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Vesterlund, Mattias
Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Pericault, Y., Risberg, M., Vesterlund, M., Viklander, M. & Hedström, A. (2017). A novel freeze protection strategy for shallow buried sewer pipes: temperature modelling and field investigation. Water Science and Technology, 76(2), 294-301
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel freeze protection strategy for shallow buried sewer pipes: temperature modelling and field investigation
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2017 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 294-301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The burial of sewer and water pipes below the maximum ground frost depth can be very costly and laborious in regions with cold winters. If a freeze protection measure is applied, the utility lines can be installed in a shallower trench to reduce the excavation needs. One freeze protection measure, so called heat tracing, consists in supplying heat along the pipes. In this work, the use of 4th generation district heating as a heat tracing solution was investigated at a pilot site in Kiruna, Sweden. The influence of the system on sewer and water pipe temperatures was studied at a snow-free and snow-covered cross section. To this end, five heat tracing temperatures were tested and the corresponding sewer and water pipe temperatures were measured. The field experiment was also simulated with a two dimensional finite volume model. The study showed that, under the climatic conditions of the experiment, a heat tracing temperature of 25 °C allowed to prevent freezing of the pipes while keeping drinking water pipes in a safe temperature range at both cross sections. The other main result was that the developed finite volume model of the sections showed a good fitting to the experimental data

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IWA Publishing, 2017
Keywords
District heating, heat tracing, low temperature, pipe insulation, temperature modelling, utilidor
National Category
Water Engineering Energy Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63285 (URN)10.2166/wst.2017.174 (DOI)000406789800006 ()28726696 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85026329219 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-08-15 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-09 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Vesterlund, M. & Toffolo, A. (2017). Design optimization of a district heating network expansion: a case study for the town of Kiruna. Applied Sciences, 7(5), Article ID 488.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design optimization of a district heating network expansion: a case study for the town of Kiruna
2017 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 488Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The urbanization of new areas beyond the existing perimeter of a town implies the expansion of several infrastructures, including the district heating network. The main variables involved in the design of the district heating network expansion are the layout of the new pipes, their diameters, and the capacity of the new heat production sites that are required to satisfy the increased demand of room heating and hot tap water. In this paper, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is applied to the minimization of the costs related to the expansion of the district heating network of the town of Kiruna, in northern Sweden. The results show that the spectrum of the optimal design compromises between investment costs for the new pipes and the new heat generation site on one side, and operating costs due to overall fuel consumption and pumping power in the network on the other. The presented methodology is a tool meant for the decision makers in the company who own the district heating network, to evaluate all the possible best design alternatives before making a decision.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63545 (URN)10.3390/app7050488 (DOI)000404449000055 ()2-s2.0-85019071046 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-05-26 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-05-26 Created: 2017-05-26 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Vesterlund, M. (2017). District heating system analysis and challenges within the urban transformation of Kiruna. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>District heating system analysis and challenges within the urban transformation of Kiruna
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is currently an ongoing urban transformation in a small Swedish town named Kiruna, it is located in the very north of Sweden well above the Arctic Circle in a sub-arctic climate. Large part of the town will be relocated due to the ground deformation that is caused by the progressing iron ore mining activity and it is affecting all infrastructures of the town. This thesis aims to accomplish a holistic analysis on the district heating (DH) system for the town of Kiruna and its future challenges.

Energy companies with a DH system recognize the importance in having a good understanding about the network characteristics, for obtaining an efficient and stabile heat delivery to the end-users. In this thesis, a method for modeling and simulation of meshed DH networks is described, that makes it possible to study and analyze the flow pattern in order to locate non-obvious paths, bottlenecks and overloaded pipes.

For carrying out the DH simulations a fundamental input is to set the thermal losses for each pipe segment in the model, a fictitious series with all pipe diameters is created which corresponds to the annual losses in the real network. In comparison with the pipes series manufactured today the created one is best described by the series with least insulation and highest thermal losses. The studied network has its origin in the 60th and is the sum of the different piping technics that has been valid over time, this mixture is positioning the thermal performance as a close to a worst-case scenario.

