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Dahlström, Lars-Olof
Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Andrén, A., Dahlström, L.-O. & Nordlund, E. (2023). Field Observations of Water and Ice Problems in Railway Tunnels from a Maintenance Perspective. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 13(1), 11-54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Field Observations of Water and Ice Problems in Railway Tunnels from a Maintenance Perspective
2023 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 11-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the winter season, ice causes major problems in many Swedish railway tunnels. Ice, rock and shotcrete in the roof and on the walls may come loose and fall down, installations and cables can break due to ice loads and the tracks can become covered with ice. To maintain safety and prevent traffic disturbances, many tunnels require frequent maintenance. The removal of ice, loose rock and shotcrete is expensive and potentially risky work for the maintenance workers. To reduce maintenance costs, it is important to improve our knowledge of frost penetration inside tunnels and investigate the effect of ice pressure and frost shattering on loadbearing constructions. The aim of this investigation was to gather information about the problems caused by water leakage and its effect on the degradation of a rock tunnel when subjected to freezing temperatures. There are many factors that determine whether frost or ice formations will appear in tunnels. To collect information on ice formation problems, field observations were undertaken in five of Sweden’s railway tunnels between autumn 2004 and summer 2005. For one of the tunnels, follow-up observations also took place in March during the years 2005, 2006 and 2007.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Press International Limited, 2023
Keywords
Railway tunnel, Field observations, Ice formation, Frost shattering, Maintenance, Degradation of rock and shotcrete, Cold climate
National Category
Other Social Sciences Mineral and Mine Engineering Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96357 (URN)10.47260/jesge/1312 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationSwedish Research Council FormasRock Engineering Research Foundation (BeFo)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 1;2023-04-11 (hanlid);

Licens full text: Scientific Press International as Publisher applies the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL) to all works we publish. Under the CCAL, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their article, but authors allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute, and/or copy articles in Scientific Press International journals, so long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.

Available from: 2023-04-11 Created: 2023-04-11 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Andrén, A., Dahlström, L.-O. & Nordlund, E. (2022). Evaluation of a laboratory model test using field measurements of frost penetration in railway tunnels. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 204, Article ID 103660.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a laboratory model test using field measurements of frost penetration in railway tunnels
2022 (English)In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 204, article id 103660Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite extensive grouting efforts to prevent water from leaking into tunnels, water seepages remain. When exposed to freezing temperatures, ice formations occur. During the winter, the Swedish Transport Administration's railway tunnels are affected by major problems caused by ice, such as icicles from roof and walls, ice loads on installations, ice-covered tracks and roads, etc. To ensure safety and prevent traffic disruptions, many tunnels require extensive maintenance. Improved knowledge about frost penetration in tunnels is required to reduce maintenance of the tunnels. Frost insulated drain mats are often used at leakage spots to prevent ice formation along the tunnels. To find out which parts of a tunnel are exposed to freezing temperatures, the University of Gävle and the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm conducted a laboratory model test on behalf of the Swedish National Rail Administration (now the Swedish Transport Administration). The laboratory model test aimed to find a method to determine the expected temperature conditions along a tunnel to decide which parts of the tunnel require frost insulation to protect the drainage system from freezing and prevent ice formation. To evaluate the laboratory model test, the Swedish Transport Administration in collaboration with Luleå University of Technology have performed field surveys in two Swedish railway tunnels. The field measurements involved monitoring temperatures in air, rock surfaces and rock mass, as well as measuring wind direction, wind and air velocity and air pressure. The measurements in the tunnels show that the frost penetrates further into the tunnels than was expected from the laboratory model test, which was based on a completely uninsulated tunnel. Frost insulated drains do not only prevent the cold air from reaching the rock mass, but also prevent the rock from emitting geothermal heat that warms up the cold tunnel air. Consequently, the frost penetrates further into the tunnel than it would do if the heat from the rock mass was allowed to warm up the outside air on its way into the tunnel. The number of frost insulated drains and how much of the tunnel walls and roof are covered thereby affect the length of the frost penetration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Frost penetration, Frost shattering, Temperature measurement, Maintenance, Railway tunnels
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering Geotechnical Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92959 (URN)10.1016/j.coldregions.2022.103660 (DOI)000854045800001 ()2-s2.0-85137023905 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationSwedish Research Council FormasRock Engineering Research Foundation (BeFo)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-09-12 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2022-09-12 Created: 2022-09-12 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Andrén, A., Dahlström, L.-O. & Nordlund, E. (2020). Degradation of the Reinforcing Effect of Shotcrete: Freeze-Thaw Tests on Shotcrete-Rock Panels. The Electronic journal of geotechnical engineering, 25(1), 1-30
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Degradation of the Reinforcing Effect of Shotcrete: Freeze-Thaw Tests on Shotcrete-Rock Panels
2020 (English)In: The Electronic journal of geotechnical engineering, ISSN 1089-3032, E-ISSN 1089-3032, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In rock tunnels in regions with colder climates, the load-bearing structure, including the rock and the reinforcing elements, is exposed to repeated destructive freezing and thawing cycles during the winter. If water accumulates in cracks or in the interface between rock and shotcrete, frost shattering may occur. If there is adequate adhesion between the rock and shotcrete, degradation of the shotcrete as a reinforcement element due to frost shattering should not present a problem. However, if adhesion is poor, a small void will form between the rock and the shotcrete where water can accumulate. If the water in these voids is subjected to freeze-thaw cycles, ice will develop, thus exerting pressure on the interface and causing the shotcrete to crack and degrade. In tunnel sections with complex water conditions, for example, relatively water-bearing open joints and weak zones, the adhesion of the shotcrete and its stability and reinforcing effect may be strongly affected when exposed to freezing temperatures. This article describes a laboratory study that comprised freeze-thaw tests on shotcreterock panels with the objective of studying how water migration affects the growth of ice and the ice pressure in the shotcrete-rock interface to better understand the degradation of the reinforcing effect of shotcrete

