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Byström, A. & Wickström, U. (2018). Temperature of post-flashover compartment fires: calculations and validation. Fire and Materials, 42(3), 255-265
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature of post-flashover compartment fires: calculations and validation
2018 (English)In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes and validates by comparisons with tests a one-zone model for computing temperature of fully developed compartment fires. The model is based on an analysis of the energy and mass balance assuming combustion being limited by the availability of oxygen, i.e. ventilation controlled fire. It is demonstrated that the model can be used to predict fire temperatures in compartments with semi-infinitely thick boundaries as well as with boundaries of insulated and uninsulated steel sheets where the entire heat capacity of the surrounding structure is assumed to be concentrated to the steel core. That is so called lumped heat capacity is assumed.

When developing the fire model a maximum fire temperature was defined depending on combustion efficiency and opening heights only. This temperature was then used as a thermal boundary condition to calculate the temperature of the surrounding structure. The fire temperature was then derived to be a weighted average between the maximum fire temperature and the current calculated surrounding structure surface temperature.

A general finite element solid temperature calculation code (TASEF) was used to calculate the temperature in the boundary structure. With this code it is possible to analyze surrounding structures of various kinds comprising materials with properties varying with temperature as well as assemblies of various materials.

The experiments referred to were accurately defined and surveyed. In all the tests a propane diffusion burner was used as the only fire source. Temperatures were measured with thermocouples and plate thermometers at several positions [1].

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59976 (URN)10.1002/fam.2488 (DOI)000435478400002 ()2-s2.0-85036594930 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-03-09 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-10-26 Created: 2016-10-26 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Byström, A. (2017). Compartment Fire Temperature Calculations and Measurements. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compartment Fire Temperature Calculations and Measurements
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Mätning och beräkning av temperatur i brandceller
Abstract [en]

This thesis is devoted to heat transfer and fire dynamics in enclosures. It consists of a main part which summarizes and discusses the theory of heat transfer, conservation of energy, fire dynamics and specific fire scenarios that have been studied. In the second part of this thesis, the reader will find an Appendix containing seven scientific publications in this field.

In particular, one- and two-zone compartment fire models have been studied. A new way of calculating fire temperatures of pre- and post-flashover compartment fires is presented. Three levels of solution techniques are presented including closed form analytical expressions, spread-sheet calculations and solutions involving general finite element temperature calculations. Validations with experiments have shown good accuracy of the calculation models and that the thermal properties of the surrounding structures have a great impact on the fire temperature development. In addition, the importance of the choice of measurement techniques in fire engineering has been studied. Based on the conclusions from these studies, the best techniques have been used in further experimental studies of different fire scenarios.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling behandlar problem kopplade till värmeöverföring och branddynamik i slutna utrymmen med tonvikt på värmeöverföring mellan gaser och utsatta konstruktioner. Avhandlingen består av en huvuddel och ett appendix innehållande sju vetenskapliga artiklar. I huvuddelen sammanfattas och diskuteras grundläggande teorier och principer inom värmeöverföring och branddynamik samt studier av ett antal specialfall av brandscenarion som baseras på dessa teorier. I de avslutande bilagorna (Artiklar A1-A3 och Artiklar B1-B2) finns sju vetenskapliga artiklar som grundligare beskriver de ovan nämnda specialfallen.

Huvudfokus i avhandlingen ligger på temperaturutveckling vid brand i slutna utrymmen. I avhandlingen studeras i synnerhet en- och två-zonsmodeller för brand i slutna utrymmen, och en ny metod för att beräkna brandgastemperaturer före och efter övertändning i rumsbränder är framtagen. Validering av dessa modeller med experiment visar att deras noggrannhet är bra. Modellerna visar också att de termiska egenskaperna hos de omgivande ytorna har stor inverkan på brandtemperatursutvecklingen. I tillägg studeras i denna avhandling betydelsen av val av mätmetoder i brandtekniska tillämpningar. På grundval av slutsatserna från dessa studier har de främsta mätteknikerna använts i ytterligare experimentella studier av olika brandscenarier.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2017
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
compartment fire temperature, heat transfer, FEM, calculation of temperature, temperature measurement, fire scenario, validation, flashover
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59927 (URN)978-91-7583-812-0 (ISBN)978-91-7583-813-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-03-20, F1031, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-02-09 Created: 2016-10-24 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Byström, A., Wickström, U., Sjöström, J. & Anderson, J. (2016). Project: Validation of a one-zone room fire model with well-defined experiments. Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project: Validation of a one-zone room fire model with well-defined experiments
2016 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36132 (URN)7eb8dca4-fd12-4490-8923-7843193e2ded (Local ID)7eb8dca4-fd12-4490-8923-7843193e2ded (Archive number)7eb8dca4-fd12-4490-8923-7843193e2ded (OAI)
Note

