Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 186) Show all publications
Billström, K., Evins, P., Martinsson, O., Jeon, H. & Weihed, P. (2019). Conflicting zircon vs. titanite U-Pb age systematics and the deposition of the host volcanic sequence to Kiruna-type and IOCG deposits in northern Sweden, Fennoscandian shield. Precambrian Research, 321, 123-133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conflicting zircon vs. titanite U-Pb age systematics and the deposition of the host volcanic sequence to Kiruna-type and IOCG deposits in northern Sweden, Fennoscandian shield
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 321, p. 123-133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Northern Norrbotten region, and in particular the Kiruna area, hosts a number of large apatite iron oxide deposits (e.g. the huge Kiirunavaara ore) of significant economic importance. Age data from rock lithologies hosting these ores, represented by metamorphosed rocks of the Porphyrite and Kiirunavaara Groups, are complex to interpret. This is illustrated by (LA-ICP-MS) data for titanite, and to some extent for rutile, which scatter considerably yielding ages within a span from ca. 2.1 Ga to 1.7 Ga. These analysed hydrothermal minerals, characterized by complex BSE images revealing darker and brighter zones, are located in ore zones and associated with e.g. strong scapolitisation, albitisation and actinolitisation. Previous (TIMS) zircon ages of host rocks, on the other hand, define a more narrower age interval between ca. 1900 and 1870 Ma, and this is supported by new U-Pb zircon results presented here. Furthermore, one coherent set of SIMS data for titanite from the Luossavaara ore favour that crystallization took place at ca 1.88 Ga, although laser ICP data from the same locality are much more complex. An implication arising from published pre-1.9 Ga laser ablation ages for titanites is that the emplacement of host rocks started already at around 2.1 Ga. As the depositional time of these rocks is crucial for the understanding of the overall crustal formation in northern Norrbotten, additional rocks were selected for age dating. New zircon age data (LA-ICP-MS and SIMS) give support to a scenario where host rocks to ores started to develop at around 1900 Ma and this calls for a re-evaluation of published LA-ICP-MS data of hydrothermal mineral phases.

Here, we present four models that aim to explain how pre-1.9 Ga titanite ages, believed to have a questionable geological significance, may develop. The principal idea is that ≤2.1 Ga alteration events were not responsible for the crystallization of the hydrothermal minerals, instead it is believed that apparent old age domains carry excess radiogenic lead due to the effect of ≤1.9 Ga hydrothermal processes. Currently, the interpretation of U-Pb isotope data in the study area remains enigmatic, and further radiometric analyses are required.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
U-Pb age, Iron ore, Norrbotten, Sweden, Zircon, Titanite
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72749 (URN)10.1016/j.precamres.2018.12.003 (DOI)000457657500008 ()2-s2.0-85058180697 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-01-31 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Alvarenga, R. A. .., Dewulf, J., Guinée, J., Schulze, R., Weihed, P., Bark, G. & Drielsma, J. (2019). Towards product-oriented sustainability in the (primary) metal supply sector. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 145, 40-48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards product-oriented sustainability in the (primary) metal supply sector
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 145, p. 40-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Consideration of sustainable supply of (primary) metals is increasingly influencing the policy agenda of western societies. Environmental sustainability can be managed from different perspectives, including a site-oriented one (strongly used by the mining sector) and a product-oriented one (as with life cycle assessment). The objectives of this article are to analyse and discuss the differences in these perspectives; to discuss potential benefits to the metal/mining sector of also considering the product-oriented perspective; and to propose ways for a smooth implementation. We made use of literature and expert knowledge, on top of interviews with different stakeholders, to identify why and how these perspectives are (not) used in the metal/mining sector. Moreover, we identified three key concerns related to the implementation of a product-oriented perspective in the sector (e.g., use of unrepresentative life cycle inventory (LCI) datasets for metal-based products) and proposed three corrective actions for all of them (e.g., increase the quantity and quality of LCI). Finally, we discuss how the corrective actions could be implemented in the sector in a smooth way and some potential benefits from its implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Raw materials, Mining, Metal, Life cycle, Sustainability
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73134 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.02.018 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061805826 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-03-07 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Abdelnasser, A., Kumral, M., Zoheir, B., Karaman, M. & Weihed, P. (2018). REE geochemical characteristics and satellite-based mapping of hydrothermal alteration in Atud gold deposit, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 145, 317-330
