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Riska, K., Bridges, R., Shumovskiy, S., Thomas, C., Coche, E., Bonath, V., . . . Caloba Duarte de Oliveira, R. (2019). Brash ice growth model: development and validation. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 157, 30-41
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brash ice growth model: development and validation
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2019 (English)In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 157, p. 30-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Brash ice growth in frequently navigated areas like fairways or ports is quick due to the ‘freezing – breaking’ cycle induced by sub-zero temperatures and ship traffic. This problem is very acute in ports in Arctic areas where the temperatures are very low for long durations and the ship traffic is frequent. In order to take adequate action in managing the brash ice, the forecasts of the amount of brash ice expected should be reliable. The aim of this work is to develop and validate these prediction methods.

The growth model developed is based on extension of earlier growth models which modify the Stefan type growth modelling. The improvement on the earlier models is that the brash ice layer is divided into three layers (instead of two in earlier models): The consolidated layer just below the water level, the brash ice over the water level and the unfrozen brash ice below the consolidated layer. The thermodynamic model follows the Stefan formulation including only the heat flux from latent heat release upon freezing (Stefan, 1891 and e.g. Anderson, 1961). The modelling includes the cyclic breaking and refreezing.

The validation of the model is made using measurements carried out in winter 2013 in Luleå port and in winter 2015 in Sabetta in the Yamal peninsula. Luleå data suggests that the sideways motion of brash ice due to ship motion and wake should be taken into account when assessing the brash ice thickness. The analytical calculation over-estimates the brash ice thickness in the actual channel but under-estimates the total amount of broken ice. When applied to Sabetta data, the analytical calculation predicts well the observed brash ice thickness. It can be concluded that the analytical method that does not take into account any radiation heat fluxes can be applied in the high Arctic where solar radiation plays a minor role and ice surface is clearly below zero.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Brash ice, Consolidation, Ice management, Ice thickness prediction
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70999 (URN)10.1016/j.coldregions.2018.09.004 (DOI)000451428000004 ()2-s2.0-85054180223 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-10-12 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-09-26 Created: 2018-09-26 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Bonath, V., Edeskär, T., Lintzén, N., Fransson, L. & Cwirzen, A. (2019). Properties of ice from first-year ridges in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 168, Article ID 102890.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Properties of ice from first-year ridges in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait
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2019 (English)In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 168, article id 102890Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

First-year ice ridges are one of the main load scenarios that off-shore structures and vessels operating in ice-covered waters have to be designed for. For simulating such load scenarios, the knowledge gap on ice mechanical properties from the consolidated part of first-year ridges has to be filled. In total 410 small-scale uniaxial compression tests were conducted at different strain rates and ice temperatures on ice from the consolidated layer of 6 different first-year ridges in the sea around Svalbard. For the first time uniaxial tensile tests were performed on ice from first-year ridges using a new testing method. Ice strength was evaluated for different ice type, which are determined for each specimen based on a proposed ice classification system for ice from first-year ridges. 78% of all samples contained mixed ice with various compounds of brecciated columnar and granular ice. Ice strength of mixed ice showed isotropy, except for the samples containing mainly columnar ice crystals. For horizontal loading, mixed ice was stronger than columnar and granular ice. The residual strength of ductile ice depended on the strain rate. At 1.5% strain remained 70% of peak strength at 10−4 s−1 and 50% at 10−3 s−1. Ductile failure dominated for 75% of all mixed ice tests at 10−3 s−1 and − 10 °C. Ductile compressive strength was generally higher than brittle compressive strength for mixed ice. Brine volume was the main parameter influencing the tensile strength of the mixed ice which was between 0.14 MPa and 0.78 MPa measured at constant ice temperature of −10 °C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
First-year ice ridges, Ice texture, Uniaxial compression strength, Tensile strength, Mechanical properties
National Category
Other Materials Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials; Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76074 (URN)10.1016/j.coldregions.2019.102890 (DOI)2-s2.0-85073186977 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-10-21 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2019-10-21Bibliographically approved
Bonath, V., Petrich, C., Sand, B., Fransson, L. & Cwirzen, A. (2018). Morphology, internal structure and formation of ice ridges in the sea around Svalbard. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 155, 263-279
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morphology, internal structure and formation of ice ridges in the sea around Svalbard
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2018 (English)In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 155, p. 263-279Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The results from 3 years of comprehensive field investigations on first-year ice ridges in the Arctic are presented in this paper. The scopes of these investigations were to fill existing knowledge gaps on ice ridges, gain understanding on ridge characteristics and study internal properties of ice. The ability of developing reliable simulations and load predictions for ridge-structure interactions is the final principal purpose, but beyond the scope of this paper. The presented data comprise ridge geometry, ice block dimensions from ridge sails, ice structure in the ridge and values on the ridge porosity and the degree of consolidation. The total ridge thickness conformed to other ridges studied in the same regions. The consolidated layer thickness was on average 2–3 times the level ice thickness. Minimum 33% and in average 90% of the ridge keel area was consolidated. The distribution of ice block sizes and block shapes within a ridge appears to be predictable. A new approach for deriving a possible ridging scenario and ridge age is presented. Different steps of the ridge building process were identified, which are in good agreement with earlier simulated ridging events. After formation of very thin lead ice between two floes deformation occurs through rafting and ridging until closure of the lead. Subsequently the adjacent level ice floe fractures proceeding ridge formation until ridging forces exceed driving forces. A time span of 10 days could be assessed for a possible ridge formation date, estimating the ridge age of the studied ridge located east of Edgeøya at 78° N to be 7 to 8 weeks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70645 (URN)10.1016/j.coldregions.2018.08.011 (DOI)000444514700024 ()2-s2.0-85052209862 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-08-29 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-08-29 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
Sand, B., Bonath, V., Sudom, D. & Petrich, C. (2015). Three years of measurements of first year ridges in the Barents Sea and fram strait (ed.). In: (Ed.), Proceedings of the 23nd International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions: POAC 2015, Trondheim, Norway; 14-18 June 2015. Paper presented at International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions : 14/06/2015 - 18/06/2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three years of measurements of first year ridges in the Barents Sea and fram strait
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 23nd International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions: POAC 2015, Trondheim, Norway; 14-18 June 2015, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