To the meshed DH network a number of heat production sites are connected for delivering the thermal requested by the end-users, each site consisting of several boilers and using different resources. A hybrid evolutionary-Mixed Integer Linear Programing (MILP) optimization approach is developed and applied for finding the cost-optimal heat production for three scenarios in combination of two heating demand levels. It is stated that no matter the geographically location of the site the cheapest resource should always be favorable as fuel, in the case when the same resource is viable at different sites a differentiated heat production is obtained. The supply temperature from each site is found to be the one lowest possible in order to serve all site-concerned end-users with a temperature level high enough for hot water production. The findings recommend a network temperatures reduction with the consequence in higher cost related to pumping work, but is lower than the savings due to the reduction in thermal losses.

In order to provide the relocated part of the town with DH the hybrid evolutionary-MILP optimization routine is reshaped for finding different alternatives for network expansion layouts. The result is presented as a multi objective analysis between the operation cost and installation cost, showing the complete spectra of all optimal possible solutions and how the different cost correlate to each other. In this way, the outcome can be used for support in decision making, helping network owners is their planning and pipe sizing for new areas.

For constructing the buildings that will populate the new city-area the Swedish government has stated a number of recommendations for achieving livable thermal indoor climate. An investigation is carried out analyzing the impact from the usage of three different heating system; air/air heat pump, air heating and floor heating in a low energy family house, where the first two system are aimed to use heat from the DH network. The analysis show that only the floor heating system satisfies the recommendations stated, but with carefully planning an air heating system could also fulfill the recommendations. Further, a techno-economical evaluation declares that the cheapest heating cost over 30 years is by using an air/air heat pump. In order to make DH competitive as heating source the needed price reduction is found for the hydronic floor and air heating system.

Finally, three different building energy performance scenarios are studied in conjunction with the urban transformation in combination with the suggested energy measures from the Energy Performance certificates (EPC). In order to reach the national target entailing a reduction of 50% until 2050 all re-built buildings have to be built with passive standard and all advised measures in the EPC has to be carried out. Wort noticing is that the scenarios is analyzed as part of a 3-D City Model, which is found to be a worthwhile working tool for staff dealing with energy related issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
District heating, analysis, optimization, design, heat production
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63091 (URN)978-91-7583-894-6 (ISBN)978-91-7583-895-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-15, E632, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-04-24 Created: 2017-04-20 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Vesterlund, M., Toffolo, A. & Dahl, J. (2017). Optimization of multi-source complex district heating network, a case study. Energy, 126, 53-63
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of multi-source complex district heating network, a case study
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 126, p. 53-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The level of complexity for a district heating network increases with the maturity of the network, and this affects the pattern of the distribution of the hot water from the heat production sites to the end users. The majority of district heating systems are also multi-source networks, typically supported with heat from one main production site and other smaller satellite sites that are activated when required. In general, local energy companies have a lack of knowledge regarding how a meshed network behaves when different production sites are operated. The schedule of heat generation at the different sites is often based on staff experience and some general rules of thumb.

In this paper a method for modeling and simulating complex district networks is further developed in order to optimize the total operating costs of a multi-source network, with constraints on the pressure and temperature levels in the user areas and on the heat generation characteristics at each production site.

The optimization results show that the usage of the cheapest resources is preferred to a distributed generation of heat, even if some of the pipes may exceed the recommended thermal load capacity. The main site water supply temperature is found to be the lowest allowed by the constraint on the temperature of the water supplied to the end users, since the decrease of the costs associated with the lower thermal losses in the network is not counterbalanced by the increase of those associated with the pumping power of a larger water mass flow rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62320 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.03.018 (DOI)000404305900006 ()2-s2.0-85014911271 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-03-15 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-03-06 Created: 2017-03-06 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Pericault, Y., Risberg, M., Vesterlund, M., Hedström, A. & Viklander, M. (2016). A novel freeze protection strategy for shallow buried sewer pipes: temperature modelling and field investigation. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Sewer Processes & Networks: . Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Sewer Processes & Networks, 31/8-2/9 2016, Rotterdam..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel freeze protection strategy for shallow buried sewer pipes: temperature modelling and field investigation
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Sewer Processes & Networks, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The burial of sewer and water pipes below the maximum ground frost depth can be very costly and laborious in regions with cold winters. If a freeze protection measure is applied, the utility lines can be installed in a shallower trench to reduce the excavation needs during construction and maintenance works. One freeze protection measure, so called heat tracing, consist in supplying heat along the pipes. In this work, the use of 4th generation district heating as a heat tracing solution was investigated at a pilot site in Kiruna, Sweden. The influence of the system on sewer and water pipes temperatures was studied experimentally and numerically at a snow-free and snow-covered cross section. The study showed that, under the climatic conditions of the experiment, a heat tracing temperature of 25 ˚C allowed to prevent freezing of the pipes while keeping drinking water pipes in safe temperature range at both cross sections. The other main result was that a finite volume model of the sections was developed and showed a good fitting to the experimental data.