Open this publication in new window or tab >>REE geochemical characteristics and satellite-based mapping of hydrothermal alteration in Atud gold deposit, Egypt
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, ISSN 0899-5362, Vol. 145, p. 317-330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New geochemical data of the hydrothermal alteration zones associated with gold-bearing quartz veins at Atud mine are used for better understanding the ore evolution and exploration vectoring. ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI data are used to elucidate the distribution of gold-associated alteration zones. Three alteration zones are defined; zone 1 (sericite-kaolinite-quartz-pyrite), zone 2 (quartz-sericite-albite-pyrite), and zone 3 (chlorite-carbonate-epidote ± pyrite). Sericite and hydrothermal quartz are confined to the mineralized quartz veins. Fe-OH and OH-bearing minerals are observed along NW- and NE-trending shear zones in the Main Atud mine. The association of gold-bearing quartz veins and sericite alteration is constrained by processing ASTER- and OLI-imagery data. The geochemical data of the ore-enveloping hydrothermally altered rocks are used to assess the behavior of the REEs during the mineralization process. Mild enrichment in LREE and significant enrichment in the HREE are associated with sericite in zones (1) and (2) alterations. Carbonate alteration (zone 3) is enriched in LREE and in immobile HREE. Moreover, LREE and Eu anomalies have negative correlated with the Alteration Index (A.I.) and K2O index (K.I.) in zones 1 and 2, suggesting high mobility of LREE in K-rich hydrothermal fluids. On the other hand, HREE anomalies with increasing MgO index (M.I.) in alteration zone 3 may imply low solubility of these elements in alkaline solutions. Au anomalies linked to sericite/silica alteration is a rather meaningful vector for further exploration in the area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67608 (URN)10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2018.01.013 (DOI)000439403600025 ()2-s2.0-85041926005 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-07-23 (inah)

Available from: 2018-02-12 Created: 2018-02-12 Last updated: 2019-03-27Bibliographically approved
Zeballos, A., Weihed, P., Blanco, M. & Machaca, V. (2017). Characterization of some nonmetallic resources in Bolivia: an overview of their potentiality and their application in specialized formulations. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76(22), Article ID 754.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of some nonmetallic resources in Bolivia: an overview of their potentiality and their application in specialized formulations
2017 (English)In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 76, no 22, article id 754Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bolivia has several nonmetallic occurrences widespread in the country. Unfortunately, they are poorly studied and slightly characterized. In the present work, several nonmetallic occurrences located in La Paz, Oruro, Potosí and Santa Cruz were studied. The results of the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the materials will be presented, in order to approach their applicability in specialized industrial formulations. A preliminary test of the final products besides an overview of their potentiality will be exposed and a current view of the commercialization as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66733 (URN)10.1007/s12665-017-7094-7 (DOI)000416820300022 ()2-s2.0-85034744509 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-11-23 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Kampmann, T. C. & Weihed, P. (2017). Debatt: Falu gruvas 1,9 miljarder år gamla geologiska processer kan säkra samhällets framtida behov av metaller. Dala-Demokraten, Article ID 20 maj.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Debatt: Falu gruvas 1,9 miljarder år gamla geologiska processer kan säkra samhällets framtida behov av metaller
2017 (Swedish)In: Dala-Demokraten, ISSN 1103-9183, article id 20 majArticle in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mittmedia, 2017
Keywords
Geologi, Falu Gruva, Världsarvet Falu Gruva, Gruvbrytning, Luleå tekniska universitet
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63489 (URN)
Projects
Structural evolution, hydrothermal alteration and tectonic setting of the Falun base metal and gold deposit, Bergslagen region, Sweden
Funder
The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU)
Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
Kampmann, T. C., Stephens, M. & Weihed, P. (2016). 3D modelling and sheath folding at the Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) massive sulphide deposit and implications for exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden (ed.). Paper presented at . Mineralium Deposita, 51(5), 665-680
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D modelling and sheath folding at the Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) massive sulphide deposit and implications for exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden