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mete Öner, 2020
Keywords
Freeze-thaw test, frost shattering, tunnel, degradation of shotcrete, cold climate
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-81719 (URN)000608581500001 ()
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 1;2020-11-30 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-11-30 Created: 2020-11-30 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Andrén, A., Dahlström, L.-O. & Nordlund, E. (2020). Temperature Flows in Railway Tunnels: Field Measurements of Frost Penetration. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 10(5), 161-194
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature Flows in Railway Tunnels: Field Measurements of Frost Penetration
2020 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 161-194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Even though extensive pre-grouting is carried out during the construction of tunnels, certain leakages and drips remain. These remaining leakages are remedied by a combination of post-injection and drainage measures with, for example, frost insulated drain mats, whose function is to prevent the cold tunnel air from reaching a leakage spot and causing water to freeze. Despite these measures, some water may still enter the tunnels and cause problems during winter with ice formations and frost shattering. Icicles, ice pillars and ice-covered roads and railway tracks require constant maintenance. If ice occurs in the fracture network close to the tunnel contour or in the interface between the rock and shotcrete, it can cause degradation of the load-bearing capacity of the tunnel and fall-outs of both materials. In tunnel sections with water leakage problems it is common to protect the load-bearing structure from freezing with insulated drainage systems. To determine where along the tunnel efforts must be made to prevent ice formation, the temperature conditions of tunnels must be investigated. This article presents parts of the results from field measurements in two Swedish railway tunnels. The measurements involves monitoring of air and rock temperatures, air pressure and air velocity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Press International Limited, 2020
Keywords
Frost penetration, ice formation, frost shattering, temperature measurement, maintenance, railway tunnel
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-81720 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 1;2020-11-30 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-11-30 Created: 2020-11-30 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Bondarchuk, A., Ask, M., Dahlström, L.-O. & Nordlund, E. (2012). Rock mass behavior under hydropower embankment dams: a two-dimensional numerical study (ed.). Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 45(5), 819-835
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rock mass behavior under hydropower embankment dams: a two-dimensional numerical study
2012 (English)In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 819-835Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden has more than 190 large hydropower dams, of which about 50 are pure embankment dams and over 100 are concrete/embankment dams. This paper presents results from conceptual analyses of the response of typical Swedish rock mass to the construction of a hydropower embankment dam and its first stages of operation. The aim is to identify locations and magnitudes of displacements that are occurring in the rock foundation and grout curtain after construction of the dam, the first filling of its water reservoir, and after one seasonal variation of the water table. Coupled hydro-mechanical analysis was conducted using the two-dimensional distinct element program UDEC. Series of the simulations have been performed and the results show that the first filling of the reservoir and variation of water table induce largest magnitudes of displacement, with the greatest values obtained from the two models with high differential horizontal stresses and smallest spacing of sub-vertical fractures. These results may help identifying the condition of the dam foundation and contribute to the development of proper maintenance measures, which guarantee the safety and functionality of the dam. Additionally, newly developed dams may use these results for the estimation of the possible response of the rock foundation to the construction

