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Publications (10 of 410) Show all publications
Pham, B. T., Phong, T. V., Nguyen, H. D., Qi, C., Al-Ansari, N., Amini, A., . . . Bui, D. T. (2020). A Comparative Study of Kernel Logistic Regression, Radial Basis Function Classifier, Multinomial Naïve Bayes, and Logistic Model Tree for Flash Flood Susceptibility Mapping. Water, 12(1), 1-21, Article ID 239.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparative Study of Kernel Logistic Regression, Radial Basis Function Classifier, Multinomial Naïve Bayes, and Logistic Model Tree for Flash Flood Susceptibility Mapping
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2020 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-21, article id 239Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Risk of flash floods is currently an important problem in many parts of Vietnam. In this study, we used four machine-learning methods, namely Kernel Logistic Regression (KLR), Radial Basis Function Classifier (RBFC), Multinomial Naïve Bayes (NBM), and Logistic Model Tree (LMT) to generate flash flood susceptibility maps at the minor part of Nghe An province of the Center region (Vietnam) where recurrent flood problems are being experienced. Performance of these four methods was evaluated to select the best method for flash flood susceptibility mapping. In the model studies, ten flash flood conditioning factors, namely soil, slope, curvature, river density, flow direction, distance from rivers, elevation, aspect, land use, and geology, were chosen based on topography and geo-environmental conditions of the site. For the validation of models, the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), Area Under Curve (AUC), and various statistical indices were used. The results indicated that performance of all the models is good for generating flash flood susceptibility maps (AUC = 0.983–0.988). However, performance of LMT model is the best among the four methods (LMT: AUC = 0.988; KLR: AUC = 0.985; RBFC: AUC = 0.984; and NBM: AUC = 0.983). The present study would be useful for the construction of accurate flash flood susceptibility maps with the objectives of identifying flood-susceptible areas/zones for proper flash flood risk management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2020
Keywords
flash flood, kernel logistic regression, radial basis function network, multinomial naïve
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77419 (URN)10.3390/w12010239 (DOI)000519847200239 ()2-s2.0-85079492140 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-01-24 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-01-15 Created: 2020-01-15 Last updated: 2020-04-28Bibliographically approved
Ezz-Aldeen, M., Al-Ansari, N., Knutsson, S. & Laue, J. (2020). A Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Model of Sediment Deposition in a Storage Reservoir Subject to Water Withdrawal. Water, 12(4), Article ID 959.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Model of Sediment Deposition in a Storage Reservoir Subject to Water Withdrawal
2020 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 959Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Siltation is one of the most common problems in storage projects and attached structures around the world, due to its effects on a project’s life span and operational efficiency. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was applied to study the flow and sediment deposition in a multipurpose reservoir (Mosul Dam Reservoir, Iraq) subject to water withdrawal via a pumping station. A suitable control code was developed for the sediment simulation in intakes with multiblock option (SSIIM) model, in order to simulate a study case and achieve the study aims. The measured total deposited load in the reservoir after 25 years of operation and the measured sediment load concentration at different points near the pumping station intake were considered to validate the model results. The sediment load concentrations at several points near the water intake were compared; the percent bias (PBIAS) value was 3.6%, while the t-test value was 0.43, less than the tabulated value, indicating fair model performance. The model sensitivity to grid size and time steps was also tested. Four selected bed level sections along the reservoir were compared with the simulated values and indicate good performance of the model in predicting the sediment load deposition. The PBIAS ranged between 4.8% and 80.7%, and the paired t-test values indicate good model performance for most of the sections.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2020
Keywords
3-D numerical model, Mosul Dam, pumping station’s Intake, reservoir siltation
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78238 (URN)10.3390/w12040959 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-03-31 (cisjan)

Available from: 2020-03-28 Created: 2020-03-28 Last updated: 2020-03-31Bibliographically approved
Bui, D. T., Shirzadi, A., Amini, A., Shahabi, H., Al-Ansari, N., Hamidi, S., . . . Ghazvinei, P. T. (2020). A Hybrid Intelligence Approach to Enhance the Prediction Accuracy of Local Scour Depth at Complex Bridge Piers. Sustainability, 12(3), 1-24, Article ID 1063.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Hybrid Intelligence Approach to Enhance the Prediction Accuracy of Local Scour Depth at Complex Bridge Piers