During three expeditions in March 2011, March 2012 and April/May 2013 with the Norwegian coastguard vessel "KV Svalbard", two pressure ridges around Svalbard, one ridge in Fram Strait and three ridges in Olga strait have been studied with respect to ridge geometry and physical and mechanical properties. With a discrete measurement, which is of most interest here, information can be obtained on the overall size and shape of an individual ridge at one particular location, both above and below the waterline. This approach provides detailed quantitative information on both the sail and keel size and shape, of a specific ridge, as well as its porosity. It does not supply any information on ridge spacing. The results of individual profile measurements are discussed. Measurements of vertical profiles along the spine and transects perpendicular to the spine are presented for these ridges. The sail height, sail width, keel depth and keel width, consolidated layer thickness, rubble block sizes and porosities are examined for each ridge. The results presented in this paper contribute to more data in terms of geometry and morphology of the first-year ridge off Svalbard, in Fram Strait and Barents Sea. Compression and tensile strength properties are important input data for constitutive modelling. Still strength properties of ridged ice are not yet sufficiently investigated. Uniaxial compressive tests were performed with horizontal and vertical loading directions and the results from the testing of level ice and consolidated layer are summarized with consideration of total porosity.

Series
Proceedings - International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, ISSN 0376-6756
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-31164 (URN)5402ded9-c9b1-48d5-baf1-f1c27ac87ec2 (Local ID)5402ded9-c9b1-48d5-baf1-f1c27ac87ec2 (Archive number)5402ded9-c9b1-48d5-baf1-f1c27ac87ec2 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions : 14/06/2015 - 18/06/2015
Note

Godkänd; 2015; 20151001 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Bonath, V., Kurkinen, E.-L. & Ohlsson, U. (2014). A comparison between a commercial energy calculation tool for buildings with calculations using a response model (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), NSB 2014 10th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics 15-19 June 2014 Lund, Sweden: . Paper presented at Nordic Symposium on Building Physics : 15/06/2014 - 19/06/2014 (pp. 863-870). Malmö, Article ID 107.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparison between a commercial energy calculation tool for buildings with calculations using a response model
2014 (English)In: NSB 2014 10th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics 15-19 June 2014 Lund, Sweden, Malmö, 2014, p. 863-870, article id 107Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: , 2014
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-38171 (URN)c7b6b496-9f8e-40e6-9f7a-dfb4955a6493 (Local ID)978-91-88722-53-9 (ISBN)c7b6b496-9f8e-40e6-9f7a-dfb4955a6493 (Archive number)c7b6b496-9f8e-40e6-9f7a-dfb4955a6493 (OAI)
Conference
Nordic Symposium on Building Physics : 15/06/2014 - 19/06/2014
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20140901 (vicbon)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Petrich, C. & Bonath, V. (2014). Relating sea ice drift to ice properties in Fram Strait (ed.). In: (Ed.), Proceedings of the 22nd IAHR International Symposium on Ice: Singapore, 11–15 August 2014. Paper presented at IAHR International Symposium on Ice : 11/08/2014 - 15/08/2014 (pp. 751-758). Singapore: NEWRI Nanyang Technological University, Article ID 1258.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relating sea ice drift to ice properties in Fram Strait
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 22nd IAHR International Symposium on Ice: Singapore, 11–15 August 2014, Singapore: NEWRI Nanyang Technological University , 2014, p. 751-758, article id 1258Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: NEWRI Nanyang Technological University, 2014
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-39581 (URN)10.3850/978-981-09-0750-1_1258 (DOI)e65d3181-f8f9-4c20-aa2c-12931044c572 (Local ID)978-981-09-0750-1 (ISBN)e65d3181-f8f9-4c20-aa2c-12931044c572 (Archive number)e65d3181-f8f9-4c20-aa2c-12931044c572 (OAI)
Conference
IAHR International Symposium on Ice : 11/08/2014 - 15/08/2014
Note

