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Wanhainen, ChristinaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4711-7671
Publications (10 of 87) Show all publications
Tiu, G., Ghorbani, Y., Jansson, N., Wanhainen, C. & Bolin, N.-J. (2023). Quantifying the variability of a complex ore using geometallurgical domains. Minerals Engineering, 203, Article ID 108323.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying the variability of a complex ore using geometallurgical domains
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2023 (English)In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 203, article id 108323Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This comprehensive study focuses on the geometallurgical characterization of the complex Lappberget polymetallic Zn-Pb-Ag-(Cu-Au) sulfide deposit at the Garpenberg mine, one of Sweden’s largest and most significant sources of zinc, lead, and silver. The research explores the intricate mineralogy and texture of the ore, investigating its impact on the variability of flotation performance for different ore types. QEMSCAN® analysis and element-to-mineral conversion (EMC) were employed to quantitatively characterize the ore in terms of mineral distribution and occurrence. The study revealed significant variability in Cu-Pb flotation compared to Zn flotation due to the targeted mineral varieties. While zinc primarily occurred in sphalerite grains, Cu-Pb flotation aimed to recover multiple Pb-, Cu-, Ag- and Au-bearing minerals that were finely grained and intricately intergrown with other sulfides. Grain size and the degree of liberation emerged as primary rate-limiting factors, especially in the Zn flotation circuit. Seven geometallurgical domains were defined based on the concentration efficiencies (i.e., selectivity and recovery) for sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, and Ag-bearing phases. The proposed geometallurgical characterization approach aims to transform geologically defined classes into geometallurgical domains by relating the deposit's key mineralogical and textural characteristics to metallurgical performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Zinc-lead-silver deposit, Geometallurgy, Flotation performance, Mineralogy, QEMSCAN, Element-to-mineral conversion
National Category
Geology Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94879 (URN)10.1016/j.mineng.2023.108323 (DOI)2-s2.0-85170428284 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 72267
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-09-14 (joosat);

Funder: Boliden Mineral AB

CC BY 4.0 License

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Available from: 2022-12-16 Created: 2022-12-16 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Ghorbani, S., Hoseinie, S. H., Ghasemi, E., Sherizadeh, T. & Wanhainen, C. (2022). A new rock hardness classification system based on portable dynamic testing. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 81(5), Article ID 179.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new rock hardness classification system based on portable dynamic testing
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2022 (English)In: Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, ISSN 1435-9529, E-ISSN 1435-9537, Vol. 81, no 5, article id 179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hardness is one of the critical physical characteristics of minerals and rocks, which indicates the resistance of the rock to penetration, scratch, or permanent deformation. As a basic concept, rock hardness has a significant role in rock mechanics and geological engineering and is an appropriate diagnostic tool for the classification of minerals and rocks. The main purpose of this study is to guide rock engineers to measure the rock hardness faster, easier, and more accurately using Leeb’s dynamic hardness test. Accordingly, this paper presents a new rock hardness classification system based on the Leeb dynamic and portable hardness testing method. It is a well-known method for its fast and straightforward procedure testing equipment. A set of 33 different rock types were collected and tested during this study. Next, in-depth microscopic mineralogical studies were performed to determine the precise Mohs hardness value. The Mohs hardness was considered the leading hardness benchmark during the experimental studies, and the Leeb hardness was adopted to classify based on this hardness. A series of laboratory studies and statistical analysis was performed to predict the Shore and Vickers hardness using Leeb hardness. Finally, based on the comparative studies, it is recommended to classify the rocks considering the Leeb hardness method in six different categories: extremely soft (1–250), soft (250–450), moderately soft (450–750), moderately hard (750–850), hard (850–920), and extremely hard (920–1000). The provided classification could be useful in a vast range of rock engineering applications, especially for feasibility studies of rock engineering projects and engineering geology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Dynamics, Minerals, Rock mechanics, Vickers hardness, Well testing, Classification system, Dynamic hardness, Dynamic testing, Leeb dynamic hardness, Moh hardness, Rock engineering, Rock hardness, Rock hardness classification system, Shore, Vickers, Rocks, classification, dynamic analysis, hardness, physical property, rock mechanics, testing method
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90403 (URN)10.1007/s10064-022-02690-3 (DOI)000783159600002 ()2-s2.0-85128064674 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-05-01 (johcin)