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2020 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1-24, article id 1063Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Local scour depth at complex piers (LSCP) cause expensive costs when constructing bridges. In this study, a hybrid artificial intelligence approach of random subspace (RS) meta classifier, based on the reduced error pruning tree (REPTree) base classifier, namely RS-REPTree, was proposed to predict the LSCP. A total of 122 laboratory datasets were used and portioned into training (70%: 85 cases) and validation (30%: 37 cases) datasets for modeling and validation processes, respectively. The statistical metrics such as mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (R), and Taylor diagram were used to check the goodness-of-fit and performance of the proposed model. The capability of this model was assessed and compared with four state-of-the-art soft-computing benchmark algorithms, including artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), M5P, and REPTree, along with two empirical models, including the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) and Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18 (HEC-18). The findings showed that machine learning algorithms had the highest goodness-of-fit and prediction accuracy (0.885 < R < 0.945) in comparison to the other models. The results of sensitivity analysis by the proposed model indicated that pile cap location (Y) was a more sensitive factor for LSCP among other factors. The result also depicted that the RS-REPTree ensemble model (R = 0.945) could well enhance the prediction power of the REPTree base classifier (R = 0.885). Therefore, the proposed model can be useful as a promising technique to predict the LSCP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2020
Keywords
scour depth, complex piers, pile cap, machine learning algorithms, ensemble models
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77620 (URN)10.3390/su12031063 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-02-04 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-02-03 Created: 2020-02-03 Last updated: 2020-04-23Bibliographically approved
Tao, H., Salih, S. Q., Saggi, M. K., Dodangeh, E., Voyant, C., Al-Ansari, N., . . . Shahid, S. (2020). A Newly Developed Integrative Bio-Inspired Artificial Intelligence Model for Wind Speed Prediction. IEEE Access, 8, 83347-83358
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Newly Developed Integrative Bio-Inspired Artificial Intelligence Model for Wind Speed Prediction
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2020 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 83347-83358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate wind speed (WS) modelling is crucial for optimal utilization of wind energy. Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) techniques, generally used for WS modelling are not only less cost-effective but also poor in predicting in shorter time horizon. Novel WS prediction models based on the multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD), random forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) were constructed in this paper better accuracy in WS prediction. Particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) was employed to optimize the parameters of the hybridized MEMD model with RF (MEMD-PSO-RF) and KRR (MEMD-PSO-KRR) models. Obtained results were compared to those of the standalone RF and KRR models. The proposed methodology is applied for monthly WS prediction at meteorological stations of Iraq, Baghdad (Station1) and Mosul (Station2) for the period 1977-2013. Results showed higher accuracy of MEMD-PSO-RF model in predicting WS at both stations with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.972 and r = 0.971 during testing phase at Station1 and Station2, respectively. The MEMD-PSO-KRR was found as the second most accurate model followed by Standalone RF and KRR, but all showed a competitive performance to the MEMD-PSO-RF model. The outcomes of this work indicated that the MEMD-PSO-RF model has a remarkable performance in predicting WS and can be considered for practical applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2020
Keywords
Wind Speed prediction, multivariate empirical mode decomposition, Random forest, Kernel Ridge Regression, Iraq region
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78752 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2990439 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-05-18 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-05-04 Created: 2020-05-04 Last updated: 2020-05-18Bibliographically approved
Pham, B. T., Qi, C., Ho, L. S., Nguyen-Thoi, T., Al-Ansari, N., Nguyen, M. D., . . . Prakash, I. (2020). A Novel Hybrid Soft Computing Model Using Random Forest and Particle Swarm Optimization for Estimation of Undrained Shear Strength of Soil. Sustainability, 12(6), Article ID 2218.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Hybrid Soft Computing Model Using Random Forest and Particle Swarm Optimization for Estimation of Undrained Shear Strength of Soil