Godkänd; 2014; 20140901 (vicbon)

Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Bonath, V. & Fransson, L. (2013). Isförhållanden inom Luleå hamnbassäng (ed.). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Isförhållanden inom Luleå hamnbassäng
2013 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Issituationen i Luleå hamn vintern 2012/13 var normalsvår vilket innebar en ökad istillväxt motsvarade 150 cm ren is i områden som bröts kontinuerligt. Detta ska jämföras med det obrutna istäckets tjocklek som var ca 60 cm. Isen i rännan bestod av klotformade isblock (10 – 120 cm) omgivna av issörja. Under mars månad var isblockens storlek mätt vid vattenytan i genomsnitt 45 cm och andelen vatten eller finfördelad issörja var ca 30%. Analyser av isborrkärnor visar att isblocken hade en hållfasthet som ökade med antalet brytningar och var i paritet med det ostörda istäcket i början av mars. Blocken bestod då till 70% av finkrossad is eller frusen snösörja.Isproduktionen i området med bruten is tycks vara linjärt beroende av antalet negativa graddagar där tillväxttakten uppmättes till 0,235 cm per grad och dygn. En numerisk modell för beräkning av istillväxt föreslås där frysning av issörja vid ytan och under isblock ingår. Modellen stämmer bra överens med uppmätta värden från en ränna nära hamnen som bröts kontinuerligt två gånger i veckan. Mer fältstudier av isbildning och uppbrytning är önskvärd för att öka modellens tillförlitlighet under förhållanden som skiljer sig väsentligt från de som rådde i testrännan. Samtliga mätprotokoll från ismätningarna i rännan finns bifogade i rapporten.Tillgänglig statistik visar att antalet negativa graddagar efter isläggningen i Luleå hamn vid en svår isvinter är ca 1000. Våra mätningar tyder på att det under en sådan vinter bildas 2,4 m ren is om ett vändområde används kontinuerligt. Beräkningar med den numeriska modellen resulterade i en möjlig istjocklek på 3 m under en svår vinter om medeltemperaturen är 50% kallare än under den aktuella mätperioden 2012. I nuläget klarar hamnisbrytaren Viscaria att operera och vända fartyg i bruten is motsvarande 1,4 m. Om tjockare is bildas är det väsentligt att ett nytt vändområde med ostörd is kan tas i bruk. Under en svår isvinter krävs därför att minst tre åtskilda vändområden är tillgängliga i Luleå hamn.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013. p. 87
Series
Research report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1528
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-21962 (URN)0edacec7-baba-4f82-bd72-c30e8b7292ac (Local ID)978-91-7439-815-1 (ISBN)978-91-7439-816-8 (ISBN)0edacec7-baba-4f82-bd72-c30e8b7292ac (Archive number)0edacec7-baba-4f82-bd72-c30e8b7292ac (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20131127 (frans)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Bonath, V., Patil, A., Fransson, L. & Sand, B. (2013). Laboratory testing of compressive and tensile strength on level ice and ridged ice from Svalbard region (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions: . Paper presented at International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions : 09/06/2013 - 13/06/2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory testing of compressive and tensile strength on level ice and ridged ice from Svalbard region
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Compression and tensile strength properties are important input data for constitutive modelling. Still strength properties of ridged ice are not yet sufficiently investigated. During winter 2011 and 2012 field trips were performed to the Svalbard region with the aim to investigate structure and strength of pressure ridges. Core samples from different ridges and the surrounding level ice were taken and transported to the laboratory at Luleå University of Technology. Studies on thin sections of the ice samples under cross-polarized light delivered information about internal structure of the ice. Uniaxial compressive and tensile strength tests were performed with horizontal and vertical loading directions. The experimental procedure is explained in detail. Salinity and porosity were measured for each sample. In this paper the mechanical properties obtained from the testing are documented by consideration of crystal type, ice depth and total porosity.

National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-29439 (URN)2eb9a1dc-f790-43ca-8acf-d23a5ef7be97 (Local ID)2eb9a1dc-f790-43ca-8acf-d23a5ef7be97 (Archive number)2eb9a1dc-f790-43ca-8acf-d23a5ef7be97 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions : 09/06/2013 - 13/06/2013
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20131201 (anipat)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3262-7559

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