Available from: 2022-04-25 Created: 2022-04-25 Last updated: 2022-04-28Bibliographically approved
Crafoord, E., Bark, G. & Wanhainen, C. (2022). Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) – the potential for mineral carbonation in the Swedish onshore bedrock. In: Þorsteinn Sæmundsson, Ásta Rut Hjartardóttir, Bjarni Gautason, Halldór Geirsson (Ed.), The 35th Nordic Geological Winter Meeting: Program and Abstracts: . Paper presented at 35th Nordic Geological Winter Meeting, Reykjavík, Iceland, May 11-13, 2022. Geoscience Society of Iceland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) – the potential for mineral carbonation in the Swedish onshore bedrock
2022 (English)In: The 35th Nordic Geological Winter Meeting: Program and Abstracts / [ed] Þorsteinn Sæmundsson, Ásta Rut Hjartardóttir, Bjarni Gautason, Halldór Geirsson, Geoscience Society of Iceland , 2022Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Geoscience Society of Iceland, 2022
Keywords
CO2, BECCS, mineral carbonation, geological storage, Sweden
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94452 (URN)
Conference
35th Nordic Geological Winter Meeting, Reykjavík, Iceland, May 11-13, 2022
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-9935-25-178-7

Available from: 2022-12-01 Created: 2022-12-01 Last updated: 2023-02-14Bibliographically approved
Martinsson, O. & Wanhainen, C. (2022). Economic potential of battery metals and minerals in Sweden. In: Anthony B. Christie (Ed.), Proceedings volume for the 16th SGA Biennial Meeting: Volume 1 Introduction and papers. Paper presented at 16th SGA Biennial Meeting 2022, Rotorua, New Zealand, March 28-31, 2022 (pp. 227-230). Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic potential of battery metals and minerals in Sweden
2022 (English)In: Proceedings volume for the 16th SGA Biennial Meeting: Volume 1 Introduction and papers / [ed] Anthony B. Christie, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) , 2022, p. 227-230Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The potential for battery metal production in Sweden is difficult to predict with the present geological knowledge. The Swedish bedrock are known to containnumerous occurrences of lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, vanadium, and graphite, but a waste majority of them have not been studied in any detail recently and data to estimate their potential is therefore limited. However, known alum shales and graphite schists probably constitute world class deposits of vanadium and graphite if extracted and processed in an economically feasible and environmentally responsible manner, while the potential to find significant manganese and cobalt deposits in Sweden is probably low. These metals, as well as vanadium, could rather be extracted from the waste material of active and historic mines. The geology of parts of Sweden also suggests that significant sulphidic nickel deposits might exist, as well as lithium-pegmatites similar to those in the same crustal domain in Finland.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA), 2022
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90100 (URN)
Conference
16th SGA Biennial Meeting 2022, Rotorua, New Zealand, March 28-31, 2022
Available from: 2022-04-07 Created: 2022-04-07 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Warlo, M., Bark, G., Wanhainen, C., McElroy, I., Björling, A. & Johansson, U. (2022). Extreme-Resolution Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Mapping of Ore Samples. Ore Geology Reviews, 140, Article ID 104620.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extreme-Resolution Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Mapping of Ore Samples
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2022 (English)In: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 140, article id 104620Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to maximise profit and sustainability of a mining operation, knowledge of the chemistry, mineralogy, texture, and structure of the ore is essential. Continuous advancements in analytical techniques enable studying these features with increasing detail. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence is unparalleled in its simultaneously high spatial resolution and detection range. Yet, its application in ore geology research and the mining industry is still in its infancy. This study investigated opportunities of extreme-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of ore samples. Analysis was performed at the NanoMAX beamline at the MAX IV synchrotron facility in Lund, Sweden. The samples investigated are from the Liikavaara Östra Cu-(W-Au) deposit, northern Sweden. Analysis covered areas of several hundreds of ÎŒm2 in grains of molybdenite, pyrite, and native Bi. Key results included successful mapping of the lattice-bound distribution of Re, Se, and W in molybdenite at 200 nm spot/step size and detection of nanometre inclusions of Au in native Bi at 50 nm spot/step size. Challenges were encountered concerning data acquisition and processing. In order to achieve satisfactory resolution of both light and heavy elements and to limit mapping artefacts, repeated scans of the same area with varied experimental parameters and very thin (quasi-2d) samples are required. For complex geological samples, the software used for analysing spectral data (PyMCA) requires a considerable degree of human examination, which may be a source of error. Overall, synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping has a strong analytical potential for ore geology research, in analysing and imaging trace elements that would constitute potential by-products in mining operations. Knowing in detail how these trace elements occur in the ores, appropriate metal extraction programs can be developed, and a larger part of the ore may then be utilized.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
synchrotron, x-ray fluorescence mapping, nanoscale, trace metals, gold, rhenium, bismuth, molybdenite
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88182 (URN)10.1016/j.oregeorev.2021.104620 (DOI)000731503200002 ()2-s2.0-85120981445 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-01-01 (beamah)

