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Abdullah, T., Ali, S., Al-Ansari, N. & Knutsson, S. (2020). Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 10, Article ID 100276.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq
2020 (English)In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 10, article id 100276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Groundwater aquifer in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin considered as one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims to evaluate of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability: low, moderate, high and very high with coverage area of (2%,44%,53% and 1%), respectively. While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Vulnerability, VLDA, COP, Halabja-Saidsadiq basin (HSB), Iraq
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics; Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76166 (URN)10.1016/j.gsd.2019.100276 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072644933 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-10-01 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-09-30 Created: 2019-09-30 Last updated: 2019-10-02Bibliographically approved
Al-Madhlom, Q., Nordell, B., Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Lindblom, J., Laue, J. & Hussain, H. M. (2020). Potential use of UTES in Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 10, Article ID 100283.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential use of UTES in Babylon Governorate, Iraq
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2020 (English)In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 10, article id 100283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a global attention that the future energy systems will be based on renewable energy like solar and wind. The large-scale utilization of renewables in space heating and cooling requires large Thermal Energy Storage TES to overcome the varying supply and demand. The process of producing the best Underground Thermal Energy Storage UTES system pass through two steps: first, finding the best type of UTES system, second, finding the best locations to install UTES system. Both of these two steps depend extremely on the site specific parameters such that the depth to the groundwater, transmissivity, type of soil, the depth to the bedrock, and seepage velocity. The purpose of this paper is to explain some of the site specific parameters that the type of UTES-system depends on and explain the suitable type of UTES systems. This study considers Babylon province (Iraq) as study area. This province has electricity deficiency due to Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning HVAC applications. The methodology of this study includes reviewing the literature that consider the study area, and using Arc Map/GIS to visualize some of the in-site parameters. The results indicate that the best type of UTES system for the considered region is either aquifer or pit type, due to the type of the soil and the depth to the crystalline bedrock. The hydraulic conductivity and the seepage velocity in the considered region are (0.0023–2.5) m/d and (1.3 × 10−6 – 3.45 × 10−3) m/d respectively. These conditions satisfy the standards which regard aquifer type.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Renewable energy, Groundwater, Aquifer thermal energy storage, Pit thermal energy storage
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering Water Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics; Soil Mechanics; Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76206 (URN)10.1016/j.gsd.2019.100283 (DOI)2-s2.0-85073592615 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2019-10-29
Homsi, R., Shiru, M. S., Shahid, S., Ismail, T., Harun, S. B., Al-Ansari, N., . . . Yaseen, Z. (2020). Precipitation projection using a CMIP5 GCM ensemble model: a regional investigation of Syria. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, 14(1), 90-106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Precipitation projection using a CMIP5 GCM ensemble model: a regional investigation of Syria
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2020 (English)In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 90-106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The possible changes in precipitation of Syrian due to climate change are projected in this study. The symmetrical uncertainty (SU) and multi-criteria decision-analysis (MCDA) methods are used to identify the best general circulation models (GCMs) for precipitation projections. The effectiveness of four bias correction methods, linear scaling (LS), power transformation (PT), general quantile mapping (GEQM), and gamma quantile mapping (GAQM) is assessed in downscaling GCM simulated precipitation. A random forest (RF) model is performed to generate the multi model ensemble (MME) of precipitation projections for four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5. The results showed that the best suited GCMs for climate projection of Syria are HadGEM2-AO, CSIRO-Mk3-6-0, NorESM1-M, and CESM1-CAM5. The LS demonstrated the highest capability for precipitation downscaling. Annual changes in precipitation is projected to decrease by −30 to −85.2% for RCPs 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, while by < 0.0 to −30% for RCP 2.6. The precipitation is projected to decrease in the entire country for RCP 6.0, while increase in some parts for other RCPs during wet season. The dry season of precipitation is simulated to decrease by −12 to −93%, which indicated a drier climate for the country in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Taylor & Francis Group, 2020
