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Nordmark, Desiree
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 21) Show all publications
Nordmark, D., Vestin, J., Hansson, L. & Kumpiene, J. (2022). Long-term evaluation of geotechnical and environmental properties of ash-stabilised road. Journal of Environmental Management, 318, Article ID 115504.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term evaluation of geotechnical and environmental properties of ash-stabilised road
2022 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 318, article id 115504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2009, a low-volume gravel road in Sweden was stabilised using fly ash from a local paper mill. The objective was to examine whether fly ash could be used to enhance the stability of the road and how the nearby environment would be affected. The technical and environmental properties of the road have been monitored for two, six, and eleven years. Because the construction costs are higher for ash upgrading than for conventional upgrading, knowing for how long the improved properties will remain is relevant. Strength development was studied using a falling weight deflectometer and compressive strength tests. Environmental properties were studied by chemical analysis of road samples, soil, soil pore water, and vegetation. The results showed that the ash sections had higher stiffness than the reference sections. Leaching tests of road samples showed that the mobility of potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate decreased with time. Trace element concentrations in soil samples, except barium, were below the Swedish guideline values for sensitive land use. Chromium, lead, and copper were as high or even higher along the reference section than along the ash section. After 11 years, the pH closest to the ash section was slightly enhanced. Concentrations of zinc and cadmium in the soil pore water were the lowest closest to the ash road, although the total concentrations in the soil were at their highest at the same distance. No toxic levels of trace elements were found in the vegetation close to the road, although a clear difference was observed between plants from the ash section and the reference section, using multivariate data analysis. The positive effects on the geotechnical road properties from ash stabilisation remained after 11 years. The environmental impacts on nearby soil and vegetation can be considered low and acceptable. This study demonstrates that the use of biofuel fly ash in infrastructure projects can contribute to the circular economy and effective use of resources because the demand for pristine materials will be reduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Biofuel fly ash, Gravel road stabilisation, Bearing capacity, Leaching, Soil pore water, Vegetation
National Category
Energy Engineering Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-91540 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115504 (DOI)000862249600002 ()35717696 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85132354004 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Luleå University of TechnologySwedish Geotechnical Institute
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-06-17 (joosat);

Funder: Energiforsk; Skogforsk

Available from: 2022-06-17 Created: 2022-06-17 Last updated: 2022-11-09Bibliographically approved
Nordmark, D. & Lagerkvist, A. (2018). Controlling the mobility of chromium and molybdenum in MSWI fly ash in a washing process. Waste Management, 76, 727-733
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlling the mobility of chromium and molybdenum in MSWI fly ash in a washing process
2018 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 76, p. 727-733Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fly ash from a cogeneration plant near Sundsvall in Sweden was treated in an ash-washing facility. The leaching of chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) from the ash residue exceeded the limit values for non-hazardous landfills. In this study factors that influence the leaching of Cr and Mo were identified and methods that can reduce the leaching were evaluated. The results revealed that the mobility of Cr and Mo are mainly controlled by pH and redox reactions and sequential extraction tests also showed that the fraction of highly soluble species of Cr and Mo increased after washing due to pH reactions in the ash during the process. Stabilization of the pH at ∼8 through carbonation of the washed ash and a lowering of the redox potential by adding ferrous iron to the process resulted in decreased leaching. Treatment with carbon dioxide yielded a decrease (from 10.7 to 8.2) in the pH and, hence, the leaching of Cr and Mo by 93 and 91%, respectively. And the addition of ferrous iron reduced the leaching of Cr by 50%. Carbonation of the ash can be achieved via treatment with flue gases from the power plant or treatment with landfill gas at the disposal site.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Ash washing, Sequential extraction, Carbonation, Chromium reduction, Molybdenum
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67956 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2018.03.016 (DOI)000435064000073 ()29551230 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85043789498 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-11 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2020-08-11Bibliographically approved
Kumpiene, J., Nordmark, D., Carabante, I., Sužiedelytė-Visockienė, J. & Česlovas Aksamitauskas, V. (2017). Remediation of soil contaminated with organic and inorganic wood impregnation chemicals by soil washing. Chemosphere, 184, 13-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of soil contaminated with organic and inorganic wood impregnation chemicals by soil washing
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2017 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 184, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a large scale washing/wet sieving technique for a soil contaminated with wood impregnation chemicals by 1) defining the final distribution of trace elements (As, Cu, Cr, Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in separated soil particle size fractions; and 2) defining the leaching behavior of the contaminants in these soil fractions. A soil washing experiment was implemented at waste management facility in Sweden using a full scale soil sorting and washing equipment. Five tons of soil was loaded to the equipment and wet-sieved into the following fractions: >16 mm, 8–16 mm, 2–8 mm, 0.2–2 mm, <0.2 mm and a fraction that floated on top of the slurry before the final separation phase, composed of organic matter (OM). Analysis of total concentrations of contaminants in all soil fractions indicated that wet sieving/soil washing was not efficient to reduce the total volume of soil that needs further treatment. Even the coarsest soil fractions (>8 mm) contained elevated concentrations of total As and PAH. Leaching of As from all washed soil fractions was so high, that none of the particle size fractions could be disposed of without additional treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Arsenic, Copper, Chromium, PAH, Contaminated soil, Leaching