Available from: 2021-12-03 Created: 2021-12-03 Last updated: 2021-12-28Bibliographically approved
Barbosa, L., Tiu, G., Jansson, N. F., Wanhainen, C., Lilja, L. & Ghorbani, Y. (2022). Gold mineralization in the Lappberget deposit, Garpenberg mine, Sweden: towards a geometallurgical approach. In: Bergman Weihed, J.; Johansson, Å.; Rehnström, E. (Ed.), Geological Society of Sweden, 150 year anniversary meeting: Abstract volume: . Paper presented at Geological Society of Sweden, 150 year anniversary meeting, Uppsala, Sweden, August 17–19, 2022 (pp. 116-117).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gold mineralization in the Lappberget deposit, Garpenberg mine, Sweden: towards a geometallurgical approach
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2022 (English)In: Geological Society of Sweden, 150 year anniversary meeting: Abstract volume / [ed] Bergman Weihed, J.; Johansson, Å.; Rehnström, E., 2022, p. 116-117Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the mineralogy and texture of gold-bearing phases in the Lappberget deposit, Garpenberg Mine, and how these characteristics affect gold recovery during mineral processing. Multiple methods such as optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, and bulk chemical analysis were applied on drill core samples, and samples from the processing plant’s Knelson gravity concentrator. Electrum-type alloys were recognized as the most common gold hosts. 

Series
Geologiska Föreningen Specialpublikation ; 1
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Mineral Processing; Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93363 (URN)
Conference
Geological Society of Sweden, 150 year anniversary meeting, Uppsala, Sweden, August 17–19, 2022
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 72267
Note

Funder: Boliden Mineral AB;

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-91-987833-0-8

Available from: 2022-09-30 Created: 2022-09-30 Last updated: 2022-10-17Bibliographically approved
Crafoord, E., Bark, G. & Wanhainen, C. (2022). Is the Swedish onshore bedrock suitable for carbon dioxidesequestration?. In: Bergman Weihed, J.; Johansson, Å.; Rehnström, E. (Ed.), Geological Society of Sweden, 150 year anniversary meeting: Abstract volume: . Paper presented at Geological society of Sweden, 150 year anniversary meeting, Uppsala, Sweden, August 17-19 2022 (pp. 52-53). Geologiska Föreningen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is the Swedish onshore bedrock suitable for carbon dioxidesequestration?
2022 (English)In: Geological Society of Sweden, 150 year anniversary meeting: Abstract volume / [ed] Bergman Weihed, J.; Johansson, Å.; Rehnström, E., Geologiska Föreningen , 2022, p. 52-53Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Geologiska Föreningen, 2022
Series
Geologiska Föreningen Specialpublikation ; 1
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95619 (URN)
Conference
Geological society of Sweden, 150 year anniversary meeting, Uppsala, Sweden, August 17-19 2022
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-91-987833-0-8