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2020 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 2218Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Determination of shear strength of soil is very important in civilengineering for foundation design, earth and rock fill dam design, highway and airfield design,stability of slopes and cuts, and in the design of coastal structures. In this study, a novel hybrid softcomputing model (RF-PSO) of random forest (RF) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) wasdeveloped and used to estimate the undrained shear strength of soil based on the clay content (%),moisture content (%), specific gravity (%), void ratio (%), liquid limit (%), and plastic limit (%). Inthis study, the experimental results of 127 soil samples from national highway project Hai Phong-Thai Binh of Vietnam were used to generate datasets for training and validating models. Pearsoncorrelation coefficient (R) method was used to evaluate and compare performance of the proposedmodel with single RF model. The results show that the proposed hybrid model (RF-PSO) achieveda high accuracy performance (R = 0.89) in the prediction of shear strength of soil. Validation of themodels also indicated that RF-PSO model (R = 0.89 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.453) issuperior to the single RF model without optimization (R = 0.87 and RMSE = 0.48). Thus, theproposed hybrid model (RF-PSO) can be used for accurate estimation of shear strength which canbe used for the suitable designing of civil engineering structures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2020
Keywords
machine learning, random forest, particle swarm optimization, Vietnam
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78038 (URN)10.3390/su12062218 (DOI)000523751400065 ()
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-03-16 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-03-13 Created: 2020-03-13 Last updated: 2020-04-29Bibliographically approved
Mohammad, M. E., Al-Ansari, N., Knutsson, S. & Laue, J. (2020). A numerical study of pumping effects on flow velocity distributions in Mosul Dam reservoir using the HEC‐RAS model. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, 25(1), 72-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A numerical study of pumping effects on flow velocity distributions in Mosul Dam reservoir using the HEC‐RAS model
2020 (English)In: Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, ISSN 1320-5331, E-ISSN 1440-1770, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 72-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Water flow direction and velocity affect and controls erosion, transport and deposi- tion of sediment in rivers, reservoirs and different hydraulic structures. One of the main structures affected is pumping stations within the dams wherein the velocity distribution near the station intake is disturbed. The two-dimensional (2-D) HEC-RAS 5.01 model was utilized to study, analyse and evaluate the effects of pumping rates and flow depth on the flow velocity distribution, flow stream power and their effects in the Mosul Dam reservoir. The pumping station was considered as a case study. The station is suffering from sediment accumulation around, and in, its intake and suction pipes. The main inflow sources to the reservoir are the Tigris River and run-off from the valleys within its basin. The reservoir was divided into two parts for the present study, including the upper part near the pumping station (analysed as a two-dimen- sional zone), while the lower part was analysed as a one-dimensional flow to reduce the simulation period computation time (1986–2011). Different operation plans (i.e. pumping rate and water depth) were considered. The results of the depth-averaged velocity model indicated that when the pumping station was working at a range from the designed full capacity (100% to 25% of its full capacity), the maximum flow ve- locity increased from 75 to 4 times the normal velocity when there is no pumping dependent on pumping rate and flow depth. For the same operation plans, the flow stream power varied from around zero values to 400 times at full pumping capacity and low flow depth. For sediment routing along the reservoir, the considered statisti- cal criteria indicated the model performance in estimating the total sediment load deposition and invert bed level is much better than in the case of erosion and deposition areas for different considered bed sections of the reservoir.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
pumping station, sediment concentration, stream power, velocity distribution
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77542 (URN)10.1111/lre.12306 (DOI)2-s2.0-85078717071 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 1;2020-03-30 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-01-29 Created: 2020-01-29 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