Publikationer: Validation data for room fire models: Experimantal background; Status: Avslutat; Period: 01/07/2013 → …

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Wickström, U., Byström, A. & Sjöström, J. (2016). Temperature measurements and modelling of flashed over compartment fires (ed.). In: (Ed.), Proceedings of 14th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering: . Paper presented at International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering : 04/07/2016 - 06/07/2016 (pp. 949-960). , 2, Article ID 12.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature measurements and modelling of flashed over compartment fires
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of 14th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering, 2016, Vol. 2, p. 949-960, article id 12Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes and validates by comparisons with test results a one-zone model for computing temperatures of compartment fires where flashover is reached. The model is based on an analysis of the energy and mass balance of a fully developed (ventilation controlled) compartment fire. It is demonstrated in this paper that the model can be used to predict fire temperatures in compartments with semi-infinite boundaries as well as with boundaries of insulated or uninsulated steel sheets where so called lumped heat capacity can be assumed. Comparisons are made with a series of experiments in compartments of light weight concrete, and insulated and non-insulated single sheet steel structures. A general finite element code has been used to calculate the temperature in the surrounding structures. The in this manner calculated surface temperatures yield the fire temperature as a function of time. By using a numerical tool like a finite element code it is possible to analyse fire compartment surrounding structures of various kinds and combinations of materials.Two new characteristic compartment fire temperatures have been introduced in this paper. They are the ultimate compartment fire temperature, which is the temperature reached when heat losses to surrounding structures as well radiation out through openings can be neglected, and the maximum compartment fire temperature, which is the temperature when only the losses to surrounding structures are neglected.The experiments referred to were accurately defined and surveyed. In all the tests a propane gas burner was used as the only fire source. Temperatures were measured with thermocouples and plate thermometers at several positions, and oxygen concentrations were measured in the fire compartment only opening. In some tests the heat release rate as well as the CO2 and CO concentrations were measured as well (Sjöström, et al., 2016).

National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-40724 (URN)ff6b830d-9aa3-4da1-ae6e-07cc711d4b97 (Local ID)ff6b830d-9aa3-4da1-ae6e-07cc711d4b97 (Archive number)ff6b830d-9aa3-4da1-ae6e-07cc711d4b97 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference and Exhibition on Fire Science and Engineering : 04/07/2016 - 06/07/2016
Note

För godkännande; 2016; 20160823 (alebys)

Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Sjöström, J., Wickström, U. & Byström, A. (2016). Validation data for room fire models: Experimantal background (ed.). Paper presented at . Borås: SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation data for room fire models: Experimantal background
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A series of room fire tests for enclosures with different wall materials have been conducted for the purpose of supplying validation data for enclosure fire models. The wall materials are varied between light weight concrete, mineral wool insulation, bare 3 mm steel, and finally insulated steel. All tests used a propane gas burner with a well-defined mass flux as a fire source. Temperatures of thermocouples and plate thermometers were measured as well as oxygen concentrations in the opening. For some tests the heat release rate (by oxygen consumption calorimetry) as well as O2, CO2 and CO concentrations were measured in addition.This report describes the instrumentation, fire scenarios, enclosure materials, and results from all the tests. All results are readily available as spreadsheet data for downloading. The report also contains short description showing the influence of different factors such as wall materials, heat release rates and burner placements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, 2016. p. 50
Series
SP Report, ISSN 0284-5172 ; 2016.14
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-24146 (URN)9dbd69cb-fbeb-4b0f-9a8c-15d58186c446 (Local ID)9789188349569 (ISBN)9dbd69cb-fbeb-4b0f-9a8c-15d58186c446 (Archive number)9dbd69cb-fbeb-4b0f-9a8c-15d58186c446 (OAI)
Projects
Validation of a one-zone room fire model with well-defined experiments
Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Byström, A., Lind, O., Palmklint, E., Jönsson, P. & Wickström, U. (2015). Analysis of a new plate thermometer: the copper disc plate thermometer (ed.). In: (Ed.), João Paulo C Rodrigues (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Fire Safety Symposium 2015: Coimbra, Portugal, 20th-22nd April 2015. Paper presented at International Fire Safety Symposium : 20/04/2015 - 22/04/2015 (pp. 453-460). : International Fire Safety Symposium
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of a new plate thermometer: the copper disc plate thermometer
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Fire Safety Symposium 2015: Coimbra, Portugal, 20th-22nd April 2015 / [ed] João Paulo C Rodrigues, International Fire Safety Symposium , 2015, p. 453-460Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Two temperatures govern heat transfer to a surface of a solid body. One is the gas temperature which can be measured with thermocouples (TC) and the other the black body radiation temperature. The latter can also be expressed as the incident radiant heat flux. It is difficult to measure as radiometers cannot be used under hot fire conditions. Indirectly the radiation temperature can be obtained by measuring the Adiabatic Surface Temperature (AST) with plate thermometers (PT) for example as defined in the fire resistance furnace standards EN 1363-1 and ISO-834-1 combined with measurements of gas temperature with thin TC. In the test reported here a smaller gauge is used to measure adiabatic surface temperature at surfaces. It has been named copper disc Plate Thermometer (cdPT). Then a thin copper disc with an attached TC is mounted flush at the surface to obtain the AST in e.g. cone calorimeters according to ISO 5660. A main advantage of the cdPT is that it can record the AST before as well after a material has ignited. It can thereby be used to indicate ignition as well as continue recording the thermal exposure thereafter when ignition occurs the cdPT reacts immediately by displaying a quick temperature rise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Fire Safety Symposium, 2015
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-31849 (URN)627ae436-bebe-4e8d-a32a-f3aa18fcb34d (Local ID)627ae436-bebe-4e8d-a32a-f3aa18fcb34d (Archive number)627ae436-bebe-4e8d-a32a-f3aa18fcb34d (OAI)
Conference
International Fire Safety Symposium : 20/04/2015 - 22/04/2015
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20160823 (alebys)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Wickström, U. & Byström, A. (2015). Compartment fire temperature: a new simple calculation method (ed.). Paper presented at International Symposium on Fire Safety Science : 10/02/2014 - 14/02/2014. IAFSS - The International Association for Fire Safety Science: proceedings, 11, 289-301
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compartment fire temperature: a new simple calculation method
2015 (English)In: IAFSS - The International Association for Fire Safety Science: proceedings, ISSN 1817-4299, Vol. 11, p. 289-301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper a new simple calculation method for compartment temperatures is derived. The method is applicable to post-flashover ventilation controlled fires. A parameter termed the ultimate compartment fire temperature is defined as the temperature obtained when thermal equilibrium is reached and thick compartment boundaries cannot absorb any more heat from the fire gases. This temperature depends only on the product of the heat of combustion and the combustion efficiency over the specific heat capacity of air. It is, however, independent of the air mass flow rate, and of the fire compartment geometry and the thermal properties of the compartment boundary materials. These parameters on the other hand govern the rate at which the fire temperature is increasing towards the ultimate temperature. It is shown how the fire temperature development as a function of time in some idealized cases may be calculated by a simple analytical closed form formula.The fire temperature developments of two types of compartment boundaries are presented, semi-infinitely thick and thin structures. It is also shown that for the semi-infinite case, the solution resembles the standard ISO 834/EN 1363-1 curve and the parametric fire curves according to Eurocode 1, EN 1991-1-2.