National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6409 (URN)10.1007/s00603-011-0173-2 (DOI)000308110900011 ()2-s2.0-84866732950 (Scopus ID)4a1d8cf3-bb60-4e49-92ba-ab719b8f3d72 (Local ID)4a1d8cf3-bb60-4e49-92ba-ab719b8f3d72 (Archive number)4a1d8cf3-bb60-4e49-92ba-ab719b8f3d72 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2012; 20110921 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Andrén, A. & Dahlström, L.-O. (2011). Temperaturflöden i järnvägstunnlar – Glödberget (ed.). Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperaturflöden i järnvägstunnlar – Glödberget
2011 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the winter ice is causing major problems in several of the Swedish Transport administrations railway tunnels. Freezing water is forming icicles and pillars that can fall down at track, and grow so large that they intrude on the clearance gauge. Lighting equipment and cables can be broken because of the ice load and tracks can become cowered with ice Periodic freezing can cause frost shattering and this process can cause fall-outs of rock and shotcrete. In order to maintain safety and prevent traffic disruption, many tunnels requiring extensive maintenance. In order to reduce maintenance of the tunnels, improved knowledge about frost penetration and the effects of ice pressure on the load-bearing capacity of the tunnel is required. 2002 the University of Gävle and KTH performed a model study to determine the temperature conditions in tunnels. To verify the model study field measurements are carried out in collaboration between the Transport Administration and Luleå University of Technology. This technical report describes the tests conducted so far in the Glödberget tunnel at Nyåker, 80 km south-west of Umeå. Measurements show that the developed models underestimate the frost penetration. Although the tunnel is 1680 meters long, the frost penetrates the entire length of the tunnel even if the temperature outside the tunnel is just a few degrees below zero. A contributing factor to why the field measurements and model do not conform can be that the model study is based on a completely uninsulated tunnel. In the Glödberget tunnel a large part of the walls and roof are covered the frost insulated drains. The function of the frost insulated drains is to prevent the cold tunnel air from reaching a leakage point and causing water to turn into ice. However, the insulation does not only prevent the cold air from reaching the rock, but also prevents the heat from the rock mass from entering the tunnel and warming up the cold tunnel air. Consequently, the frost penetrates further into the tunnel than it would do if the heat from the rock mass were allowed to warm up the outside air on its way into the tunnel. The amount of frost insulated drains and how much of the tunnel walls and roof that are covered are thereby affecting the length of the frost penetration. Temperature measurements has been carried out down into the ballast bed. To eliminate the risks with freezing drainage water, the drainage pipes are located at a depth of 2 m under the level of the rails. Measurements show that the temperature does not penetrate as far down as earlier feared and the depth of the pipes in the middle parts of the tunnel could be made shallower, with respect to risk of frost. Temperature measurements behind a frost insulated drain in the middle of the track tunnel, has shown that drains are able to smooth out the temperature changes that occur in the tunnel air. But when the temperature is negative for a longer period, the temperature behind the drain drops below 0ºC. Then the drainage ability is reduced due to icing and it can cause frost damage to the drain. Measurements of air temperature in the adjacent service tunnel shows how frost penetration is affected by air movement. The service tunnel is closed with gates at both ends. When the air in a tunnel is not exposed to movement, it is heated by geothermal heat and adopt the same temperature as the rock. Rock temperatures usually coincide with the average annual temperature applicable to the area where the tunnel is located. For the Glödberget tunnel there is a very good agreement between the average annual temperature for the area and the measurements performed in the service tunnel.