Available from: 2023-02-14 Created: 2023-02-14 Last updated: 2023-02-14Bibliographically approved
Tiu, G., Ghorbani, Y., Jansson, N., Wanhainen, C. & Bolin, N.-J. (2022). Ore mineral characteristics as rate-limiting factors in sphalerite flotation: Comparison of the mineral chemistry (iron and manganese content), grain size, and liberation. Minerals Engineering, 185, Article ID 107705.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ore mineral characteristics as rate-limiting factors in sphalerite flotation: Comparison of the mineral chemistry (iron and manganese content), grain size, and liberation
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2022 (English)In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 185, article id 107705Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A sphalerite deportment study using QEMSCAN® was conducted to understand the distribution of the sphalerite grains with varying iron and manganese content during a multi-stage Zn-Pb-Cu flotation of a complex ore. In addition, the study aims to understand the effect of sphalerite chemistry in relation to grain size and liberation. Mineral chemistry, grain size, and degree of liberation were extracted for 497,704 sphalerite grains, composed of approximately 31 million energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis points. Bulk chemical assay and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were used to validate the extracted sphalerite chemistry data from QEMSCAN®. Sphalerite recovery in the final zinc concentrate improved with increasing iron and manganese content for sphalerite grains containing up to 9% Fe and 2% Mn. At higher iron and manganese content, sphalerite recovery decreased or plateaued. Conversely, an opposite trend was observed for losses to the copper-lead concentrate. The obtained results indicated that considering the ore mineral characteristics, physical factors such as grain size and liberation have a more significant effect on sphalerite flotation than the presence of iron and manganese.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Sphalerite, Froth flotation, Lappberget, Garpenberg mine, Automated mineralogy, QEMSCAN
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Ore Geology; Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92027 (URN)10.1016/j.mineng.2022.107705 (DOI)000823233000004 ()2-s2.0-85133264775 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 72267
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-06-30 (sofila);

Funder: Boliden Mineral AB

Available from: 2022-06-30 Created: 2022-06-30 Last updated: 2022-12-16Bibliographically approved
Rincon, J., Jansson, N. F., Thomas, H., Kaiser, M. C., Persson, M. F., Simán, F. & Wanhainen, C. (2022). Pyrite and sphalerite trace element redistribution during metamorphism of the Rävliden North VMS deposit, northern Sweden. In: Bergman Weihed, J.; Johansson, Å.; Rehnström, E. (Ed.), Geological Society of Sweden, 150 year anniversary meeting: Abstract volume: . Paper presented at Geological Society of Sweden, 150 year anniversary meeting, Uppsala, August 17–19, 2022 (pp. 154-157).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pyrite and sphalerite trace element redistribution during metamorphism of the Rävliden North VMS deposit, northern Sweden
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2022 (English)In: Geological Society of Sweden, 150 year anniversary meeting: Abstract volume / [ed] Bergman Weihed, J.; Johansson, Å.; Rehnström, E., 2022, p. 154-157Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Rävliden North volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposit and its host rocks exhibit a shared history of metamorphism during the 1.88–1.86 Ga deformation phases of the Svecokarelian orogeny. Predominantly internal sulphide remobilisation produced minor modifications to the overall pre-metamorphic trace element distribution including remobilisation. Post-Svecokarelian sulphide-bearing zeolite- and calcite veinlets cross-cut the stratigraphic hanging wall suggesting mobilisation of sulphides in a fluid phase during an overprinting later event unrelated to the VMS mineralisation.

