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Gebretsadik, D., Hardell, J. & Prakash, B. (2019). Embeddability behaviour of some Pb-free engine bearing materials in the presence of abrasive particles in engine oil. Tribology - Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embeddability behaviour of some Pb-free engine bearing materials in the presence of abrasive particles in engine oil
2019 (English)In: Tribology - Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, ISSN 1751-5831, E-ISSN 1751-584XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

One of the tribological requirements on engine bearing material is its ability to safely embed contaminant particles onto its surface and minimise damage to both the bearing and crankshaft surfaces. In this work, a journal bearing test rig that operates under constant load has been employed to investigate the embeddability behaviour of selected multi-layered Pb-free engine bearing materials at three different rotational speeds using engine oil contaminated with SiC particles. Experimental results have shown that third-body abrasive wear is influenced by the lubricant film thickness. There was also difference in embeddability of the different materials. Bismuth-based overlay and MoS2 containing polyamide-imide-based overlay-coated materials show higher wear compared to tin-based overlay and a polyamide-imide-based composite overlay-coated material. Steel counter surfaces sliding against bismuth-based overlay and MoS2 containing polyamide-imide-based overlay exhibited higher wear than those sliding against tin-based overlay and polyamide-imide-based composite overlay. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Embeddability, third-body abrasive wear, hydrodynamic lubrication, engine bearings, Pb-free
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72774 (URN)10.1080/17515831.2019.1574452 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-02-04 Created: 2019-02-04 Last updated: 2019-02-11
Hultqvist, T., Vrček, A., Prakash, B., Marklund, P. & Larsson, R. (2019). Influence of lubricant pressure response on sub-surface stress in elastohydrodynamically lubricated finite line contacts. Journal of tribology, 141(3), Article ID 031502.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of lubricant pressure response on sub-surface stress in elastohydrodynamically lubricated finite line contacts
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2019 (English)In: Journal of tribology, ISSN 0742-4787, E-ISSN 1528-8897, Vol. 141, no 3, article id 031502Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to adapt to increasingly stringent CO2 regulations, the automotive industry must develop and evaluate low cost, low emission solutions in the powertrain technology. This often implies increased power density and the use of low viscosity oils, leading to additional challenges related to the durability of various machine elements. Therefore, an increased understanding of lubricated contacts becomes important where oil viscosity-pressure and compressibility-pressure behaviour have been shown to influence the film thickness and pressure distribution in EHL contacts, further influencing the durability. In this work, a finite line EHL contact is analysed with focus on the oil compressibility- and viscositypressure response, comparing two oils with relatively different behaviour and its influence on subsurface stress concentrations in the contacting bodies. Results indicate that increased pressure gradients and pressure spikes, and therefore increased localized stress concentrations, can be expected for stiffer, less compressible oils, which under transient loading conditions not only affect the outlet but also the edges of the roller