Abstract [sv]

Under vinterhalvåret orsakar is stora problem i flera av Trafikverkets järnvägstunnlar. Vatten som fryser bildar istappar och svallis som kan fall ned i spår samt växa till sådan storlek att de inkräktar på det ”fria rummet” som tågen kräver för att passera genom tunneln. Belysningsarmaturer och kablar bryts sönder på grund av islast och spåren blir isbelagda på grund av takdropp och svallisbildning. Återkommande frysperioder medför att berg och sprutbetong i tak och väggar kan lossna och falla ner. För att upprätthålla säkerheten och förhindra trafikstörningar kräver många tunnlar omfattande underhållsinsatser. För att kunna reducera underhållet i tunnlarna, krävs förbättrad kunskap kring köldinträngning och effekterna av istryck på det bärande huvudsystemet. 2002 utförde Högskolan i Gävle och KTH en modellstudie för att bestämma temperatur-förhållanden i tunnlar. För att verifiera modellstudien genomförs nu mätningar i fält och projektet utförs i ett samarbete mellan Trafikverket och Luleå Tekniska Universitet. Denna Tekniska rapport redovisar de mätningar som hittills utförts i Glödbergstunneln vid Nyåker som ligger 8 mil sydväst om Umeå. Mätningarna visar att framtagna modeller underskattar köldinträngningen. Trots att tunneln är 1680 m lång, sker köldinträngning i hela tunnelns längd även vid några få minusgrader utanför tunneln. En bidragande orsak till att fältmätningarna och modellen inte överensstämmer kan vara att modellstudien bygger på en helt oisolerad tunnel. I Glödbergstunneln finns en stor del frostisolerande dräner uppsatta. De frostisolerande dränernas funktion är att förhindra att inläckande vatten fryser till is, men isoleringen förhindrar inte bara kylan att tränga in till läckaget, den hindrar även bergvärmen från att komma ut i tunneln och värma upp den kalla uteluften. Isoleringen möjliggör för kylan att tränga längre in i tunneln än vad den skulle ha gjort i fall bergvärmen gavs möjlighet att värma upp den kalla uteluften på dess väg in längs tunneln. Mängden frostisolerande dräner och hur stor del av tunnels vägg- och takyta som är inklädd, täckningsgraden, påverkar därmed köldinträngningens längd. Mätningar av temperaturer har utförts ned i ballasten. Glödbergstunneln har en undersprängning på 2 m under RUK, med motiveringen att ledningar för exempelvis dräneringsvatten ska vara förlagda på frostfritt djup. Mätningarna visar att temperaturen inte tränger så långt ned som man tidigare befarat och undersprängning i de mittersta delarna av tunneln hade kunnat göras mindre, med avseende på frostrisken. Temperaturmätningarna bakom en frostisolerad drän i mitten av spårtunneln, har visat att dränen klarar av att jämna ut de temperaturväxlingar som sker i tunnelluften utanför dränen. Men då temperaturen är negativ under en längre period kryper även temperaturen bakom dränen under 0 C och då förhindras dräneringsmöjligheten på grund av isbildning och det kan orsaka frostsprängning av dränen. Mätningar av lufttemperatur i den intilliggande servicetunneln visar tydligt hur köldinträngningen påverkas av luftrörelser. Servicetunneln är stängd med portar mot både ute- och tunnelluft. När luften i en tunnel inte utsätts för rörelse, värms den upp av bergvärmen och antar samma temperatur som berget har. Bergtemperaturen brukar oftast sammanfalla men den årsmedeltemperatur som gäller för den plats där tunneln är belägen. För Glödbergstunneln stämmer detta mycket bra överens med de utförda mätningarna i servicetunneln. Sökord: köldinträngning, istryck, frostsprängning, temperaturmätning, underhåll, järnvägstunnel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2011. p. 44
Series
Technical report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1536
Keywords
köldinträngning, istryck, frostsprängning, temperaturmätning, underhåll, järnvägstunnel
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-24933 (URN)d1bd0794-0035-4424-a6e1-d6721f471eb6 (Local ID)978-91-7439-318-7 (ISBN)d1bd0794-0035-4424-a6e1-d6721f471eb6 (Archive number)d1bd0794-0035-4424-a6e1-d6721f471eb6 (OAI)
Note

