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Okumu, B. & Muchapondwa, E. (2020). Determinants of successful collective management of forest resources: Evidence from Kenyan Community Forest Associations. Forest Policy and Economics, 113, Article ID 102122.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determinants of successful collective management of forest resources: Evidence from Kenyan Community Forest Associations
2020 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 113, article id 102122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The collective participation of local communities in the management and utilization of forest resources is now widely accepted as a possible solution to the failure of centralized, top-down approaches to forest conservation. Under such initiatives, communities in Kenya have organized themselves into Community Forest Associations (CFAs). Despite the proliferation of CFAs, forest conservation outcomes have been mixed. Little is known about the factors that influence the success of collective action in forest conservation. Using data from 518 households and 22 CFAs within the Mau forest conservancy, this study employed regression techniques to analyze factors that influence household participation in CFA activities. Further, the study investigated the determinants of successful collective action, as measured by the percentage of forest cover and the number of reported cases of vandalism of forest resources. The relationship between household participation and success of collective action was also established. Collective action is more successful where household participation is high, the associations are initiated by the communities themselves, the associations interact frequently with government departments, and the forest cover is low, among other factors. The factors that influence the level of household participation are also identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
PFM, Collective action, Participation, CFAs
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77954 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2020.102122 (DOI)000519530000006 ()
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-03-04 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-03-04 Created: 2020-03-04 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
Okumu, B. & Muchapondwa, E. (2020). Welfare and forest cover impacts of incentive based conservation: Evidence from Kenyan community forest associations. World Development, 129, Article ID 104890.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Welfare and forest cover impacts of incentive based conservation: Evidence from Kenyan community forest associations
2020 (English)In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 129, article id 104890Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines whether offering landless forest-adjacent communities options to grow appropriate food crops inside forest reserves during early stages of reforestation programmes increases incomes of low-income households and conserve forests. We consider the forest cover and household welfare impacts of a unique incentive scheme in Kenya known as the Plantation Establishment and Livelihood Improvement Scheme (PELIS). PELIS seeks to deepen community participation in forestry, and improve the livelihoods of adjacent communities. Using cross sectional data collected from 22 Community Forest Associations and 406 households, we use propensity score matching methods to evaluate the mean impact of the scheme on forest cover and household welfare. We also assess the heterogeneous impacts of the scheme on household welfare using an endogenous quantile treatment effects model. The results show that on average, PELIS has a significant and positive impact on the welfare of participating households (estimated between 15.09% and 28.14%) and on forest cover (between 5.53% and 7.94%). However, the scheme cannot be defended on equity grounds as it has inequitable distributional impacts on household welfare. The scheme raises welfare of groups other than the poorest and marginalized sections of the community. Our observations from the field blame elite capture for this outcome.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Household welfare, Heterogeneity, Selection, Matching, QTE
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77524 (URN)10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.104890 (DOI)2-s2.0-85078177941 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-01-27 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-01-27 Created: 2020-01-27 Last updated: 2020-04-16Bibliographically approved
Ntuli, H., Jagers, S. C., Linell, A., Sjöstedt, M. & Muchapondwa, E. (2019). Factors influencing local communities’ perceptions towards conservation of transboundary wildlife resources: the case of the Great Limpopo Trans-frontier Conservation Area. Biodiversity and Conservation, 28(11), 2977-3003
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors influencing local communities’ perceptions towards conservation of transboundary wildlife resources: the case of the Great Limpopo Trans-frontier Conservation Area
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2019 (English)In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 2977-3003Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Local communities’ perceptions of protected areas are important determinants of the success of conservation efforts in Southern Africa, as these perceptions affect people’s attitudes and behaviour with respect to conservation. As a result, the involvement of local communities in transboundary wildlife conservation is now viewed as an integral part of regional development initiatives. Building on unique survey data and applying regression analysis, this paper investigates the determinants of the perceptions of local communities around the Great Limpopo Trans-frontier Conservation Area in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Our results illustrate that people perceiving the park as well-managed tend to have more positive perceptions regarding the benefits from the park, rules governing the park, and wildlife conservation in general. Household expertise on resource extraction, in turn, tends to make people more likely to perceive environmental crime as morally acceptable. Furthermore, the results indicate that if people perceive the rules of the park in a negative way, then they are less likely to conserve wildlife. Receiving benefits from the park has a positive impact on people’s perceptions of the rules governing the park, as well as on their perception of wildlife conservation in general, but not on perceptions about environmental crime. Surprisingly, perceived high levels of corruption is positively associated with people’s perception of wildlife benefits and with perceptions of that environmental crime is morally justified. There is also evidence of the role of socioeconomic variables on people’s perceptions towards wildlife. However, unobservable contextual factors could be responsible for explaining part of the variation in people’s perceptions. Our results speak to the literature on large-scale collective action since perceptions of wildlife benefits, corruption, environmental crime, park management and rules governing the parks, all affect local communities’ ability and willingness to self organize. These variables are interesting because they can be influenced by policy through training and awareness campaigns. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Perceptions, Attitudes, Behaviour, Collective action, Transfrontier conservation area