National Category
Water Engineering Energy Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59899 (URN)
Conference
8th International Conference on Sewer Processes & Networks, 31/8-2/9 2016, Rotterdam.
Available from: 2016-10-24 Created: 2016-10-24 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Pericault, Y., Hedström, A., Dahl, J., Vesterlund, M. & Olsson, G. (2016). District heat tracing of water and sewer lines in Kiruna, Sweden (ed.). Paper presented at Sanitation in Cold Climate Regions : 12/04/2016 - 14/04/2016. Paper presented at Sanitation in Cold Climate Regions : 12/04/2016 - 14/04/2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>District heat tracing of water and sewer lines in Kiruna, Sweden
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Water Engineering Energy Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-35022 (URN)9642777e-1d16-404d-9344-4e07c651bbba (Local ID)9642777e-1d16-404d-9344-4e07c651bbba (Archive number)9642777e-1d16-404d-9344-4e07c651bbba (OAI)
Conference
Sanitation in Cold Climate Regions : 12/04/2016 - 14/04/2016
Note
Godkänd; 2016; 20160125 (youper)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Johansson, T., Vesterlund, M., Olofsson, T. & Dahl, J. (2016). Energy performance certificates and 3-dimensional city models as a means to reach national targets: A case study of the city of Kiruna (ed.). Paper presented at . Energy Conversion and Management, 116, 42-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy performance certificates and 3-dimensional city models as a means to reach national targets: A case study of the city of Kiruna
2016 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 116, p. 42-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Enhanced dissemination of information regarding energy saving and climate change targeted toward property owners is considered to be an important strategy in order to reach the Swedish national target of energy efficiency in the building sector by 2050. Here the municipality energy advisors and the national register for energy performance certificates can facilitate the mitigation of energy use in the building stock. So far few studies have focused on the practical road map to the national target of energy use on the city/district level and to the communication aspects with stakeholders in the creation of energy city models.In this paper a city energy model is developed based on the requests and need for visualization from a group of energy advisors. Six different scenarios are studied in order to analyze the possibility of reaching the energy targets specified by the government in the town of Kiruna. The results show that: (1) it is possible to automatically create city energy models using extract, transform and load tools based on spatial and non-spatial data from national registers and databases; (2) city energy models improve the understanding of energy use in buildings and can therefore be a valuable tool for energy advisors, real estate companies and urban planners. The case study of Kiruna showed that the proposed energy saving measures in the energy performance certificates need to be implemented and new buildings in the urban transformation must be of high energy standard in order to reach the national target in Kiruna.

National Category
Construction Management Energy Engineering
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14165 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2016.02.057 (DOI)000373749800005 ()2-s2.0-84960080826 (Scopus ID)d82fcec8-829a-4bc9-a429-8e0d2c0bcef3 (Local ID)d82fcec8-829a-4bc9-a429-8e0d2c0bcef3 (Archive number)d82fcec8-829a-4bc9-a429-8e0d2c0bcef3 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160310 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Vesterlund, M., Toffolo, A. & Dahl, J. (2016). Optimization of multi-source complex district heating network: a case study. In: Proceeding of 29th International Conference on efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Enviromental Impact of Energy Systems: . Paper presented at 29th international conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2016, Portorož, Slovenia, June 19. - 23. 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of multi-source complex district heating network: a case study
2016 (English)In: Proceeding of 29th International Conference on efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Enviromental Impact of Energy Systems, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The level of complexity for a district heating network increases with the maturity of the network, and this affects the pattern of the distribution of the hot water from the heat production sites to the end users. The majority of district heating systems are also multi-source networks, typically supported with heat from one main production site and other smaller satellite sites that are activated when required. In general, local energy companies have a lack of knowledge regarding how a meshed network behaves when different production sites are operated. The schedule of heat generation at the different sites is often based on staff experience and some general rules of thumb.