National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-39172 (URN)10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.11-289 (DOI)2-s2.0-84975167752 (Scopus ID)dcfce1ae-ddea-484d-b48b-7de38c5a3f51 (Local ID)dcfce1ae-ddea-484d-b48b-7de38c5a3f51 (Archive number)dcfce1ae-ddea-484d-b48b-7de38c5a3f51 (OAI)
Conference
International Symposium on Fire Safety Science : 10/02/2014 - 14/02/2014
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20140812 (alebys); Konferensartikel i tidskriftAvailable from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Byström, A. & Wickström, U. (2015). Influence of surrounding boundaries on fire compartment temperature (ed.). In: (Ed.), Wald F.,Bjegovic D.,Horova K.,Burgess I.,Jelcic Rukavina M. (Ed.), International Conference ‘’Applications of Structural Fire Engineering": . Paper presented at International Conference ‘’Applications of Structural Fire Engineering : 15/10/2015 - 16/10/2015. Prague: Czech Technical University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of surrounding boundaries on fire compartment temperature
2015 (English)In: International Conference ‘’Applications of Structural Fire Engineering" / [ed] Wald F.,Bjegovic D.,Horova K.,Burgess I.,Jelcic Rukavina M., Prague: Czech Technical University , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper shows and demonstrates how an analysis of the energy and mass balance of a fully developed (ventilation controlled) compartment fire can be used as a basis for simple and accurate predictions of fire temperatures. The model has been applied on compartments of light weight concrete structures. A finite element FE analysis has been used to solve the heat transfer equation. Effects of moisture were considered for material properties of the surrounding structure. The results were validated with experiments. The model then accurately predicted the fire temperatures and among other things it showed the influence of moisture in the surrounding structure on the fire temperature. Parametric temperature curves according to EN 1991-1-2, 2002 were shown to overestimate the fire temperature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Prague: Czech Technical University, 2015
Series
Applications of Structural Fire Engineering-Series, ISSN 2336-7318
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-27425 (URN)10.14311/asfe.2015.061 (DOI)000417000800058 ()2-s2.0-85029928202 (Scopus ID)0dd605d2-7b8d-40ee-b1cf-0a3876abc7d9 (Local ID)9788001061947 (ISBN)0dd605d2-7b8d-40ee-b1cf-0a3876abc7d9 (Archive number)0dd605d2-7b8d-40ee-b1cf-0a3876abc7d9 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference ‘’Applications of Structural Fire Engineering : 15/10/2015 - 16/10/2015
Note

Godkänd; 2015; 20160823 (alebys)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Byström, A., Sjöström, J., Wickström, U., Lange, D. & Veljkovic, M. (2014). Large scale test on a steel column exposed to localized fire (ed.). Paper presented at . Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, 5(2), 147-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large scale test on a steel column exposed to localized fire
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, ISSN 2040-2317, E-ISSN 2040-2325, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 147-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A localized fire is a fire which in a compartment is unlikely to reach flash-over and uniform temperature distribution. Designing for localized fires is generally more difficult than for flash-over compartment fires because of the complexity of the problem. There is also a lack of experimental data. We report here on a full scale test series on a steel column exposed to localized fires. The setup is a 6 meters tall hollow circular column, ϕ = 200 mm with a steel thickness of 10 mm. The unloaded column was hanging centrally above different pool fires. Temperatures of gas and steel were measured by thermocouples, and adiabatic surface temperatures at the steel surface were measured by plate thermometers of various designs. The results are compared with estimates based on Eurocode 1991-1-2 which in all cases studied overestimate the thermal impact for this setup. The input from plate thermometers was used to compute the steel temperatures using finite element methods. Excellent agreement was found if the radiation exchange within the column due to asymmetry of the exposure was taken into account.

National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-8321 (URN)10.1260/2040-2317.5.2.147 (DOI)2-s2.0-84901978770 (Scopus ID)6d3e8b15-8bf6-439d-b07f-5514f185b1b5 (Local ID)6d3e8b15-8bf6-439d-b07f-5514f185b1b5 (Archive number)6d3e8b15-8bf6-439d-b07f-5514f185b1b5 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140812 (alebys)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Byström, A. (2013). Fire temperature development in enclosures: Some theoretical and experimental studies (ed.). (Licentiate dissertation). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire temperature development in enclosures: Some theoretical and experimental studies
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is devoted to problems connected to heat transfer and fire dynamics in enclosures. The thesis consists of a main part which summarizes and discusses the theory of heat transfer, conservation of energy and fire dynamics. Based on these theories, some cases of different fire scenarios have been analyzed. In the end of this thesis, the reader will find Paper I-IV containing four articles on the subject.The main focus of this thesis is fire temperature development in enclosures. For that reason, firstly, some experimental studies have been done using different thermo devices for measuring temperature. Based on the experience from these studies, temperatures measured with a Plate Thermometer have been used to predict and describe in a quantitative way the thermal exposure of structures. For more accurate prediction of this thermal exposure, PT and thin thermocouples measurements have been combined.This thesis summarizes the experimental data from two different setups. One was conducted in a large enclosure 20 m by 20 m and 20 m high. This experiment scenario can be characterized as localized fire. Another experiment was conducted in a compartment in full scale with a limited fire source, without reaching flashover. This second experiment did not reach flashover and can be categorized as a two-zone compartment fire. Moreover, the thesis contains a new way of analyzing a one-zone fire model intended for the analysis of fully developed ventilation controlled compartment fires.Temperature data from the localized fire experiment were collected with different designs of Plate Thermometers (PT), small thermocouples (Ø=0.25 mm) and thermocouples fixed to a steel column. Measured data were compared with calculated data applying the concept of adiabatic surface temperature. Temperatures thus obtained by finite element calculations using the softwarecode TASEF were in the good agreement with measured steel temperatures. The full scale compartment fire was conducted in a two-story concrete building. During the experiment, data were collected with PTs and thin thermocouples at different locations inside the compartment.In the new way of analyzing post-flashover compartments fires the effects of different parameters on the fire temperature development has been analyzed. The new method of analyzing the heat and mass balances of a compartment fire has made it possible to develop simple analytical as well as numerical mathematical solutions.