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75357 (URN)10.1007/s10531-019-01809-5 (DOI)000476594200014 ()
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-08-16 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-07-24 Created: 2019-07-24 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Muchapondwa, E., Stage, J., Mungatana, E. & Kumar, P. (2018). Lessons from applying market-based incentives in watershed management. Water Economics and Policy, 4(3), Article ID 1850011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lessons from applying market-based incentives in watershed management
2018 (English)In: Water Economics and Policy, ISSN 2382-624X, E-ISSN 2382-6258, Vol. 4, no 3, article id 1850011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Watershed management is a complex activity with constraints on funding and human resources in many parts of the world, and there is a need for global effort to identify strategies that can work. To complement regulatory approaches, attention is now also being given to market-based incentives because of their potential cost-effectiveness. This study seeks to provide impetus to the use of the most successful market-based incentives to promote sustainable watershed practices through strengthening and increasing direct participation by local communities and the private sector. To identify proven market-based incentives for use to catalyze local community and private sector participation, a review of a sample of 26 purposively selected case studies from different contexts in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas is conducted. In reviewing those case studies, emphasis is placed on understanding the threats to specific watersheds, the market-based incentives used, the countrywide policy environment, the outcomes from the interventions, the factors for success and failure, and the pertinent policy issues in support of upscaling and the uptake of appropriate market-based approaches. The study identifies seven key policies that Governments should consider to upscale and facilitate the uptake of market-based incentives to promote participation by local communities and the private sector in watershed management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
World Scientific, 2018
Keywords
Local communities, market-based incentives, private sector, watershed management
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67342 (URN)10.1142/S2382624X1850011X (DOI)000439965300008 ()2-s2.0-85066400876 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-08-08 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Ntuli, H. & Muchapondwa, E. (2017). A Bioeconomic Analysis of Community Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwe. Journal for Nature Conservation, 37, 106-121
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Bioeconomic Analysis of Community Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwe
2017 (English)In: Journal for Nature Conservation, ISSN 1617-1381, E-ISSN 1618-1093, Vol. 37, p. 106-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper uses a bio-economic model to analyze wildlife conservation in two habitats adjacent to a national park by two types of communities in Zimbabwe. One community is made up of peasant farmers operating under a benefit-sharing scheme such as CAMPFIRE, while the other is made up of commercial farmers practicing game farming in a conservancy. Both communities exploit wildlife by selling hunting licenses to foreign hunters but with different levels of success. The park agency plays a central role by authorizing the harvest quota for each community. We formulate a bio-economic model for the three agents, optimize the market problem for each agent and compare the outcomes with the social planner’s solution. Our results show that the level of anti-poaching enforcement by the park agency is suboptimal, while anti-poaching effort exerted by the conservancy community achieves social optimality. CAMPFIRE communities exert more poaching effort than what the social planner would recommend. Our model shows that institutional reforms in benefit-sharing schemes could result in the decisions of CAMPFIRE communities gravitating towards the social optimum.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63146 (URN)10.1016/j.jnc.2017.04.003 (DOI)000404558600013 ()2-s2.0-85018445426 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-05-11 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Komba, C. & Muchapondwa, E. (2017). An analysis of factors affecting household willingness to participate in the REDD+ programme in Tanzania (ed.). Climate and Development, 9(3), 244-257
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis of factors affecting household willingness to participate in the REDD+ programme in Tanzania
2017 (English)In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 244-257Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tanzania has high rates of deforestation and forest degradation. Reducing deforestation and forest degradation is an important strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, asking households to reduce deforestation means asking them to sacrifice direct benefits from forests, such as energy resources. The REDD+ programme provides a way to compensate households. This study estimates households’ willingness to accept forest-use restrictions governing participation in the REDD+ programme and its determinants. The results show that households would participate in REDD+ if the programme were to compensate them with an average of USD 2072 per year. The determinants of willingness to participate are analysed using the Heckman sample selection model. The results reveal that awareness about REDD+ economic incentives, and that deforestation and forest degradation is not good for the environment, and the increased time spent collecting the most important forest products increased probability of household participation. Households that earned more from forest products demanded greater compensation to participate. The results further revealed that, once a household is aware of the programme and its incentives and decides to participate, it tended to demand less compensation. The Government of Tanzania is advised to (i) collect baseline data in order to differentiate incentives for households depending on their forest reliance, (ii) educate people about the relationship between REDD+ and climate change to increase the cooperation of the communities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-11352 (URN)10.1080/17565529.2016.1145098 (DOI)000396844200005 ()2-s2.0-84962575053 (Scopus ID)a4c77c73-6e55-4fd0-8209-de29e5b769f9 (Local ID)a4c77c73-6e55-4fd0-8209-de29e5b769f9 (Archive number)a4c77c73-6e55-4fd0-8209-de29e5b769f9 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-03-03 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Ntuli, H. & Muchapondwa, E. (2017). Effects of wildlife resources on community welfare in Southern Africa. Ecological Economics, 131, 572-583
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of wildlife resources on community welfare in Southern Africa
