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Hamberg, R., Maurice, C. & Alakangas, L. (2018). The formation of unsaturated zones within cemented paste backfill mixtures: Effects on the release of copper, nickel, and zinc. Environmental science and pollution research international, 25(21), 20809-20822
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The formation of unsaturated zones within cemented paste backfill mixtures: Effects on the release of copper, nickel, and zinc
2018 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 21, p. 20809-20822Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flooding of cemented paste backfill (CPB) filled mine workings is, commonly, a slow process and could lead to the formation of unsaturated zones within the CPB-fillings. This facilitates the oxidation of sulfide minerals, and thereby increases the risk of trace-metal leaching. Pyrrhotitic tailings from a gold mine (CT), containing elevated concentrations of Ni, Cu and Zn, were mixed with cement and/or fly ash (1-3 wt. %) to form CT-CPB-mixtures. Pyrrhotite oxidation progressed more extensively during unsaturated conditions, where acidity resulted in dissolution of the Ni, Cu, and Zn associated with amorphous Fe-precipitates and/or cementitious phases. The establishment of acidic, unsaturated conditions in CT-CBP:s with low fractions (1 wt. %) of binders increased the Cu-release (to be higher than that from CT), owing to the dissolution of Cu-associated amorphous Fe-precipitates. In CT-CPB:s with relatively high proportions of binder, acidity from pyrrhotite oxidation was buffered to a greater extent. At this stage, Zn-leaching increased due the occurrence of fly ash-specific Zn-species soluble in alkaline conditions. Irrespective of binder proportion and water saturation level, the Ni- and Zn-release were lower, compared to that in CT. Fractions of Ni, Zn, and Cu associated with acid-soluble phases or amorphous Fe-precipitates, susceptible to remobilization under acidic conditions, increased in tandem with binder fractions. Pyrrhotite oxidation occurred irrespective of the water saturation level in the CPB-mixtures. That in turn, poses an environmental risk, whereas a substantial proportion of Ni, Cu and Zn were associated with acid-soluble phases.

Keywords
Tailings management, cement, trace metal leaching
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68435 (URN)10.1007/s11356-018-2222-9 (DOI)000438830900052 ()29756187 (PubMedID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-08-07 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2018-08-07Bibliographically approved
Hamberg, R., Maurice, C. & Alakangas, L. (2017). Lowering the water saturation level in cemented paste backfill mixtures: Effect on the release of arsenic. Minerals Engineering, 112, 84-91
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lowering the water saturation level in cemented paste backfill mixtures: Effect on the release of arsenic
2017 (English)In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 112, p. 84-91Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Cemented Paste Backfill (CPB) method allows the mixing of dewatered tailings slurries with cementitious binders to backfill excavated underground workings. After mine closure, CPB workings are permanently flooded by rising groundwater. This flooding is considered beneficial for reducing the risk of acid generation associated with CPB containing sulphide minerals. In general, CPB workings are slowly flooded and the process may lead to regions with a low degree of water saturation to form within the CPB. This in turn, may increase oxygen ingress in the CPB, thereby prolonging oxidation of the minerals. To investigate the environmental impact of this oxidation, tailings containing elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) and pyrrhotite were handled via CPB. In this study, CPB mixtures containing 1–3 wt.% of cementitious binders and tailings was studied. The water saturation level in the CPB-mixtures was lowered as curing time extended. In mimicked flooded conditions, the mobility of As in the CPB mixtures was correlated with As-bearing cementitious phases that are sensitive to a reduction in the pH. In CPB-mixtures with lower proportions of binders, cementitious As-phases dissolved while the water saturation level decreased to form more stable As-phases. Increasing binder fractions, most of the cementitious As-phases persisted in the CPB while water saturation levels were lowered and release of As increased. Regardless of curing conditions, managing these tailings via the CPB method yielded increased mobility of As compared with that in the unmodified tailings; this resulted possibly from the formation of less acid-tolerant As species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65077 (URN)10.1016/j.mineng.2017.05.005 (DOI)000410868200011 ()2-s2.0-85026233469 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-08-15 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Filcenco-Olteanu, A., Alakangas, L., Fiuza, A., Zlǎgnean, M. & Tomuş, N. (2017). Physical chemical characterization of historical mining waste and ARD prediction tests. Paper presented at Mineral Engineering Conference, MEC 2017, Wisla, Poland, 20-23 September 2017. E3S Web of Conferences, 18(4), Article ID 01031.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical chemical characterization of historical mining waste and ARD prediction tests
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2017 (English)In: E3S Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2267-1242, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 01031Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are thousands of historical mine tailings and metallurgical residues present on inactive metal mining sites which have been abandoned. However, the potential release of dissolved metals, acidity, or suspended particulates from mine-waste dumps can be a serious and long-lasting problem. A variety of environmental impacts may occur at this abandoned mine sites and leading the list is acid generation, which is one of the main problems from metal mining. The objective of the present study was to characterize and evaluate the Romanian historical tailing of Sasar-Red Valley, near Baia Mare. This involved physical and chemical characterization of the materials and its acid generating potential. Sasar tailing impoundment contains 8.5 million m3 of tailings and occupies an area of 32.5 hectares. Tailings samples were collected from different depths in three sampling points, and characterized by grain size, chemical elements concentration, elements distribution of elements in depth, paste pH, acid-base account and net acid generation tests. Acid base accounting (ABA) tests in conjunction with net acid generation (NAG) tests classified the samples into the category of 'potentially acid generating'. This paper presents a synthesis of works performed in the Improve Resource Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Footprint (REMinE) project.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2017
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66315 (URN)10.1051/e3sconf/201712301031 (DOI)2-s2.0-85031704706 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Mineral Engineering Conference, MEC 2017, Wisla, Poland, 20-23 September 2017
Note

Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2017-10-30 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Nyström, E., Kaasalainen, H. & Alakangas, L. (2017). Prevention of Sulfide Oxidation in Waste Rock using By-products and Industrial Remnants: a Suitability Study. In: Wolkersdorfer, C.; Sartz, L.; Sillanpää, M. & Häkkinen, A (Ed.), Mine Water & Circular Economy: A Green Congress. Paper presented at 13th International Mine Water Association Congress – “Mine Water & Circular Economy – A Green Congress”, Lappeenranta, Finland, 25-30 June 2017 (pp. 1170-1178). , 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevention of Sulfide Oxidation in Waste Rock using By-products and Industrial Remnants: a Suitability Study
2017 (English)In: Mine Water & Circular Economy: A Green Congress / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C.; Sartz, L.; Sillanpää, M. & Häkkinen, A, 2017, Vol. 2, p. 1170-1178Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Prevention and mitigation of acid rock drainage from mining are decisive for limiting environmental impact. Five by-products and industrial remnants (lime kiln dust, blast furnace slag, granulated blast furnace slag, cement kiln dust and fly ash) were investigated for their suitability to prevent acidity and metal(loid)s during leaching from highly sulfidic (50wt%, sulfide) waste rock in small scale laboratory test cells. Variations in pH and electrical conductivity in leachate allowed differentiation between the different materials. Lime kiln dust (5wt%) and fly ash (1 and 2.5wt%) were observed to be the most suitable materials to prevent acidity and metal(loid)s leaching.

National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66362 (URN)
Conference
13th International Mine Water Association Congress – “Mine Water & Circular Economy – A Green Congress”, Lappeenranta, Finland, 25-30 June 2017
Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Nason, P., Jia, Y., Maurice, C., Alakangas, L. & Öhlander, B. (2016). Biodegradation of Biosolids Under Aerobic Conditions: Implications for Cover Materials for Sulfide Mine Tailings Remediation (ed.). Mine Water and the Environment, 35(3), 273-282
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biodegradation of Biosolids Under Aerobic Conditions: Implications for Cover Materials for Sulfide Mine Tailings Remediation
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2016 (English)In: Mine Water and the Environment, ISSN 1025-9112, E-ISSN 1616-1068, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 273-282Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sewage sludge residue (biosolids) was investigated for its potential as a long-term tailings cover. Biosolids may prevent oxygen diffusion into underlying sulfide tailings through microbial aerobic biodegradation of organic matter. Biosolids were investigated at laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale using analysis of total organic matter (TOM) mass reduction and O2, CO2, CH4 concentrations to quantify the biodegradation rate. A 156-day, open microcosm experiment, in which the loss of biosolids mass over time at differing temperatures, mimicking ambient (20–22 °C), mesophilic (34 °C), and thermophilic (50 °C) conditions, indicated that TOM biodegradation was best in the mesophilic temperature range, with 14.8, 27.2, and 26.7 % mass depletion at ambient, mesophilic, and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The data was correlated to field-scale data that evaluated biodegradation rates via decreasing O2 and increasing CO2 concentrations. Field biodegradation rates were less than laboratory rates because lower mean annual temperatures (0.6–0.7 °C) diminished microbial activity. A calibrated model indicates that 20 % of a field application of biosolids will degrade within 2 years. However, the rate declines with time due to exhaustion of the most readily degradable organic fraction. If biodegradation cannot be maintained, the long-term effectiveness of biosolids as a covering material for mine tailings remains a concern.