2016 (English)In: Mineralium Deposita, ISSN 0026-4598, E-ISSN 1432-1866, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 665-680Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) deposit, situated in the Palaeoproterozoic (1.9–1.8 Ga) Bergslagen lithotectonic unit in the south-western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, is one of the major base metal sulphide deposits in Sweden. Altered rocks and ore types at Falun have been metamorphosed and deformed in a heterogeneous ductile manner, strongly modifying mineral assemblages in the original hydrothermal alteration system and the geometry of the deposit. Using a combined methodological approach, including surface mapping of lithologies and structures, drill core logging and microstructural investigation, the polyphase character (D1 and D2) of the ductile deformation is demonstrated and a 3D model for the deposit created. F2 sheath folding along axes that plunge steeply to the south-south-east, parallel to a mineral stretching lineation and the dip direction of the S2 foliation, is suggested as a key deformation mechanism forming steeply plunging, rod-shaped ore bodies. This is in contrast to previous structural models involving fold interference and, in turn, has implications for near-mine exploration, the occurrence of hanging-wall components to the ore body being questioned. Typical rock-forming minerals in the Falun alteration aureole include quartz, biotite/phlogopite, cordierite, anthophyllite and minor almandine, andalusite and chlorite, as well as dolomite, tremolite and actinolite. Where observable, the silicate minerals in the alteration rocks show growth patterns during different phases of the tectonothermal evolution, considerable static grain growth occurring between D1 and D2 and even after D2. A major high-strain zone, characterized by the mineral assemblage talc-chlorite-(quartz-biotite/phlogopite) defines a boundary between northern and southern structural domains at the deposit, and is closely spatially associated with the polymetallic massive sulphide ores. A possible role as a metal-bearing fluid conduit during ore genesis is discussed.

National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9197 (URN)10.1007/s00126-016-0638-z (DOI)000377024500007 ()2-s2.0-84955598369 (Scopus ID)7c293c1b-cd76-47eb-85c5-e1cf3a56f6d9 (Local ID)7c293c1b-cd76-47eb-85c5-e1cf3a56f6d9 (Archive number)7c293c1b-cd76-47eb-85c5-e1cf3a56f6d9 (OAI)
Projects
Structural evolution, hydrothermal alteration and tectonic setting of the Falun base metal and gold deposit, Bergslagen region, Sweden
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20150212 (tobkam)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Tavakoli, S., Bauer, T., Rasmussen, T. M., Weihed, P. & Elming, S.-å. (2016). Deep massive sulphide exploration using 2D and 3D geoelectrical and induced polarization data in Skellefte mining district, northern Sweden (ed.). Geophysical Prospecting, 64(6), 1602-1619
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deep massive sulphide exploration using 2D and 3D geoelectrical and induced polarization data in Skellefte mining district, northern Sweden
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Geophysical Prospecting, ISSN 0016-8025, E-ISSN 1365-2478, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 1602-1619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Geoelectrical and induced polarization data from measurements along three profiles and from one 3D survey are acquired and processed in the central Skellefte District, northern Sweden. The data were collected during two field campaigns in 2009 and 2010 in order to delineate the structures related to volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits and to model lithological contacts down to a maximum depth of 1.5 km. The 2009 data were inverted previously, and their joint interpretation with potential field data indicated several anomalous zones. The 2010 data not only provide additional information from greater depths compared with the 2009 data but also cover a larger surface area. Several high-chargeability low-resistivity zones, interpreted as possible massive sulphide mineralization and associated hydrothermal alteration, are revealed. The 3D survey data provide a detailed high-resolution image of the top ∼450 m of the upper crust around the Maurliden East, North, and Central deposits. Several anomalies are interpreted as new potential prospects in the Maurliden area, which are mainly concentrated in the central conductive zone. In addition, the contact relationship between the major geological units, e.g., the contact between the Skellefte Group and the Jörn Intrusive Complex, is better understood with the help of 2010 deep-resistivity/chargeability data. The bottommost part of the Vargfors basin is imaged using the 2010 geoelectrical and induced polarization data down to ∼1-km depth.

National Category
Geophysics Geology
Research subject
Exploration Geophysics; Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15251 (URN)10.1111/1365-2478.12363 (DOI)000386158100014 ()2-s2.0-84961572568 (Scopus ID)ebf80035-8141-4c62-94db-d97a3d1a5641 (Local ID)ebf80035-8141-4c62-94db-d97a3d1a5641 (Archive number)ebf80035-8141-4c62-94db-d97a3d1a5641 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-11-21 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Drielsma, J. A., Russell-Vaccari, A. J., Drnek, T., Brady, T., Weihed, P., Mistry, M. & Simbor, L. P. (2016). Erratum to: Mineral resources in life cycle impact assessment: defining the path forward (ed.). Paper presented at . The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 21(1), 133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Erratum to: Mineral resources in life cycle impact assessment: defining the path forward
Show others...