Keywords
precipitation projection, general circulation model, random forest, symmetrical uncertainty, Syria
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76647 (URN)10.1080/19942060.2019.1683076 (DOI)000495143600001 ()2-s2.0-85075007804 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-11-11 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-11-08 Created: 2019-11-08 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Yaseen, Z. M., Al-Juboor, A. M., Beyaztas, U., Al-Ansari, N., Chaue, K.-W., Qi, C., . . . Shahid, S. (2020). Prediction of evaporation in arid and semi-arid regions: a comparative study using different machine learning models. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, 14(1), 70-89
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of evaporation in arid and semi-arid regions: a comparative study using different machine learning models
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2020 (English)In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 70-89Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Evaporation, one of the fundamental components of the hydrology cycle, is differently influenced by various meteorological variables in different climatic regions. The accurate prediction of evaporation is essential for multiple water resources engineering applications, particularly in developing countries like Iraq where the meteorological stations are not sustained and operated appropriately for in situ estimations. This is where advanced methodologies such as machine learning (ML) models can make valuable contributions. In this research, evaporation is predicted at two different meteorological stations located in arid and semi-arid regions of Iraq. Four different ML models for the prediction of evaporation – the classification and regression tree (CART), the cascade correlation neural network (CCNNs), gene expression programming (GEP), and the support vector machine (SVM) – were developed and constructed using various input combinations of meteorological variables. The results reveal that the best predictions are achieved by incorporating sunshine hours, wind speed, relative humidity, rainfall, and the minimum, mean, and maximum temperatures. The SVM was found to show the best performance with wind speed, rainfall, and relative humidity as inputs at Station I (R2 = .92), and with all variables as inputs at Station II (R2 = .97). All the ML models performed well in predicting evaporation at the investigated locations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2020
Keywords
evaporation, predictive model, machine learning, arid and semi-arid regions, best input combination
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76842 (URN)10.1080/19942060.2019.1680576 (DOI)000496623500001 ()2-s2.0-85075131156 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-11-25 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-29Bibliographically approved
Al-Jabban, W., Laue, J., Knutsson, S. & Al-Ansari, N. (2019). A Comparative Evaluation of Cement and By-Product Petrit T in Soil Stabilization. Applied Sciences, 9(23), Article ID 5238.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparative Evaluation of Cement and By-Product Petrit T in Soil Stabilization
2019 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 23, article id 5238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents a comparison between the effectiveness of adding low binder amounts of industrial by-product Petrit T as well as cement to modify and improve fine-grained soil. Binder amount was added by soil dry weight; cement at 1%, 2%, 4% and 7% and Petrit T at 2%, 4% and 7%. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) was used as an indicator of soil strength. In addition, the consistency limits, laser particle size analysis, and pH tests were also conducted on the treated soil. The samples were cured at 20 °C for different periods from 7 to 90 days before testing. Results indicate that cement is more effective at improving the physical and engineering properties of the treated soil. Soil plasticity index decreases after treatment and with time. Liquidity index and the water content to plastic limit ratio are introduced as new indices to define the improvement in the workability of treated soil. Soil particle size distribution is changed by reducing the clay size fraction and increasing the silt size fraction after treatment. The findings confirm that adding small binder contents improve soil properties, which subsequently reduce the environmental threats and costs that are associated with using a high amount of binder.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Petrit T, cement, secant modulus, workability, soil strength, solidification, pH
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77023 (URN)10.3390/app9235238 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-12-09 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-12-02 Created: 2019-12-02 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved
Bokde, N. D., Feijóo, A., Al-Ansari, N. & Yaseen, Z. M. (2019). A comparison between reconstruction methods for generation of synthetic time series applied to wind speed simulation. IEEE Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparison between reconstruction methods for generation of synthetic time series applied to wind speed simulation