National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15882 (URN)10.1007/s10230-015-0339-3 (DOI)000382193900002 ()2-s2.0-84928624256 (Scopus ID)f734105d-fe2c-485f-8869-7e75ca81458c (Local ID)f734105d-fe2c-485f-8869-7e75ca81458c (Archive number)f734105d-fe2c-485f-8869-7e75ca81458c (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-10-18 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Zhang, W., Alakangas, L., Wei, Z. & Long, J. (2016). Geochemical evaluation of heavy metal migration in Pb-Zn tailings covered by different topsoils (ed.). Paper presented at . Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 165, 134-142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geochemical evaluation of heavy metal migration in Pb-Zn tailings covered by different topsoils
2016 (English)In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 165, p. 134-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Heavy metal migration was evaluated in Pb-Zn tailings covered by different topsoil constructions. The four topsoil constructions each had different interlayers: one with direct topsoiling above the tailings (CT); the second had a limestone interlayer between the tailings and topsoil with two geotextile layers set above and below the interlayer (SLS); the third had a lime interlayer, also with two geotextile layers (SL); and the fourth had a clay interlayer with two geotextile layers (SC). The topsoils were evaluated in a 210-day laboratory column leaching experiments and in a 3-year field cover application at an abandoned Pb-Zn tailings pond (northeastern China). The contents of Pb, Zn and Cd in the soils, leachates, interlayers and leaves of Amorpha fruticosa L. were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES).Results showed that the pH values of the leachates from the columns increased with time, from 6.5 to the range of 7.5 to 8.03, and the maximum in pH in C1 (tailings), C2 (CT), C3 (SLS), C4 (SL) and C5 (SC) appeared after the 180th day, at 7.85, 7.89, 7.78, 8.03, and 7.89, respectively. The topsoil effectively reduced the concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in the leachate, and the addition of a limestone or lime interlayer enhanced the efficiency, especially for Zn and Cd. The Pb, Zn and Cd concentrations in the topsoil that directly cover the tailings were appreciably less than the initial concentrations, resulting from the eluviation. The presence of a limestone or lime interlayer reduced the mobility of Zn and Cd, and a clay interlayer was effective in preventing the migration of Pb and Zn but had less impact on Cd.During the 3-year field experiment, the pH values of the topsoil increased slightly with time, from 7.15 to the range of 7.67 to 8.20. At the end of the experiment, Pb, Zn and Cd concentrations in the topsoil at the SLS, SL and SC plots showed little change compared with the initial value in 2012. Acid-soluble Pb, Zn and Cd concentrations of the upper soil (0–0.1 m) at CT increased from 0.19, 1.95 and 0.11 mg kg− 1 in 2012 to 1.82, 32.87 and 0.56 mg kg− 1 in 2015, indicating that acid-soluble heavy metals migrated from tailings to topsoil. Acid-soluble Cd in topsoil and in the interlayer showed a small increase at plot SC, indicating that Cd may migrate through the clay layer to topsoil with pore water. The Pb contents in leaves at SLS and SL were 2.38 and 3.04 mg kg− 1, which were appreciably lower than at CT and SC, and the Zn and Cd contents in leaves at CT were 45.78 and 0.26 mg kg− 1, which were higher than at SLS, SL and SC. Topsoiling with an interlayer could be a reliable technique for preventing toxic elements from moving downward or upward during ecological restoration of tailings ponds.