2016 (English)In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 133-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-16131 (URN)10.1007/s11367-015-1006-4 (DOI)000367522200012 ()2-s2.0-84952630822 (Scopus ID)fb6fa330-a4cc-4d19-b3f9-7536e38e7e7f (Local ID)fb6fa330-a4cc-4d19-b3f9-7536e38e7e7f (Archive number)fb6fa330-a4cc-4d19-b3f9-7536e38e7e7f (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20151207 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Zeballos, A., Weihed, P., Blanco, M. & Machaca, V. (2016). Geological, mineralogical and chemical characterization of Devonian kaolinite-bearing sediments for further applications in the ceramic (tiles) industry in La Paz, Bolivia (ed.). Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(7), Article ID 546.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geological, mineralogical and chemical characterization of Devonian kaolinite-bearing sediments for further applications in the ceramic (tiles) industry in La Paz, Bolivia
2016 (English)In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 75, no 7, article id 546Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Clay minerals are widely distributed in Bolivia; among them, illitic clays are most common in the Altiplano where they are mined for use in the ceramic industry that has been growing in the last few years. In addition to illitic sediments, kaolinitic sediments have been recently discovered in sedimentary units in the Bolivian Altiplano. Residual ball clay occurrences in Devonian sedimentary units were studied as part of this work. Geological mapping and geophysical studies (ERT and GPR) were done for better understanding the origin of the deposits and were part of a preliminary study of the mineral potential to define the relationship with the host rock. Chemical and mineralogical techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma analyses were performed in samples from the studied area to verify the presence of kaolinite. Atterberg limits and behaviour of the raw material in ceramic specimens supported by chemical analyses show that this material is suitable for manufacturing tile ceramics. This study provides fundamental knowledge for deposit exploitation and future generation of an alternative source of employment for the inhabitants of Micaya

National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-11311 (URN)10.1007/s12665-015-5212-y (DOI)000373635400005 ()2-s2.0-84961744633 (Scopus ID)a40d5b37-9ee7-4bfb-9efb-4907e6261f2f (Local ID)a40d5b37-9ee7-4bfb-9efb-4907e6261f2f (Archive number)a40d5b37-9ee7-4bfb-9efb-4907e6261f2f (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160411 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Martinsson, O., Billström, K., Broman, C., Weihed, P. & Wanhainen, C. (2016). Metallogeny of the Northern Norrbotten Ore Province, northern Fennoscandian Shield with emphasis on IOCG and apatite-iron ore deposits (ed.). Paper presented at . Ore Geology Reviews, 78, 447-492
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metallogeny of the Northern Norrbotten Ore Province, northern Fennoscandian Shield with emphasis on IOCG and apatite-iron ore deposits
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 78, p. 447-492Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Northern Norrbotten Ore Province in northernmost Sweden includes the type localities for Kiruna-type apatite iron deposits and has been the focus for intense exploration and research related to Fe oxide-Cu-Au mineralisation during the last decades. Several different types of Fe-oxide and Cu-Au ± Fe oxide mineralisation occur in the region and include: stratiform Cu ± Zn ± Pb ± Fe oxide type, iron formations (including BIF's), Kiruna-type apatite iron ore, and epigenetic Cu ± Au ± Fe oxide type which may be further subdivided into different styles of mineralisation, some of them with typical IOCG (Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold) characteristics. Generally, the formation of Fe oxide ± Cu ± Au mineralisation is directly or indirectly dated between ~ 2.1 and 1.75 Ga, thus spanning about 350 m.y. of geological evolution.The current paper will present in more detail the characteristics of certain key deposits, and aims to put the global concepts of Fe-oxide Cu-Au mineralisations into a regional context. The focus will be on iron deposits and various types of deposits containing Fe-oxides and Cu-sulphides in different proportions which generally have some characteristics in common with the IOCG style. In particular, ore fluid characteristics (magmatic versus non-magmatic) and new geochronological data are used to link the ore-forming processes with the overall crustal evolution to generate a metallogenetic model.Rift bounded shallow marine basins developed at ~ 2.1–2.0 Ga following a long period of extensional tectonics within the Greenstone-dominated, 2.5–2.0 Ga Karelian craton. The ~ 1.9–1.8 Ga