Abstract [sv]

Den här licentiatavhandlingen behandlar problem kopplade till branddynamik islutna utrymmen med tonvikt på värmeöverföring mellan gaser och utsattakonstruktioner. Avhandlingen består av en huvuddel samt fyra bilagor. Ihuvuddelen sammanfattas och diskuteras först några viktiga grundläggandeteorier och principer inom värmelära och branddynamik. Efter det presenterasett antal specialfall av brandscenarion som baseras på dessa teorier. I deavslutande bilagorna (Artiklar I-IV) finns fyra vetenskapliga artiklar somgrundligare beskriver de ovan nämnda specialfallen.Huvudfokus i avhandlingen ligger på temperaturutveckling vid brand i slutnautrymmen. Först har ett antal experiment genomförts där temperaturen mättsmed några olika typer av temperaturgivare. Sedan har ett antal försökgenomförts där den termiska exponeringen av konstruktioner kvantitativt harbestämts baserat på sådana mätningar.I avhandlingen har ett par olika brandscenarion studerats experimentellt.Framförallt behandlas den så kallade tvåzonsmodellen, där brandrummet delasin i en övre zon med höga temperaturer och en nedre med låga temperaturer.Dessutom har så kallad lokal brand studerats. I tillägg presenteras ett nytt sättatt analysera fullt utvecklade ventilationskontrollerade bränder med enenzonsmodell, där hela brandrummet antas ha en jämnt fördelad temperatur.I ett fullskale-experiment av lokal brand samlades temperaturdata in med olikatyper av plattermometrar (PT), små termoelement (TC, Ø=0.25 mm) samttermoelement fästa vid en stålbalk. Temperaturerna i stålbalken jämfördes senmed beräknade baserade på mätningar med plattermometrar och konceptetadiabatiska yttemperaturer. God överenstämmelse mellan de beräknade värdena (från finit-elementanalys med mjukvaran TASEF) och de uppmättaståltemperaturerna observerades.I tillägg har en fullskalig brand i ett slutet utrymme studerats experimentellt.Experimentet genomfördes i ett betonghus med två våningar. Under dettaexperiment uppmättes temperatur med plattermometrar och små termoelementplacerade på olika positioner i huset.Slutligen så har en ny modell för att beräkna brandtemperatur i övertändautrymmen analyserats. Både analytiska och numeriska lösningar (med hjälp avtemperaturberäkningsprogrammet TASEF) presenteras tillsammans medanalyser av bränder i slutna utrymmen med olika typer av omslutningsytor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-18078 (URN)6ba5862e-e1de-482a-91d7-7df2d401a54b (Local ID)978-91-7439-770-3 (ISBN)978-91-7439-771-0 (ISBN)6ba5862e-e1de-482a-91d7-7df2d401a54b (Archive number)6ba5862e-e1de-482a-91d7-7df2d401a54b (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2013; Bibliografisk uppgift: Tillkännagivande licentiatseminarium 2013-11-12 Nedanstående person kommer att hålla licentiatseminarium för avläggande av teknologie licentiatexamen. Namn: Alexandra Byström Ämne: Stålbyggnad/Steel Structures Uppsats: Fire Temperature Development in Enclosures: Some Theoretical and Experimental Studies Examinator: Professor Ulf Wickström, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå tekniska universitet Diskutant: Associate Professor Björn Karlsson, University of Island, Reykjavik Island Tid: Torsdag den 5 december 2013 kl 10.00 Plats: F1031, Luleå tekniska universitet; 20131010 (alebys)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3112-0270

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