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASME Press, 2019
Keywords
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication; Finite line contacts; Sub-surface stress; Transient loading
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71551 (URN)10.1115/1.4041733 (DOI)000457029800007 ()2-s2.0-85057759100 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 41215-1
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-12-07 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Deng, L., Pelcastre, L., Hardell, J., Prakash, B. & Oldenburg, M. (2019). Numerical investigation of galling in a press hardening experiment with AlSi-coated workpieces. Engineering Failure Analysis, 99, 85-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical investigation of galling in a press hardening experiment with AlSi-coated workpieces
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2019 (English)In: Engineering Failure Analysis, ISSN 1350-6307, E-ISSN 1873-1961, Vol. 99, p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Press hardened steels are commonly used as a lightweight choice for manufacturing car components because of the high ratio of strength to weight. The use of ultra-high-strength steels for the design of lightweight vehicles contributes to the reduction of emissions of carbon dioxide while maintaining passenger safety. Stamping tools used in press hardening processes suffer harsh contact conditionsin terms of dramatic temperature changes, cyclic loadings, and complex interactions between coatings and oxidation. In mass production, tool wear is an inevitable problem that increases maintenance costs. Severe adhesive wear, also called galling, substantially occurs in the stamping tool used against Al—Si-coated workpieces. The galling that takes place during press hardening not only degrades the production quality but also shortens the service life of the tool. In order to properly arrange tool maintenance and minimize galling through adjusting process parameters, engineers need to know when and where galling occurs, based on modelling of the galling in press hardening simulations. In order to implement a galling simulation for press hardening, a modified Archard wear model is employed in the present study, which is a contact-mechanics-based model. The specific wear rate in the model is calibrated by the quantitative galling measurements of a high-temperature tribometer test. The tribological test is designed to mimic the press hardening conditions, where the correlations between galling and process parameters such as temperature, pressure, and sliding distance are outlined. The galling simulation is implemented in a full-scale press hardening experiment, and the predicted galling is validated in terms of severe galling positions and galling profiles. The galling profile evolution is correlated to variations in the contact conditions. Uncertainties in the numerical model, such as the choice of penalty scaling factor and friction coefficient, are analysed with a parameter study and discussed. This study demonstrates finite element (FE) simulations involving galling prediction in press hardening so as to improve product development and production efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Contact conditions, High-temperature tribometer, FE simulation, Galling prediction
National Category
Applied Mechanics Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Solid Mechanics; Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73044 (URN)10.1016/j.engfailanal.2019.01.059 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061604416 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-02-27 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-02-27 Created: 2019-02-27 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Torres, H., Rodriguez Ripoll, M. & Prakash, B. (2019). Self-lubricating laser claddings for friction control during press hardening of Al-Si-coated boron steel. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 269, 79-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-lubricating laser claddings for friction control during press hardening of Al-Si-coated boron steel
2019 (English)In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 269, p. 79-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, the use of Al/Si coatings has become widespread in hot stamping in order to protect the work piece from detrimental mechanisms such as scale formation or decarburisation affecting the quality of the finished product. However, the formation of Al-Fe intermetallics due to diffusion at high temperature can lead to unstable friction and damage both the tool and the work piece.