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63542 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.05.140 (DOI)000407525500002 ()28575800 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020001717 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-06-02 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-05-26 Created: 2017-05-26 Last updated: 2020-11-27Bibliographically approved
Kumpiene, J., Nordmark, D., Hamberg, R., Carabante, I., Simanavičienė, R. & Česlovas Aksamitauskas, V. (2016). Leaching of arsenic, copper and chromium from thermally treated soil. Journal of Environmental Management, 183(3), 460-466
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leaching of arsenic, copper and chromium from thermally treated soil
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 183, no 3, p. 460-466Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal treatment, if properly performed, is an effective way of destroying organic compounds in contaminated soil, while impact on co-present inorganic contaminants varies depending on the element. Leaching of trace elements in thermally treated soil can be altered by co-combusting different types of materials. This study aimed at assessing changes in mobility of As, Cr and Cu in thermally treated soil as affected by addition of industrial by-products prior to soil combustion. Contaminated soil was mixed with either waste of gypsum boards, a steel processing residue (Fe3O4), fly ash from wood and coal combustion or a steel abrasive (96.5% Fe0). The mixes and unamended soil were thermally treated at 800 °C and divided into a fine fraction <0.125 mm and a coarse fraction >0.125 mm to simulate particle separation occurring in thermal treatment plants. The impact of the treatment on element behaviour was assessed by a batch leaching test, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results suggest that thermal treatment is highly unfavourable for As contaminated soils as it increased both the As leaching in the fine particle size fraction and the mass of the fines (up to 92%). Soil amendment with Fe-containing compounds prior to the thermal treatment reduced As leaching to the levels acceptable for hazardous waste landfills, but only in the coarse fraction, which does not justify the usefulness of such treatment. Among the amendments used, gypsum most effectively reduced leaching of Cr and Cu in thermally treated soil and could be recommended for soils that do not contain As. Fly ash was the least effective amendment as it increased leaching of both Cr and As in majority of samples.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59700 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.080 (DOI)000385900000003 ()27612616 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84992153631 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-10-12 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2020-11-27Bibliographically approved
Nordmark, D., Vestin, J., Lagerkvist, A., Lind, B., Arm, M. & Hallgren, P. (2014). Geochemical Behavior of a Gravel Road Upgraded with Wood Fly Ash (ed.). Journal of environmental engineering, 140(10), Article ID 5014002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geochemical Behavior of a Gravel Road Upgraded with Wood Fly Ash
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2014 (English)In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 140, no 10, article id 5014002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An insufficient bearing capacity of gravel roads is a common problem in Sweden during thaw periods. In this study, a gravel road at Timrå in central Sweden was mechanically stabilized by mixing 30% wood fly ash into the road base material. Testing of pollutant mobilization was performed both in the lab and at the field site over three years. The differences at a given liquid-to-solid ratio reached several orders of magnitude for some elements. K, Ca, Cl, and SO 4 were easily mobilized and found at elevated concentrations in leachate from the road one year after the road was stabilized. Two years after stabilization, the concentrations had returned to background levels. The stabilization also impacted the infiltration capacity of the road, reducing it by a factor of four. The weathering of Mg, Cu, and Zn from surrounding soil was higher, while the leaching of Al and K was higher from the amended road. Using fly ash in this fashion did not result in any noticeable adverse environmental impacts

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-10120 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000821 (DOI)000342230500001 ()2-s2.0-84911371090 (Scopus ID)8ddfa25a-ce2d-4605-9691-95a7999f52e6 (Local ID)8ddfa25a-ce2d-4605-9691-95a7999f52e6 (Archive number)8ddfa25a-ce2d-4605-9691-95a7999f52e6 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140623 (desnor)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Nordmark, D., Andreas, L. & Lagerkvist, A. (2014). Industrial By-products used in a Landfill Cover (ed.). Paper presented at Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 19/10/2014 - 22/11/2014. Paper presented at Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 19/10/2014 - 22/11/2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial By-products used in a Landfill Cover
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A small industrial waste landfill in Obbola, Northern Sweden is being completed and a final cover is installed. The landfill is owned and used by SCA Packaging, a paper mill factory nearby. An alternative final cover will be used, consisting mainly of industrial by-products from the paper mill. The aim of using industrial by-products is to save virgin materials, not to use synthetic materials and to make a cost-effective and environmentally safe closure of the landfill, while relevant laws and regulations are complied to.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28050 (URN)1b2809dd-5af1-4b00-b64f-e07027286bf4 (Local ID)1b2809dd-5af1-4b00-b64f-e07027286bf4 (Archive number)1b2809dd-5af1-4b00-b64f-e07027286bf4 (OAI)