Godkänd; 2011; 20110829 (andren)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Bondarchuk, A., Ask, M., Dahlström, L.-O., Nordlund, E. & Knutsson, S. (2009). Hydromechanical numerical analysis of rock mass behavior under a Swedish embankment hydropower dam (ed.). In: (Ed.), Erich Bauer; Stephan Semprich; Gerald Zenz (Ed.), Long Term Behaviour of Dams: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference, 12th-13th October 2009, Graz, Austria. Paper presented at International Conference on Long Term Behaviour of Dams : 12/10/2009 - 13/10/2009 (pp. 113-118). Graz: Verl. der Techn. Univ. Graz
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydromechanical numerical analysis of rock mass behavior under a Swedish embankment hydropower dam
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2009 (English)In: Long Term Behaviour of Dams: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference, 12th-13th October 2009, Graz, Austria / [ed] Erich Bauer; Stephan Semprich; Gerald Zenz, Graz: Verl. der Techn. Univ. Graz , 2009, p. 113-118Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Graz: Verl. der Techn. Univ. Graz, 2009
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering; Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-37020 (URN)ae478a80-c53b-11de-b769-000ea68e967b (Local ID)978-3-85125-070-1 (ISBN)ae478a80-c53b-11de-b769-000ea68e967b (Archive number)ae478a80-c53b-11de-b769-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Long Term Behaviour of Dams : 12/10/2009 - 13/10/2009
Note
Godkänd; 2009; 20091030 (svek)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Bondarchuk, A., Ask, M., Dahlström, L.-O. & Nordlund, E. (2009). Numerical analysis of rock mass behavior under hydropower embankment dams (ed.). In: (Ed.), Föredrag vid Bergmekanikdag i Stockholm 9 mars 2009: . Paper presented at Bergmekanikdag 2009 : 09/03/2009 - 09/03/2009 (pp. 149-158). Stiftelsen bergteknisk forskning - Befo
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical analysis of rock mass behavior under hydropower embankment dams
2009 (English)In: Föredrag vid Bergmekanikdag i Stockholm 9 mars 2009, Stiftelsen bergteknisk forskning - Befo , 2009, p. 149-158Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Numeriska analyser av bergmassans beteende under fyllningsdammar för vattenkraftproduktion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stiftelsen bergteknisk forskning - Befo, 2009
Series
Bergmekanikdag Stockholm, ISSN 0281-4714
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-31102 (URN)52a23f10-3899-11de-9b53-000ea68e967b (Local ID)52a23f10-3899-11de-9b53-000ea68e967b (Archive number)52a23f10-3899-11de-9b53-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Conference
Bergmekanikdag 2009 : 09/03/2009 - 09/03/2009
Note

Godkänd; 2009; 20090504 (ysko)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2022-10-19Bibliographically approved
Andrén, A. & Dahlström, L.-O. (2008). Temperaturflöden i järnvägstunnlar och konsekvenser för drift och underhåll (ed.). In: (Ed.), Bergmekanikdag: föredrag vid Bergmekanikdag i Stockholm 10 mars 2008. Paper presented at Bergmekanikdag 2008 : 10/03/2008 - 10/03/2008. Stiftelsen bergteknisk forskning - Befo
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperaturflöden i järnvägstunnlar och konsekvenser för drift och underhåll
2008 (Swedish)In: Bergmekanikdag: föredrag vid Bergmekanikdag i Stockholm 10 mars 2008, Stiftelsen bergteknisk forskning - Befo , 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stiftelsen bergteknisk forskning - Befo, 2008
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-30274 (URN)40907580-7995-11dd-b356-000ea68e967b (Local ID)40907580-7995-11dd-b356-000ea68e967b (Archive number)40907580-7995-11dd-b356-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Conference
Bergmekanikdag 2008 : 10/03/2008 - 10/03/2008
Note

Godkänd; 2008; 20080903 (ysko)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
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