In the present study, self-lubricating coatings with the addition of silver and MoS2 have been prepared by means of laser cladding deposition, aiming at their use in hot stamping in order to decrease friction and wear. The coatings were evaluated at high temperatures against Al-Si-treated boron steel using two different testing configurations featuring open and closed tribosystems. A significant reduction in friction for the self-lubricating claddings were observed along with decreased material transfer. This could be beneficial for hot stamping applications as it can ensure the stability of the process while preventing surface damage to the work piece. Additionally, closed configuration tribotesting has been found to underestimate friction and wear of the tool/work piece system, thus making it less suited for the lab-scale simulation of hot metal forming compared to open configuration tribometers. This finding has been considered relevant as many references in the available literature still report the use of closed configuration tribometers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
High Temperature, Laser Cladding, Self-Lubrication, Adhesion Wear, Hot Stamping
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71708 (URN)10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.02.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061155760 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-02-18 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
Hultqvist, T., Shirzadegan, M., Vrček, A., Baubet, Y., Prakash, B., Marklund, P. & Larsson, R. (2018). Elastohydrodynamic lubrication for the finite line contact under transient loading conditions. Tribology International, 127, 489-499
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elastohydrodynamic lubrication for the finite line contact under transient loading conditions
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2018 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 127, p. 489-499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research related to elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) has led to improved performance and durability of machine elements where non-conformal contact geometries interact. Only a relatively small portion of the EHL literature has, however, dealt with the lubricating performance of finite line contacts under non-steady conditions, commonly found in many practical applications. The purpose of this work has thus been to further understand the behaviour of finite line EHL contacts under transient conditions by studying a finite length roller subjected to a time varying load using a full-system finite element approach. The transient load was shown to initiate oscillations in the system, governed by waves of lubricant moving through the contact, affecting both pressure and film thickness throughout the contact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication, Finite line contacts, Transient loading, Finite elements
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70211 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2018.06.035 (DOI)000442334100048 ()2-s2.0-85049452630 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 41215-1
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-08-06 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved
Deng, L., Pelcastre, L., Hardell, J., Prakash, B. & Oldenburg, M. (2018). Experimental Evaluation of Galling Under Press Hardening Conditions. Tribology letters, 66(3), Article ID 93.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Evaluation of Galling Under Press Hardening Conditions
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2018 (English)In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 66, no 3, article id 93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Severe adhesion, also referred to as galling, is a critical problem in press hardening, especially in stamping tools used for hot forming of Al–Si-coated ultra-high strength steel. Galling is known to develop rapidly on the tool surface and it negatively affects the quality of the formed products. Earlier research on this topic has focused on the galling initiation. However, studies on the galling development during extended sliding and the corresponding quantitative measurement still lack depth. In the present study, a tribological test is established to study the galling development under press hardening conditions. The tribological test set-up aims to simulate extended sliding between the Al–Si-coated boron steels and the tool die material. The contact conditions in the interface are studied by a numerical model of the tribological test. The friction coefficients and material transfer are discussed taking into account the variation of the different test conditions. Using the results from the tribological tests, the galling simulation is performed in the numerical model. A geometry-updated sample based on the galling (transferred material build-up) height is simulated and the consequent pressure fluctuation is obtained in the numerical model. This contributes to the explanation of the severe transferred material accumulation during the test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Machine Elements; Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69943 (URN)10.1007/s11249-018-1023-0 (DOI)000436540000001 ()2-s2.0-85049356784 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-27 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-06-27 Created: 2018-06-27 Last updated: 2018-07-23Bibliographically approved
Hernandez, S., Hardell, J. & Prakash, B. (2018). High-Temperature Friction and Wear of Boron Steel and Tool Steel in Open and Closed Tribosystems. Tribology Transactions, 61(3), 448-458
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Temperature Friction and Wear of Boron Steel and Tool Steel in Open and Closed Tribosystems
2018 (English)In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 448-458Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

More and more components in automotive, material processing and mining industries are operating under harsh conditions involving high temperatures and high contact pressures. Tribotesting for such applications is done using both open (one surface meeting a fresh counter-surface) and closed (one surface follows the same track on the counter-surface) test configurations. In order to enable development of new materials and processes intended for such conditions, there is a need for better understanding pertaining to tribological phenomena occurring under these different test configurations.

In this work, friction and wear characteristics of quenched and tempered tool steel sliding against boron steel (22MnB5) have been studied. The experiments were conducted using a specially designed hot strip tribometer (HST) under dry conditions at R.T. and 400°C in open as well as closed configurations. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray techniques were carried out to analyse the worn surfaces. Additionally, the results from the closed test configuration were compared to previous tests carried out with the same materials and parameters using a pin-on-disk (POD) test rig. The results have shown that wear was reduced at higher temperatures as well as with repeated sliding on the same contacting surfaces (i.e. closed configuration) compared to those with open configuration. A good correlation of wear mechanisms and coefficient of friction between closed configuration tests and those carried out with the POD test rig was observed especially at 400°C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65170 (URN)10.1080/10402004.2017.1350310 (DOI)000444573200006 ()2-s2.0-85028558287 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-10-08 (johcin) 

Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2018-10-08Bibliographically approved
Burkhart, C., Johansson, J., Uukonsari, J. & Prakash, B. (2018). Performance of lubricating oils for wind turbine gear boxes and bearings. Paper presented at 17th Nordic Symposium on Tribology - NORDTRIB 2016, Hämeenlinna, Finland, 14th - 17th June 2016. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, 232(1), 62-72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance of lubricating oils for wind turbine gear boxes and bearings
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 232, no 1, p. 62-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the friction and wear properties of six different new and used wind turbine gear oils (ISO VG 320), with different base oil formulations and additives packages, were investigated. For that purpose, a four-ball tribometer and an Optimol SRV were used. Moreover, the lubricants extreme pressure properties were also evaluated, using the same four-ball tribometer. The study also includes a characterization of the lubricants. The main objective was to compare the new and used gear oils in order to identify performance differences and predict oil change intervals. The results indicate that a use of 3 to 4 years is within the lifetime of the lubricant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66356 (URN)10.1177/1350650117739764 (DOI)000419852700007 ()2-s2.0-85040449368 (Scopus ID)
Conference
17th Nordic Symposium on Tribology - NORDTRIB 2016, Hämeenlinna, Finland, 14th - 17th June 2016
Note

Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Gebretsadik, D., Hardell, J. & Prakash, B. (2018). Seizure behaviour of Pb-free engine bearing materials under dry condition. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, 232(2), 106-116
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seizure behaviour of Pb-free engine bearing materials under dry condition
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 232, no 2, p. 106-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to new environmental regulations, Pb-free engine bearing materials are becoming more common and there is a need for studying their tribological performance. Under severe operating conditions, failure due to seizure can occur in engine bearings. In this work, seizure behaviour of different multi-layered engine bearing materials has been studied by using a block-on-ring test setup under dry condition. These materials included Al–Sn-based lining with no overlay, bronze lining with polyamide-imide-based overlay containing MoS2 and graphite, bronze lining with two overlays of Al–Sn-based and polyamide-imide-based material, bronze-based lining with Sn-based overlay and bismuth (Bi)-containing bronze with Sn-based overlay. The tests were performed by gradually increasing the load at a specific time interval and in a stepwise manner and at a constant speed under unidirectional dry sliding conditions. The test materials, counter surfaces and the wear debris were analysed using SEM with a view to understand the seizure mechanisms. Bronze-based lining with a polyamide-imide-based overlay containing MoS2 and graphite does not exhibit seizure up to a load of 475 N. For Al–Sn-based lining without overlay, seizure occurs at a relatively lower load of 125 N. The Al–Sn-based lining with no overlay shows higher friction and the polyamide-imide-based overlay containing MoS2 and graphite shows lower friction during the seizure test. In most cases, there is material transfer onto the test ring counter surface. Material transfer onto the counter surface either due to severe adhesion or wear debris adhered and smeared on it. Al–Sn-based lining and an exposed Al–Sn-based overlay show severe adhesion that causes seizure. On the other hand, exposed Pb containing lining and Bi containing lining seize due to mechanical interlocking caused by the adhered wear debris on both surfaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63437 (URN)10.1177/1350650117706641 (DOI)000424781600002 ()2-s2.0-85042873912 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-02-12 (svasva)

Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Torres, H., Vuchkov, T., Slawik, S., Gachot, C., Prakash, B. & Rodríguez Ripoll, M. (2018). Self-lubricating laser claddings for reducing friction and wear from room temperature to 600 °C. Wear, 408-409, 22-33
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-lubricating laser claddings for reducing friction and wear from room temperature to 600 °C
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2018 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 408-409, p. 22-33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, laser cladding has been employed for the preparation of nickel-based self-lubricating coatings featuring the addition of different combinations of soft metal solid lubricants such as Ag and Cu. Transition metal dichalcogenides (WS2, MoS2) were evaluated as precursors for encapsulating and uniformly distributing the soft metals throughout the microstructure. The tribological behaviour of the resulting claddings was evaluated under high temperature reciprocating sliding conditions, including two different counter body geometries that lead to very different ranges of contact pressures during testing. An improved tribological behaviour was observed for the self-lubricating claddings compared to the unmodified nickel-based alloy up to 600 °C, attributed to the presence of silver and the formation of lubricous sulfides during sample preparation due to the thermal degradation of the transition metal dichalcogenides precursors. Additionally, the role of the contact conditions observed when testing the self-lubricating claddings against flat pins instead of spherical counter bodies are discussed in terms of frictional and wear microstructural mechanisms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68661 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2018.05.001 (DOI)000436482000003 ()2-s2.0-85046630173 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-05-15 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2018-05-07 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2018-12-21Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1454-1118

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