Adamo, N. & Al-Ansari, N. (2020). Agriculture and Irrigation of Al-Sawad during the Early Islamic Period and Baghdad Irrigation: The Booming Period. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 10(3), 159-181
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agriculture and Irrigation of Al-Sawad during the Early Islamic Period and Baghdad Irrigation: The Booming Period
2020 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 159-181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As time progressed Iraq witnessed the transfer of power from the hands of the Umayyad dynasty in Syria to the Abbasids who established their State in Iraq. The following developments are detailed. During these days very little had happened with respect to land ownership, the question of Kharaj tax and even the agrarian relations between property owners, private farmers and the general peasantry. It may be assumed therefore, that at the start of the Abbasids period all the irrigation networks and infra structures were in good working conditions, and that all the required work force was available as the case had been in the Sassanid and Umayyad periods. The Abbasids may be credited for keeping the vast canal network of al-Sawad in good working conditions and they knew well that the major source of their revenue came from agriculture. Full description of the major canals, which had supplied the lands between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The five  main canals or arteries were all fed from the Euphrates and flowed in south easterly direction towards the Tigris where they poured;  so naturally they were used for navigation between the two rivers in addition to irrigating all the lands  here by vast networks of distributaries and branch canals and watercourses. The major part of these systems was inherited from the Sassanids and the Babylonians but they were kept in good working conditions all these centuries by good management and maintenance. These five major canals according to their sequence from upstream to downstream were called during the Islamic era as, Nahr al-Dujail off taking from the Euphrates at a short distance above Anbar, followed by Nahr Isa, Nahr Sarsar, Nahr al- Malik, and finally Nahr Kutha. The Euphrates River itself bifurcated at its downstream reach to two branches whereby its eastern branch irrigated in its turn a very extensive tract of land in the southern part of al- Sawad with a complex system of branches and tributaries. In following each of these canals great deal of details are given on the agriculture of the various districts and the towns they had served, their  flourishing conditions and the prosperity they  had enjoyed. Khalifah al- Mansour built the new capital of the Abbasid State, Baghdad at the heart of the Sawad region. There was a vast system of watercourses which served Baghdad and its environ that had originated mostly from Nahr Isa is also treated not failing at the same time to describe even the minute details of the various quarters of the city and the markets they had served, which were all based on the writings of contemporary Scholars. The long and deep trench called as the Shabour Trench, which had extended from Hit on the Euphrates down to nearly the Persian Gulf was given its share of detailing as it stood some waterworks, which was meant for defense rather than irrigation. This stream was carrying the major share of flow of the Euphrates during the Abbasids period before it ended indirectly into the Batyiha. It gave however very large branch from its right hand side before reaching the site of Babylon which was called Nahr Nil. This important canal flowed in southeasterly direction and poured at the end in the Tigris in the same fashion as the previous canals did and similarly spreading irrigation watercourses all the way down.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Scientific Press International Limited, 2020
Keywords
Al- Sawad, Early Islamic Period, Baghdad Irrigation, Abbasids, Iraq
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77995 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 1;2020-04-24 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-03-08 Created: 2020-03-08 Last updated: 2020-04-24Bibliographically approved
Armanuos, A. M., Al-Ansari, N. & Yaseen, Z. M. (2020). Assessing the Effectiveness of Using Recharge Wells for Controlling the Saltwater Intrusion in Unconfined Coastal Aquifers with Sloping Beds: Numerical Study. Sustainability, 12(7), Article ID 2685.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the Effectiveness of Using Recharge Wells for Controlling the Saltwater Intrusion in Unconfined Coastal Aquifers with Sloping Beds: Numerical Study