2017 (English)In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 131, p. 572-583Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper demonstrates the importance of wildlife in the portfolio of environmental income in the livelihoods of poor rural communities living adjacent to a national park. The results show that wealthier households use more wildlife resources in total than do relatively poor households. However, poorer households derive greater proportional benefit than wealthier households from the use of wildlife resources. Excluding wildlife understates the relative contribution of environmental resources while at the same time overstating the relative contribution of farm and wage income. Wildlife income alone accounts for about a 5.5% reduction in the proportion of people living below the poverty line. Furthermore, wildlife income has an equalizing effect, bringing about a 5.4% reduction in measured inequality. Regression analysis suggests that the likelihood of belonging to a wealthier category of income increases with an increase in environmental income. As expected, household wealth significantly and positively affects environmental income generated by households. This seems to suggest that wildlife-based land reform also needs to empower poor households in the area of capital accumulation while imposing restraints on the use of capital investments by well-off households to harvest wildlife.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59744 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.09.004 (DOI)000388248600055 ()2-s2.0-84994618799 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-11-22 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-10-14 Created: 2016-10-14 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Dikgang, J. & Muchapondwa, E. (2017). Local communities’ valuation of environmental amenities around the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in Southern Africa. Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, 6(2), 168-182
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local communities’ valuation of environmental amenities around the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in Southern Africa
2017 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 168-182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper seeks to examine how communities value a variety of drylandenvironmental amenities provided by the Kgalagadi Transfontier Parkwhere there is an interest in limiting their access, both in order to protectthe environment and in order to make it more attractive for tourists. Thisis done using a choice experiment, which targeted households in theKgalagadi area. The values placed on environmental amenities byindigenous communities are estimated using a conditional logit model, arandom parameter logit model and a random parameter logit model withinteractions. The results show that local communities would prefer gettingincreased grazing opportunities and bush food collection. This is animportant policy issue in itself, and it also ties in well with on-goingdiscussions on how to compensate (or at least attach reasonable costestimates to) losses to local communities linked to environmentalpreservation policies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63121 (URN)10.1080/21606544.2016.1240631 (DOI)000400032400006 ()
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-04-24 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-04-24 Created: 2017-04-24 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Akpalu, W., Abidoye, B., Muchapondwa, E. & Simbanegavi, W. (2017). Public disclosure for carbon abatement: African decision-makers in a PROPER public good experiment (ed.). Climate and Development, 9(6), 548-558
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public disclosure for carbon abatement: African decision-makers in a PROPER public good experiment
2017 (English)In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 548-558Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

linear public good experiment adopted from Holt and Laury [1997. Classroom games: Voluntary provision of a public good. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(4), 209–215.] has been employed to investigate strategic behaviour in pollution abatement among African climate decision-makers. The experiment consisted of three groups, of which groups 2 and 3 received one and two treatments, respectively. The first treatment entailed publicly disclosing the pollution of each member of a group by placing a corresponding colour-coded card in front of each subject, while the second involved the withdrawal of the public disclosure. Group 2 received the first treatment; Group 3 received both the first and second treatments in succession. We found that the untreated group (baseline) polluted more than the two treated groups, and there was no statistically significant difference between the pollution abatement of the two treated groups. These results suggest that public disclosure potentially drives pollution abatement and that its eventual withdrawal does not obliterate abatement behaviour. We did not observe conditional cooperation but average pollution declined over time. Furthermore, individuals who thought it was unfair for Africa to reduce emissions polluted more. We also found that pollution levels differ significantly between males and females.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13529 (URN)10.1080/17565529.2016.1174664 (DOI)000408909700006 ()2-s2.0-84973167604 (Scopus ID)cc00bf34-12cc-4394-9521-d0636952830e (Local ID)cc00bf34-12cc-4394-9521-d0636952830e (Archive number)cc00bf34-12cc-4394-9521-d0636952830e (OAI)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-09-04 (svasva)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Dikgang, J., Muchapondwa, E. & Stage, J. (2017). Securing benefits for local communities from international visitors to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. Tourism Economics, 23(8), 1553-1567
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Securing benefits for local communities from international visitors to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park
2017 (English)In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1553-1567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article estimates the visitation demand function for Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) in order to determine the scope for raising fees charged to international tourists in order to fund revenue-sharing schemes for local communities. International and Southern African Development Community tourists account for approximately 25% and 2% of the total number of visitors to South African national parks, with domestic visitors making up the remaining portion. Although small, the South African international tourism market is mature and accounts for a disproportionately large share (around 42%) of net revenue. To estimate visitation demand at the KTP and three other national parks, random effects Tobit Model was used. Using the estimated elasticities, the revenue-maximizing daily conservation fee was computed to be R1 131.94 (US$144.20) for KTP, which can be compared with the R180 (US$22.93) currently charged. Furthermore, the study also demonstrated that there is a possibility of raising fees at the other three parks. Sharing conservation revenue with communities surrounding parks could demonstrate the link between ecotourism and local communities’ economic development and promote a positive view of land restitution involving national parks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
benefit-sharing, conservation fee, demand, international visitors, land claim, national park
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62983 (URN)10.1177/1354816617707593 (DOI)000415841700002 ()2-s2.0-85034582613 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-11-27 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-04-10 Created: 2017-04-10 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3400-7548

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