2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Wind energy is an attractive renewable sources and its prediction is highly essential for multiple applications. Over the literature, there are several studies have been focused on the related researches of synthetic wind speed data generation. In this research, two reconstruction methods are developed for synthetic wind speed time series generation. The modeling is constructed based on different processes including independent values generation from the known probability distribution function, rearrangement of random values and segmentation. They have been named as Rank-wise and Step-wise reconstruction methods. The proposed methods are explained with the help of a standard time series and the examination on wind speed time series collected from Galicia, the autonomous region in the northwest of Spain. Results evidenced the potential of the developed models over the state-of-the-art synthetic time series generation methods and demonstrated a successful validation using the means of mean and median wind speed values, autocorrelations, probability distribution parameters with their corresponding histograms and confusion matrix. Pros and cons of both methods are discussed comprehensively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
energy sustainability, synthetic data, time series, wind speed, wind energy.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76072 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2941826 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved
Alzeyadi, A., Al-Ansari, N., Al-Rawabdeh, A. M. & Laue, J. (2019). A Novel Coating Method for Create Filter Media Capable to Remove Phosphate from Wastewater Effectively. Engineering, 11(8), 443-463
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Coating Method for Create Filter Media Capable to Remove Phosphate from Wastewater Effectively
2019 (English)In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 443-463Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Filtration materials coating with metallic oxides represented a good method for phosphate sorption. However, most of the researchers utilize chemicals as a source of metallic oxides and heating process to set the chemicals over the filtration materials. This study is aimed to introduce the furnace bottom ash FBA as a source of metallic oxides; it is available free because it is dumped as a waste material from power generation plants. The method of creating new filter media involves coating the limestone and sand by FBA, and the ordinary Portland cement OPC utilized as binder to binding the mixture materials. The water is the factor which is responsible for activating the OPC. All factors such as mixed materials ratio, water content and age of reaction have subjected to optimization process. The results revealed that the optimal mixture for phosphate removal consists of 40% FBA, 5% OPC from dry weight of supporting material, 35% water ratio from the total weight of FBA and OPC, and 14 days are enough to complete the materials reaction. Limestone-furnace bottom ash LFBA indicated high capacity for phosphate sorption and possibility  of  efficiency  regenerate.  This  study  demonstrates  a  new  method  for coating the filtration materials more convenient with sustainability approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Calcium-Silicate Hydrates, FBA, Metal Oxides, Sorption, Upflow Filter, Wastewater Treatment
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75647 (URN)10.4236/eng.2019.118032 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
Baby, S. N., Arrowsmith, C. & Al-Ansari, N. (2019). Application of GIS for Mapping Rainwater-Harvesting Potential: Case Study Wollert, Victoria: Application of GIS for Mapping Rainwater-Harvesting Potential: Case Study Wollert, Victoria. Engineering, 11(1), 14-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of GIS for Mapping Rainwater-Harvesting Potential: Case Study Wollert, Victoria: Application of GIS for Mapping Rainwater-Harvesting Potential: Case Study Wollert, Victoria
2019 (English)In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 14-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Water is a basic normal asset for supporting the condition of life. Accessible water assets are feeling the squeeze because of expanding demand. Soon wa- ter,  which  we  have  epended  upon  to  be  accessible  and  an  unconditional present of nature will turn into a rare roduct. Protection and conservation of water assets are desperately required. In many parts of Victoria, water supply to communities is limited. Rainwater harvesting systems can provide water ator near the point of demand. The systems can be owner and utility operated and  managed.  Rainwater  collected  using  existing  structures,  i.e.  rooftops, parking lots, playgrounds, parks, ponds, floodplains etc., has few negative en- vironmental impacts compared to other technologies for water resources de- velopment. Rainwater is relatively clean and the quality is usually acceptablefor many purposes with little or even no treatment. The physical and chemi- cal properties of rainwater are usually superior to sources of groundwater that may have been subjected to contamination. The present study was intended to measure the rooftop rainwater harvesting potential using GIS techniques. The GIS examination utilized in this investigation was basically an efficient assess- ment  of  rooftop  water  collecting  in  the  chose  Wollert  which  is  a  suburb  in Melbourne, Victoria. With the use of GIS it was conceivable to appraise the ag- gregate sum of water harvestable at the household level. It is very tedious work to assess the catchments available for rooftop rainwater harvesting. Here the roof surfaces are the catchments and GIS is employed to calculate the area of various  types  of  roofs  and  their  potential  for  planning  for  the  area  under study.  As  a  result  Eucalypt  Estate  Wollert  has  huge  potential  and  can  makeabove 179.11 litres water available per person per day throughout the year.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Rainwater Harvesting, Potential, Measurement, Rooftop, GIS