National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Tillämpad geokemi
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-5257 (URN)10.1016/j.gexplo.2016.03.010 (DOI)000375515000013 ()2-s2.0-84961250286 (Scopus ID)351207f3-bc87-4115-b18e-1c8675a7e768 (Local ID)351207f3-bc87-4115-b18e-1c8675a7e768 (Archive number)351207f3-bc87-4115-b18e-1c8675a7e768 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160314 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Siren, S., Maurice, C. & Alakangas, L. (2016). Green liquor dregs in mine waste remediation, from laboratory investigations to field application (ed.). In: (Ed.), Carsten Drebenstedt; Michael Paul (Ed.), Mining Meets Wate: conflict and solutions IMWA 2016 in Leipzig, Germany, July 11-15, 2016. Paper presented at International Mine Water Association Annual Conference 2016 : Mining meets Water - Conflicts and solutions 12/07/2016 - 15/07/2016 (pp. 706-713). Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Green liquor dregs in mine waste remediation, from laboratory investigations to field application
2016 (Swedish)In: Mining Meets Wate: conflict and solutions IMWA 2016 in Leipzig, Germany, July 11-15, 2016 / [ed] Carsten Drebenstedt; Michael Paul, Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering , 2016, p. 706-713Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The oxidation of sulphides in mine wastes is a possible threat to the environment as it has potential to generate acid rock drainage (ARD). A way to reduce ARD formation is to apply a soil cover to reduce oxygen fluxes and water infiltration to the underlying reactive wastes. A typical mine waste cover in Sweden consists of a compacted sealing layer of a fine grained till overlaid by an on-compacted protection layer. However, a fine grained till with low enough hydraulic conductivity (HC) can be difficult to find in the vicinity of the mine and it might be necessary to mix it with a fine grained material. In this study a mixture of till and a residue from pulp and paper production, Green Liquor Dregs (GLD) was studied in laboratory and in a pilot cell study. The objective of the laboratory study was to investigate if an addition of GLD will improve the HC of tills with different clay contents. The results show that HC of the different tills studied decreases with addition of 5-10 w.% of GLD, except from the clayey till that already had a low HC without addition of GLD. In the pilot scale study a cell was constructed to investigate the feasibility to compact a sealing layer of a fine grained till and 10 w. % of GLD. The pilot scale study shows that it can be difficult to reach a high compaction degree in the field. However, it does not necessarily mean that the HC of the sealing layer will increase. In fact the laboratory study shows the opposite trend, a decrease in HC with a decrease in dry density for tills with low clay content. The main conclusion of the study is that addition of GLD can be an alternative option to improve the properties of a local till that alone does not meet the requirements for HC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering, 2016
Keywords
Other technology - Environmental engineering, Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Mine closure, Acid Rock Drainage, Mine waste, Sealing layer, Green Liquor Dregs, Mine closure, Acid Rock Drainage, Mine waste, Sealing layer, Green Liquor Dregs, Övriga teknikvetenskaper - Miljöteknik, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geology; Applied Geochemistry; Future mining (AERI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28549 (URN)000402663400111 ()2601444b-a9a4-4f74-aa05-679679b511e8 (Local ID)978-3-86012-533-5 (ISBN)2601444b-a9a4-4f74-aa05-679679b511e8 (Archive number)2601444b-a9a4-4f74-aa05-679679b511e8 (OAI)
Conference
International Mine Water Association Annual Conference 2016 : Mining meets Water - Conflicts and solutions 12/07/2016 - 15/07/2016
Projects
Användning av restprodukter för förhindrande sulfid oxidation i reaktivt gruvavfall- en förstudie
Note

Godkänd; 2016; 20160817 (sussir)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Alakangas, L. & Rasmussen, T. M. (2016). Project: Development, Evaluation and Optimization of Measures to Reduce the Impact on the Environment from Mining Activities in Northern Regions. Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project: Development, Evaluation and Optimization of Measures to Reduce the Impact on the Environment from Mining Activities in Northern Regions
2016 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

Min-North is a transnational project financed by the Interreg Nord program and coordinated by LTU. The project is a cooperation between Geological survey of Finland, GTK, Oulo University (Finland), The Arctic University of Norway, UiT and several (>17) small and large enterprises and mining companies in the northern region with expertise within geology, waste management, geophysics and geochemistry. The overall goal is to reduce the environmental impacts of mining in the northern regions by developing, evaluating, optimizing environmental techniques. In Sweden, geophysical and geochemical techniques will be integrated to develop a 4D model for tracing pollution transport in the mine waste, mine areas and in(to) the surroundings.