Series
Geologiska Föreningen specialpublikation ; 1
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93608 (URN)
Conference
Geological Society of Sweden, 150 year anniversary meeting, Uppsala, August 17–19, 2022
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-91-987833-0-8

Available from: 2022-10-14 Created: 2022-10-14 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Bauer, T., Lynch, E., Sarlus, Z., Drejing-Carrol, D., Martinsson, O., Metzger, N. & Wanhainen, C. (2022). Structural Controls on Iron Oxide Copper-Gold Mineralization and Related Alteration in a Paleoproterozoic Supracrustal Belt: Insights from the Nautanen Deformation Zone and Surroundings, Northern Sweden. Economic geology and the bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 117(2), 327-359
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural Controls on Iron Oxide Copper-Gold Mineralization and Related Alteration in a Paleoproterozoic Supracrustal Belt: Insights from the Nautanen Deformation Zone and Surroundings, Northern Sweden
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2022 (English)In: Economic geology and the bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, ISSN 0361-0128, E-ISSN 1554-0774, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 327-359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Nautanen deformation zone in the Gällivare area of northern Sweden is a highly Cu-mineralized, magnetite-rich, large-scale shear zone with a long-lived (~100 m.y.) deformation, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization history. This composite structure hosts the Aitik porphyry Cu-Au-Ag ± Mo deposit and several Cu-Au ± Fe ± Ag ± Mo occurrences assigned to the iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposit class. The Nautanen deformation zone was a locus for polyphase deformation and intermittent metasomatic-hydrothermal activity that overprinted middle Orosirian (ca. 1.90–1.88 Ga) continental arc-related volcanic-plutonic rocks. The deformation zone is characterized by intense shearing fabrics that form a series of subvertical to moderately W-dipping, NNW-SSE–trending, first-order shear zones with oblique reverse kinematics and related NNE-SSW–oriented second-order shear zones that control hydrothermal alteration patterns and Cu-Au mineralization.

Hydrothermal alteration in the study area formed during several phases. Volcanic-volcaniclastic rocks to the east and west of the Nautanen deformation zone display low to moderately intense, pervasive to selectively pervasive (i.e., patchy zones or bands, disseminations) sericite ± feldspar, amphibole + biotite + magnetite ± tourmaline, and K-feldspar + hematite alteration. Both the amphibole + biotite and K-feldspar + hematite associations occur adjacent to NNW- and NE-oriented deformation zones and are locally associated with minor sulfide. Within the deformation zone, a moderate to intense biotite + amphibole + garnet + magnetite + tourmaline + sericite alteration assemblage is typically associated with chalcopyrite + pyrrhotite + pyrite and forms linear and subparallel, mainly NNW-oriented seams, bands, and zones that locally appear to overprint possibly earlier scapolite + sericite ± feldspar alteration. Late-stage epidote ± quartz ± feldspar alteration (retrograde saussuritization) forms selectively pervasive zones and epidote veinlets across the area and is partly related to brittle faulting.

A magnetite-amphibole-biotite–rich, penetrative S1 foliation records shortening during early Svecokarelian-related deformation (D1) and can be related to ca. 1.88 to 1.87 Ga arc accretion processes and basin inversion that overlaps with regional peak metamorphism to near mid-amphibolite facies conditions and a potential initial Cu mineralization event. Folding and repeated shearing along the Nautanen deformation zone can be assigned to a second, late-Svecokarelian deformation event (D2 stage, ca. 1.82–1.79 Ga) taking place at a higher crustal level. This D2 deformation phase is related to late-stage accretionary processes active during a transition to a stage of postorogenic collapse, and it was accompanied by abundant, syntectonic intrusions. D2-related magmatism produced high-temperature and low-pressure conditions and represents a regional magmatic-hydrothermal event that controlled the recrystallization/remobilization of magnetite, biotite, and amphibole. Associated shear zone reactivation during D2 favors the utilization of the Nautanen deformation zone as a fluid conduit, which preferentially controlled the siting and formation of epigenetic Cu-Au mineralization with distinctive IOCG characteristics within second-order shear zones.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Economic Geologists, 2022
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83978 (URN)10.5382/econgeo.4862 (DOI)000743559000003 ()2-s2.0-85121295941 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Multi-scale 4-dimensional geological modeling of the Gällivare area
Funder
Vinnova
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-03-11 (sofila);

Funder: Boliden AB; LKAB

Available from: 2021-05-03 Created: 2021-05-03 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4711-7671

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