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72612 (URN)10.4236/eng.2019.111002 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-01-18 Created: 2019-01-18 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Elias, Z., Sissakian, V. K. & Al-Ansari, N. (2019). Assessment of the Tectonic Activity in Northwestern Part of the Zagros Mountains, Northeastern Iraq by Using Geomorphic Indices. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 37(5), 3995-4007
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of the Tectonic Activity in Northwestern Part of the Zagros Mountains, Northeastern Iraq by Using Geomorphic Indices
2019 (English)In: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 3995-4007Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Tectonic Activity of regions with active tectonics can be assessed by using of the geomorphic indices. Six Geomorphic indices including stream-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), drainage basin shape (Bs), hypsometric integral (Hi), valley floor width-valley height ratio (Vf), and mountain-front sinuosity (Smf) were calculated using GIS technique in Kifri Chai Basin; northeast Iraq, which belongs to the Western Zagros Mountain. The basin was divided into eighteen sub-basins depending on the 4th, 5th and 6th stream orders of the drainage within Kirfi Basin. It was found that the SL, Af, Bs, Hi, Vf, and Smf (J) values are uniform and exhibit almost the same classes. However, few exceptions occur, especially in Bs values, but the exceptional values do not influence significantly on the acquired results, in each of the eighteen sub-basin. From these indices the relative active tectonics index value (Iat) was determined. The results of average Iat values (2.35) showed that the tectonic activity in the whole basin is Moderate. Moreover, an attempt was carried out to compare the regional Neotectonic activity with the relative tectonic activity in the basin. The results showed that there is a positive relation between the two comparatives; especially the subsidence amount and scored relative tectonic activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Geomorphic indices, Tectonic activity, Neotectonic, Western Zagros, Iraq
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73401 (URN)10.1007/s10706-019-00888-z (DOI)000487812500029 ()2-s2.0-85073228130 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-10-08 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-10-21Bibliographically approved
Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Sissakian, V., Laue, J. & Knutsson, S. (2019). Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood WaveRetention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology. Engineering, 11(4), 189-205
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood WaveRetention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology
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2019 (English)In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 189-205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Badush Dam is a partially completed dam and a unique case of flood reten- tion dams. Its intended main function is to perform flood protection once in its lifetime; that is if Mosul Dam would collapse. In such a case, the Badush dam would temporarily store the whole flood wave and route it safely to the downstream. For this end, the bulk of the reservoir is left dry, while the re- maining  volume  at  the  lower  part  which  is  intended  for  power  eneration does  not  give  an  economic  justification  for  building  the  full  height  of  the dam. The short duration of the intended use as a protection dam has led to relaxing many design assumptions which have raised concerns over the dam integrity.  The  current  controversy  rages  now  over  whether  to  continue  the construction of the dam as it was first designed or to change all that in view of the similar site geology of Mosul Dam. Mosul dam foundations suffer at the moment from the severe continuous dissolution of the soluble materials in its foundation  leading  to  continued  maintenance  grouting  of  that  foundation. This paper gives an overview of the history of Badush dam, its current design and what new equirements which are needed if it is to replace Mosul Damitself.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: Scientific Research Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Badush Dam, Mosul Dam, Flood Retention Dam Dry Dam, Foundation
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73608 (URN)10.4236/eng.2019.114014 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
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