National Category
Geochemistry Geophysics
Research subject
Applied Geochemistry; Exploration Geophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36041 (URN)3c0ac9e0-422f-4d05-9df8-85b719d6d55a (Local ID)3c0ac9e0-422f-4d05-9df8-85b719d6d55a (Archive number)3c0ac9e0-422f-4d05-9df8-85b719d6d55a (OAI)
Note

Status: Ongoing; Period: 01/01/2016 → 31/12/2018

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Alakangas, L., Sandström, Å., Rosenkranz, J., Martinsson, O. & Hällström, L. (2016). Project: Improve Resource Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Footprint. Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project: Improve Resource Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Footprint
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2016 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

The REMinE project is organized in five work packages that comprise: detailedcharacterization and risk assessment of the mine wastes selected (WP2), identification of new processing methods for mine waste (WP3), characterization and risk assessment of the remaining residuals (WP4), outlining business opportunities and environmental impact in a conceptual model for sustainable mining (WP5). The project comprises case studies of historical mine wastes from three different European countries, namely Portugal, Romania and Sweden. The interdisciplinary research collaboration in this project is innovative in the sense that separation of minerals and extraction of metals not only are basedon technical and economic gain but also considers the environmental perspective.

Keywords
historical mines, mining environment
National Category
Geochemistry Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Geology
Research subject
Tillämpad geokemi; Process Metallurgy; Mineral Processing; Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-35989 (URN)0fdbbf5b-f258-4656-9d55-a2ae3e19361a (Local ID)0fdbbf5b-f258-4656-9d55-a2ae3e19361a (Archive number)0fdbbf5b-f258-4656-9d55-a2ae3e19361a (OAI)
Note

Status: Ongoing; Period: 30/11/2015 → 31/03/2019

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Hamberg, R., Bark, G., Maurice, C. & Alakangas, L. (2016). Release of arsenic from cyanidation tailings (ed.). Paper presented at . Minerals Engineering, 93, 57-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Release of arsenic from cyanidation tailings
2016 (English)In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 93, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

At a gold mine in northern Sweden, gold occurring as inclusions in pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite is leached by cyanidation of the ore. The main sulphide minerals in the ore are pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite. Effluents from the cyanidation process are treated with Fe2(SO4)3 to form Fe-precipitates suitable for the co-precipitation of As. The aim of this study was to perform static and kinetic leaching tests on the ore and tailings to define geochemical processes governing As mobility. Sequential leaching tests suggested that the majority of dissolved As deriving from the sulphide fraction in the ore was incorporated in newly formed Fe-precipitates in the tailings. The mobility of As in the tailings was therefore mainly dependent on the stability of these As-bearing Fe-precipitates. Weathering cell tests (WCT) involving 31 weekly cycles of wetting and air exposure were conducted to assess the stability of the As in the tailings under accelerated weathering conditions. The first stage of the WCT was characterized by a pH ≈ 5 and low As leaching, probably driven by the dissolution of amorphous Fe-As species. In the second stage of the WCT, leaching of Fe, S and As increased and the pH decreased to <3.5. An increase of the leachate’s molar Fe/S-ratio suggested that pyrrhotite oxidation was occurring. The falling pH destabilized As-bearing Fe-precipitates, causing further As release. The total As release during the WCT corresponded to only a small proportion of the tailings’ total As content. The accelerated As-leaching observed towards the end of the WCT could thus indicate that its release could increase progressively over time.

National Category
Geochemistry Geology
Research subject
Tillämpad geokemi; Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-5851 (URN)10.1016/j.mineng.2016.04.013 (DOI)000377313900008 ()2-s2.0-84964596057 (Scopus ID)409d1fb8-7260-414b-88b4-4904aadd11f9 (Local ID)409d1fb8-7260-414b-88b4-4904aadd11f9 (Archive number)409d1fb8-7260-414b-88b4-4904aadd11f9 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160502 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7291-8585

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