Conference
Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 19/10/2014 - 22/11/2014
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20141119 (desnor)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Arm, M., Vestin, J., Lind, B. B., Lagerkvist, A., Nordmark, D. & Hallgren, P. (2014). Pulp mill fly ash for stabilization of low-volume unpaved forest roads — field performance (ed.). Canadian journal of civil engineering (Print), 41(11), 955-963
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pulp mill fly ash for stabilization of low-volume unpaved forest roads — field performance
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2014 (English)In: Canadian journal of civil engineering (Print), ISSN 0315-1468, E-ISSN 1208-6029, Vol. 41, no 11, p. 955-963Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increased temperatures and rainfalls will give more settlements and less bearing capacity in gravel roads, which will have implications for the forestry. Pulp mill fly ash without additives was used for stabilizing the road base of a low-volume gravel road. A two-year monitoring of the road was conducted, including measurements of achieved ash content, density, water infiltration capacity, and load bearing capacity. The results showed that the ash-stabilized sections performed better than conventionally upgraded sections and also achieved increased bearing capacity over time. Hydration of the fly ash increased the stiffness and decreased the permeability of the road base. The differences were more pronounced during spring thaw. Best performance was achieved in the section with thicker ash stabilized layer.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6957 (URN)10.1139/cjce-2014-0030 (DOI)000345130000004 ()2-s2.0-84911383597 (Scopus ID)5485a5b6-1348-4bc5-b60f-b3b3ae85122d (Local ID)5485a5b6-1348-4bc5-b60f-b3b3ae85122d (Archive number)5485a5b6-1348-4bc5-b60f-b3b3ae85122d (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2014; 20141119 (desnor)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2023-09-11Bibliographically approved
Nordmark, D., Lagerkvist, A., Lindgren, E. & Vamling, M. (2012). Evaluation of methods used to reduce leaching of harmful substances from residual fly ash fraction after washing (ed.). In: (Ed.), Hao Ge; Carmen Mihaela Neculita; Maria Menegaki; Anil Mehrotra (Ed.), Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production: . Paper presented at International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production : 28/11/2012 - 30/11/2012. Irvine, CA, USA: The Reading Matrix Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of methods used to reduce leaching of harmful substances from residual fly ash fraction after washing
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production / [ed] Hao Ge; Carmen Mihaela Neculita; Maria Menegaki; Anil Mehrotra, Irvine, CA, USA: The Reading Matrix Inc. , 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Korstaverken near Sundsvall in Sweden produces electricity and district heating for about 80 000 citizens. Household and commercial wastes are used as fuel in their cogeneration plant. The produced fly ash is treated in an ash washing facility to reduce leaching of hazardous substances. Leaching of chromium and molybdenum from the ash residue exceeds although the limit values for non-hazardous landfills. The aim of this project has been to identify factors that influence the leaching of chromium and molybdenum and how a reduction can be achieved. Reduced mobility can be reached by addition of pH and redox reducing agents, or by carbonation. The results show that there are a number of measures that can generate a washed ash that meets the requirements of non-hazardous landfills. In order to design the optimal full scale solution from a practical and economical perspective, the identified alternatives must be evaluated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Irvine, CA, USA: The Reading Matrix Inc., 2012
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-34099 (URN)83562bd5-4c5a-4dce-8e1c-5c4e960469c4 (Local ID)83562bd5-4c5a-4dce-8e1c-5c4e960469c4 (Archive number)83562bd5-4c5a-4dce-8e1c-5c4e960469c4 (OAI)
Conference
International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production : 28/11/2012 - 30/11/2012
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20130813 (desnor)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
Wikström, T., Nordmark, D., Pelkonen, M. & Lagerkvist, A. (2012). Fluorescent in situ hybridization technique in anaerobic process studies (ed.). In: (Ed.), Anders Lagerkvist (Ed.), Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium :: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012. Paper presented at Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 25/06/2012 - 27/06/2012 (pp. 130-131). Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluorescent in situ hybridization technique in anaerobic process studies
2012 (English)In: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium :: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, p. 130-131Conference paper, Meeting abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-40159 (URN)f2ab3715-3c5a-48bb-8ea4-920c05bbafa3 (Local ID)978-91-7439-462-7 (ISBN)f2ab3715-3c5a-48bb-8ea4-920c05bbafa3 (Archive number)f2ab3715-3c5a-48bb-8ea4-920c05bbafa3 (OAI)
Conference
Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 25/06/2012 - 27/06/2012
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20120614 (ysko)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Nordmark, D., Kumpiene, J. & Brännvall, E. (2012). Mobility of redox sensitive elements due to organic matter in contaminated soil: bottom ash and residual waste fraction (ed.). In: (Ed.), Anders Lagerkvist (Ed.), Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012. Paper presented at Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 25/06/2012 - 27/06/2012 (pp. 100-101). Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobility of redox sensitive elements due to organic matter in contaminated soil: bottom ash and residual waste fraction
2012 (English)In: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, p. 100-101Conference paper, Meeting abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-27677 (URN)1338bbcc-9eae-432f-80d1-b8e25b3c47d4 (Local ID)978-91-7439-462-7 (ISBN)1338bbcc-9eae-432f-80d1-b8e25b3c47d4 (Archive number)1338bbcc-9eae-432f-80d1-b8e25b3c47d4 (OAI)
Conference
Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium : 25/06/2012 - 27/06/2012
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20120614 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
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