In this paper a method for modeling and simulating complex district networks is further developed in order to optimize the total operating costs of a multi-source network, with constraints on the pressure and temperature levels in the user areas and on the heat generation characteristics at each production site.

The optimization results show that the usage of the cheapest resources is preferred to a distributed generation of heat, even if some of the pipes may exceed the recommended thermal load capacity. The main site water supply temperature is found to be the lowest allowed by the constraint on the temperature of the water supplied to the end users, since the decrease of the costs associated with the lower thermal losses in the network is not counterbalanced by the increase of those associated with the pumping power of a larger water mass flow rate.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60957 (URN)
Conference
29th international conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2016, Portorož, Slovenia, June 19. - 23. 2016
Available from: 2016-12-07 Created: 2016-12-07 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Vesterlund, M., Toffolo, A. & Dahl, J. (2016). Simulation and analysis of a meshed district heating network (ed.). Paper presented at . Energy Conversion and Management, 122, 63-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation and analysis of a meshed district heating network
2016 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 122, p. 63-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The flow distribution in a district heating network tends to become no longer obvious when system design is developed and its complexity increased. As a consequence, the network owner, often the local energy company, is in need of a simulation program to have the possibility of analysing network behaviour and expand the understanding about the operation of district heating system. In this paper, a simulation tool developed in MATLAB/Simulink is applied in order to analyse the flow distribution in the district heating network of the town of Kiruna (Sweden). The network in Kiruna has been developing since the 60s and is today a complex network with a meshed structure, i.e. it is formed by a set of loops from which secondary branches depart. The simulation tool is part of a methodology that has specifically been developed to analyse the flow pattern in such kind of networks without altering their physical structure, and it is expected to be a valuable tool for the redesign of the network in the forthcoming relocation of some of the urban districts. The results about the current network configuration show that only a few pipes in the network are exceeding the levels of heat flow recommended by pipe manufacturers. The largest drops in pressure and temperature from the heat production site to the nodes serving the main consumer areas are within 1.2 bar and 9 °C in the days of highest demand.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-5877 (URN)411b63db-cfe4-4756-852e-77f5593f749f (Local ID)411b63db-cfe4-4756-852e-77f5593f749f (Archive number)411b63db-cfe4-4756-852e-77f5593f749f (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160530 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Vesterlund, M. & Dahl, J. (2015). A method for the simulation and optimization of district heating systems with meshed networks (ed.). Paper presented at . Energy Conversion and Management, 89, 555-567
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method for the simulation and optimization of district heating systems with meshed networks
2015 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 89, p. 555-567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are two main methods nowadays for modeling district heating systems, but a key disadvantage of both is that a real network containing loops cannot be described without artificial simplifications in order to eliminate those distinguishing features. However, loops are very common in mature networks that have developed a meshed structure, and make the distribution of mass and heat flows quite characteristic. For this reason, a new process integration method for modeling complex district heating systems containing loops is described in this paper. This method makes it possible to analyze how loops and bottlenecks affect the behavior of the network, as well as the distribution path of the thermal energy in it. The district heating system in the town of Kiruna (located in the north of Sweden) has a complex design with several loops and part of it is used in the paper as an example of application.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9152 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2014.10.002 (DOI)000346552200053 ()2-s2.0-84908374425 (Scopus ID)7b800504-b27d-4e1c-ba92-dcf3a103f468 (Local ID)7b800504-b27d-4e1c-ba92-dcf3a103f468 (Archive number)7b800504-b27d-4e1c-ba92-dcf3a103f468 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20141029 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
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