Svecofennian Orogen is characterised by subduction and accretion from the southwest. An initial emplacement of calc-alkaline magmas into ~ 1.9 Ga continental arcs led to the formation of the Haparanda Suite and the Porphyrite Group volcanic rocks. Following this early stage of magmatic activity, and separated from it by the earliest deformation and metamorphism, more alkali-rich magmas of the Perthite Monzonite Suite and the Kiirunavaara Group volcanic rocks were formed at ~ 1.88 Ga. Subsequently, partial melting of the middle crust produced large volumes of ~ 1.85 and 1.8 Ga S-type granites in conjunction with subduction related A −/I-type magmatism and associated deformation and metamorphismIn our metallogenetic model the ore formation is considered to relate to the geological evolution as follows. Iron formations and a few stratiform sulphide deposits were deposited in relation to exhalative processes in rift bounded marine basins. The iron formations may be sub-divided into BIF- (banded iron formations) and Mg-rich types, and at several locations these types grade into each other. There is no direct age evidence to constrain the deposition of iron formations, but stable isotope data and stratigraphic correlations suggest a formation within the 2.1–2.0 Ga age range. The major Kiruna-type ores formed from an iron-rich magma (generally with a hydrothermal over-print) and are restricted to areas occupied by volcanic rocks of the Kiirunavaara Group. It is suggested here that 1.89–1.88 Ga tholeiitic magmas underwent magma liquid immiscibility reactions during fractionation and interaction with crustal rocks, including metaevaporites, generating more felsic magmatic rocks and Kiruna-type iron deposits. A second generation of this ore type, with a minor economic importance, appears to have been formed about 100 Ma later. The epigenetic Cu-Au ± Fe oxide mineralisation formed during two stages of the Svecofennian evolution in association with magmatic and metamorphic events and crustal-scale shear zones. During the first stage of mineralisation, from 1.89–1.88 Ga, intrusion-related (porphyry-style) mineralisation and Cu-Au deposits of IOCG affinity formed from magmatic-hydrothermal systems, whereas vein-style and shear zone deposits largely formed at c. 1.78 Ga.The large range of different Fe oxide and Cu-Au ± Fe oxide deposits in Northern Norrbotten is associated with various alteration systems, involving e.g. scapolite, albite, K feldspar, biotite, carbonates, tourmaline and sericite. However, among the apatite iron ores and the epigenetic Cu-Au ± Fe oxide deposits the character of mineralisation, type of ore- and alteration minerals and metal associations are partly controlled by stratigraphic position (i.e. depth of emplacement). Highly saline, NaCl + CaCl2 dominated fluids, commonly also including a CO2-rich population, appear to be a common characteristic feature irrespective of type and age of deposits. Thus, fluids with similar characteristics appear to have been active during quite different stages of the geological evolution. Ore fluids related to epigenetic Cu-Au ± Fe oxides display a trend with decreasing salinity, which probably was caused by mixing with meteoric water. Tentatively, this can be linked to different Cusingle bondAu ore paragenesis, including an initial (magnetite)-pyrite-chalcopyrite stage, a main chalcopyrite stage, and a late bornite stage.Based on the anion composition and the Br/Cl ratio of ore related fluids bittern brines and metaevaporites (including scapolite) seem to be important sources to the high salinity hydrothermal systems generating most of the deposits in Norrbotten. Depending on local conditions and position in the crust these fluids generated a variety of Cu-Au deposits. These include typical IOCG-deposits (Fe-oxides and Cu-Au are part of the same process), IOCG of iron stone type (pre-existing Fe-oxide deposit with later addition of Cu-Au), IOCG of reduced type (lacking Fe-oxides due to local reducing conditions) and vein-style Cu-Au deposits. From a strict genetic point of view, IOCG deposits that formed from fluids of a mainly magmatic origin should be considered to be a different type than those deposits associated with mainly non-magmatic fluids. The former tend to overlap with porphyry systems, whereas those of a mainly non-magmatic origin overlap with sediment hosted Cu-deposits with respect to their origin and character of the ore fluids.

National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-12551 (URN)10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.02.011 (DOI)000378450300028 ()2-s2.0-84968909194 (Scopus ID)bb499b14-f022-4437-a476-ca37d5cb06f5 (Local ID)bb499b14-f022-4437-a476-ca37d5cb06f5 (Archive number)bb499b14-f022-4437-a476-ca37d5cb06f5 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160317 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3879-3897

Search in DiVA

Show all publications