2020 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 2685Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Groundwater systems are considered major freshwater sources for many coastal aquifers worldwide. Seawater intrusion (SWI) inland into freshwater coastal aquifers is a common environmental problem that causes deterioration of the groundwater quality. This research investigates the effectiveness of using an injection through a well to mitigate the SWI in sloping beds of unconfined coastal aquifers. The interface was simulated using SEAWAT code. The repulsion ratios due to the length of the SWI wedge (RL) and the area of the saltwater wedge (RA) were computed. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to recognize the change in the confining layer bed slope (horizontal, positive, and negative) and hydraulic parameters of the value of the SWI repulsion ratio. Injection at the toe itself achieved higher repulsion ratios. RL and RA declined if the injection point was located remotely and higher than the toe of the seawater wedge. Installation at the toe achieved a higher RL in positive sloping followed by horizontal and negative slopes. Moreover, the highest value of RA could be reached by injecting at the toe itself with a horizontal bed aquifer, followed by negative and positive slopes. The recharge well is confirmed as one of the most effective applications for the mitigation of SWI in sloping bed aquifers. The Akrotiri case study shows that the proposed recharging water method has a significant impact on controlling SWI and declines in both SWI wedge length and area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2020
Keywords
recharge well, saltwater intrusion, SEAWAT, repulsion ratio, environmental sustainability, sloped unconfined aquifer
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78241 (URN)10.3390/su12072685 (DOI)2-s2.0-85083634300 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-03-31 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-03-29 Created: 2020-03-29 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
Abdullah, T., Ali, S., Al-Ansari, N. & Knutsson, S. (2020). Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 10, Article ID 100276.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq
2020 (English)In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 10, article id 100276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Groundwater aquifer in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin considered as one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims to evaluate of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability: low, moderate, high and very high with coverage area of (2%,44%,53% and 1%), respectively. While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Vulnerability, VLDA, COP, Halabja-Saidsadiq basin (HSB), Iraq
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76166 (URN)10.1016/j.gsd.2019.100276 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072644933 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-10-01 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-09-30 Created: 2019-09-30 Last updated: 2019-12-18Bibliographically approved
Ewaid, S. H., Abed, S. A. & Al-Ansari, N. (2020). Assessment of Main Cereal Crop Trade Impacts on Water and Land Security in Iraq. Agronomy, 10(1), 1-14, Article ID 98.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Main Cereal Crop Trade Impacts on Water and Land Security in Iraq
2020 (English)In: Agronomy, E-ISSN 2073-4395, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-14, article id 98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Growing populations, socio-economic development, the pollution of rivers, and the withdrawal of fresh water are all signs of increasing water scarcity, and with 85% of global use, agriculture is the biggest freshwater user. The water footprint (WF) and virtual water (VW) are concepts used recently for freshwater resources assessment. The WF reflects how much, when and where the water was used whereas VW reveals the volume of water embedded in goods when traded. The first goal of this research is to determine the WF per ton and the WF of production (Mm3/yr) of wheat, barley, rice, and maize in Iraq. The second goal is estimating the quantities of the 4 main cereal crops imported into Iraq and assessing the impact on reducing WF and land savings for 10 years from 2007 to 2016. The results showed that the WF per ton was 1736, 1769, 3694, 2238 m3/ton and the WF of production was 5271, 1475, 997, 820 Mm3/yr for wheat, barley, rice, and maize, respectively. The median total VW imported was 4408 Mm3/yr, the largest volume was 3478 Mm3/yr from wheat, and Iraq saved about 2676 Mm3 of irrigated water and 1,239,539 M ha of land by importing crops every year during 2007–2016. The study revealed the significance of better irrigation management methods to decrease the WF through a selection of crops that need less water and cultivation in rain-fed areas, as well as the use of cereal import to conserve scarce water resources, which is crucial both in terms of water resource management and preservation of the environment. The results of this research could be used as a guideline for better water management practices in Iraq and can provide helpful data for both stakeholders and policymakers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2020
Keywords
cereal crops, virtual water trade, footprint, Iraq
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77331 (URN)10.3390/agronomy10010098 (DOI)000513232600098 ()2-s2.0-85077718537 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-01-24 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-04-16Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6790-2653

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