (ISBN)978-91-7790-202-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-11-15, D770, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-09-25 Created: 2018-09-18 Last updated: 2019-09-11Bibliographically approved
Hällmark, R., Collin, P., Petersson, M. & Andersson, E. (2017). Monitoring of a bridge strengthened with post-installed coiled spring pins. In: IABSE Symposium, Vancouver, 2017: Engineering the Future. Paper presented at 39th IABSE Symposium, Engineering the Future, Vancouver, Canada, Sept 21-23, 2017 (pp. 1201-1208). Zürich, Switzerland: IABSE - International Association for Bridges and Structural Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring of a bridge strengthened with post-installed coiled spring pins
2017 (English)In: IABSE Symposium, Vancouver, 2017: Engineering the Future, Zürich, Switzerland: IABSE - International Association for Bridges and Structural Engineering , 2017, p. 1201-1208Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many existing bridges were not originally designed for the traffic loads and the number of load cycles which they now experience. In order to increase the load capacity of non-composite steel-concrete bridges, post installed shear connectors can be used. This paper describes a field monitoring of a steel-concrete bridge which have been strengthened with post-installed coiled spring pins as shear connectors. During the monitoring, the bridge was loaded with a 31 tonnes truck placed in specific positions while strains were measured in the steel main girders, together with the horizontal slip at the steel-concrete interface. The results indicate that the coiled spring pins prevent the slip and that they can be used for strengthening purpose. It is also observed that the friction in the steel-concrete interface can contribute quite a lot to the composite action, even though that effect cannot be accounted for in the design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Zürich, Switzerland: IABSE - International Association for Bridges and Structural Engineering, 2017
Keywords
Shear connector, bridge monitoring, composite bridge, composite action, coiled spring pin, shear studs, bridge strengthening, rehabilitation
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Building Technologies
Research subject
Structural Engineering; Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66148 (URN)2-s2.0-85050016139 (Scopus ID)978-3-85748-153-6 (ISBN)
Conference
39th IABSE Symposium, Engineering the Future, Vancouver, Canada, Sept 21-23, 2017
Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-10-16 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Hällmark, R., Collin, P. & Möller, M. (2017). Testing of coiled spring pins as shear connectors. In: IABSE Symposium, Vancouver, 2017: Engineering the Future. Paper presented at 39th IABSE Symposium, Engineering the Future, Vancouver, Canada, Sept 21-23, 2017 (pp. 1209-1216). Zürich, Switzerland: IABSE - International Association for Bridges and Structural Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing of coiled spring pins as shear connectors
2017 (English)In: IABSE Symposium, Vancouver, 2017: Engineering the Future, Zürich, Switzerland: IABSE - International Association for Bridges and Structural Engineering , 2017, p. 1209-1216Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A few decades ago, steel-concrete composite bridges were quite rare structures, whereas steel girder bridges with non-composite concrete decks were rather common. For the latter type of structure, composite action can be obtained long after the bridges were constructed by post installation of shear connectors. Most installation procedures involve reconstruction of pavement and concrete deck, which will result in traffic disturbance. There are however some types of shear connectors that can be installed from underneath, connecting the top flanges to the concrete deck, without affecting the upper surface. This means that the bridge can be strengthened during traffic. One type of such a shear connector is the coiled spring pin, which is an interference fit connector. This paper presents the results from push-out tests conducted in order to find the static capacity and the load-slip behaviour of coiled spring pins used as shear connectors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Zürich, Switzerland: IABSE - International Association for Bridges and Structural Engineering, 2017
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Building Technologies
Research subject
Structural Engineering; Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66146 (URN)2-s2.0-85050026942 (Scopus ID)978-3-85748-153-6 (ISBN)
Conference
39th IABSE Symposium, Engineering the Future, Vancouver, Canada, Sept 21-23, 2017
Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-10-16 Last updated: 2018-08-08Bibliographically approved
Hällmark, R., Jackson, P. & Collin, P. (2016). Post-installed shear connectors: coiled spring pins. In: Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid (Ed.), IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Paper presented at 19th IABSE Congress Stockholm, 21-23 September 2016 (pp. 1227-1234). CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-installed shear connectors: coiled spring pins
2016 (English)In: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, p. 1227-1234Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many existing bridges were not originally designed for the traffic loads and the number of load cycles which they now experience. In order to increase the load capacity of steel-concrete bridges, post installed shear connectors can be used. This paper presents a state-of the art study of postinstalled shear connectors in general and coiled spring connectors in particular

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland: , 2016
Series
IABSE Congress Report
Keywords
Shear connector, composite bridge, composite action, coiled spring pin, bridge strengthening, rehabilitation
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63030 (URN)2-s2.0-85018959894 (Scopus ID)978-3-85748-144-4 (ISBN)
Conference
19th IABSE Congress Stockholm, 21-23 September 2016
Projects
PROLIFE - Prolonging life time of old steel- and steel-concrete bridges
Available from: 2017-04-13 Created: 2017-04-13 Last updated: 2019-09-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1435-0071

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