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Vasilakos, Athanasiosorcid.org/0000-0003-1902-9877
##### Publications (10 of 203) Show all publications
Huang, M., Liu, A., Xiong, N. N., Wang, T. & Vasilakos, A. (2019). A Low-Latency Communication Scheme for Mobile Wireless Sensor Control Systems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics. Systems, 49(2), 317-332
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Low-Latency Communication Scheme for Mobile Wireless Sensor Control Systems
2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics. Systems, ISSN 2168-2216, E-ISSN 1349-2543, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 317-332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Millions of dedicated sensors are deployed in smart cities to enhance quality of urban living. Communication technologies are critical for connecting these sensors and transmitting events to sink. In control systems of mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs), mobile nodes are constantly moving to detect events, while static nodes constitute the communication infrastructure for information transmission. Therefore, how to communicate with sink quickly and effectively is an important research issue for control systems of MWSNs. In this paper, a communication scheme named first relay node selection based on fast response and multihop relay transmission with variable duty cycle (FRAVD) is proposed. The scheme can effectively reduce the network delay by combining first relay node selection with node duty cycles setting. In FRAVD scheme, first, for the first relay node selection, we propose a strategy based on fast response, that is, select the first relay node from adjacent nodes in the communication range within the shortest response time, and guarantee that the remaining energy and the distance from sink of the node are better than the average. Then for multihop data transmission of static nodes, variable duty cycle is introduced novelty, which utilizes the residual energy to improve the duty cycle of nodes in far-sink area, because nodes adopt a sleep-wake asynchronous mode, increasing the duty cycle can significantly improve network performance in terms of delays and transmission reliability. Our comprehensive performance analysis has demonstrated that compared with the communication scheme with fixed duty cycle, the FRAVD scheme reduces the network delay by 24.17%, improves the probability of finding first relay node by 17.68%, while also ensuring the network lifetime is not less than the previous researches, and is a relatively efficient low-latency communication scheme.

IEEE, 2019
##### National Category
Media and Communication Technology
##### Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68843 (URN)10.1109/TSMC.2018.2833204 (DOI)000457670800005 ()2-s2.0-85047223757 (Scopus ID)
##### Note

Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Safkhani, M. & Vasilakos, A. (2019). A New Secure Authentication Protocol for Telecare Medicine Information Systemand Smart Campus. IEEE Access, 7, 23514-23526
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Secure Authentication Protocol for Telecare Medicine Information Systemand Smart Campus
2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 23514-23526Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Telecare Medicine Information System (TMIS)'s security importance attracts a lot of attention these days. Whatever the security of TMIS improves, its application becomes wider. To address this requirement, recently, Li et al. proposed a new privacy-preserving RFID authentication protocol for TMIS. After that, Zhou et al. and also Benssalah et al. presented their scheme, which is not secure, and they presented their new authentication protocol and claim that their proposal can provide higher security for TMIS applications. In this stream, Zheng et al. proposed a novel authentication protocol with application in smart campus, including TMIS. In this paper, we present an efficient impersonation and replay attacks against Zheng et al. with the success probability of 1 and a desynchronization attack which is applicable against all of the rest three mentioned protocols with the success probability of 1-2^{-n} , where n is the protocols parameters length. After that, we proposed a new protocol despite these protocols can resist the attacks presented in this paper and also other active and passive attacks. Our proposed protocol's security is also done both informally and formally through the Scyther tool.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PISCATAWAY: IEEE, 2019
##### Keywords
Telecare medicine information system, security, authentication, residue theorem, hash function
##### National Category
Media and Communication Technology
##### Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73268 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2896641 (DOI)000460916100001 ()2-s2.0-85062725146 (Scopus ID)
##### Note

Available from: 2019-03-20 Created: 2019-03-20 Last updated: 2019-03-21Bibliographically approved
Lan, Y., Bai, K., Hung, C.-C., Alelaiwi, A. & Vasilakos, A. (2019). A Novel Definition of Equivalent Uniform Dose Based on Volume Dose Curve. IEEE Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Definition of Equivalent Uniform Dose Based on Volume Dose Curve
2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
##### Abstract [en]

With the improvement of mobile device performance, the requirement of equivalent dose description in intensity-modulated radiation therapy is increasing in mobile multimedia for health-care. The emergence of mobile cloud computing will provide cloud servers and storage for IMRT mobile applications, thus realizing visualized radiotherapy in a real sense.Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) is a biomedical indicator based on the dose measure. In this study, the dose volume histogram is used to describe the dose distribution of different tissues in target and nontarget regions. The traditional definition of equivalent uniform dose such as the exponential form and the linear form has only a few parameters in the model for fast calculation. However, there is no close relationship between this traditional definition and the dose volume histogram.In order to establish the consistency between the equivalent uniform dose and the dose volume histogram, this paper proposes a novel definition of equivalent uniform dose based on the volume dose curve, called VD-EUD. By using a unique organic volume weight curve, it is easy to calculate VD-EUD for different dose distributions. In the definition, different weight curves are used to represent the biological effects of different organs. For the target area, we should be more careful about those voxels with low dose (cold point); thus, the weight curve is monotonically decreasing. While for the nontarget area, the curve is monotonically increasing. Furthermore, we present the curves for parallel, serial and mixed organs of nontarget areas separately, and we define the weight curve form with only two parameters. Medical doctors can adjust the curve interactively according to different patients and organs. We also propose a fluence map optimization model with the VD-EUD constraint, which means the proposed EUD constraint will lead to a large feasible solution space.We compare the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) and the proposed VD-EUD by experiments, which show that the VD-EUD has a closer relationship with the dose volume histogram. If the biological survival probability is equivalent to the VD-EUD, the feasible solution space would be large, and the target areas can be covered.By establishing a personalized organic weight curve, medical doctors can have a unique VD-EUD for each patient. By using the flexible and adjustable equivalent uniform dose definition, we can establish VD-EUD-based fluence map optimization model, which will lead to a larger solution space than the traditional dose volume constraint-based model. The VD-EUD is a new definition; thus, we need more clinical testing and verification.

IEEE, 2019
##### Keywords
Biological systems, Histograms, Medical services, Biological system modeling, Cloud computing, Solid modeling
##### National Category
Media and Communication Technology
##### Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73548 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2905875 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-04-10
Wazid, M., Kumar Das, A., Kumar, N., Vasilakos, A. & Rodrigues, J. J. P. (2019). Design and Analysis of Secure Lightweight Remote User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme in Internet of Drones Deployment. IEEE Internet of Things Journal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Analysis of Secure Lightweight Remote User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme in Internet of Drones Deployment
2019 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
##### Abstract [en]

The Internet of Drones (IoD) provides a coordinated access to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that are referred as drones. The on-going miniaturization of sensors, actuators, and processors with ubiquitous wireless connectivity makes drones to be used in a wide range of applications ranging from military to civilian. Since most of the applications involved in the IoD are real-time based, the users are generally interested in accessing real-time information from drones belonging to a particular fly zone. This happens if we allow users to directly access real-time data from flying drones inside IoD environment and not from the server. This is a serious security breach which may deteriorate performance of any implemented solution in this IoD environment. To address this important issue in IoD, we propose a novel lightweight user authentication scheme in which a user in the IoD environment needs to access data directly from a drone provided that the user is authorized to access the data from that drone. The formal security verification using the broadly-accepted Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool along with informal security analysis show that our scheme is secure against several known attacks. The performance comparison demonstrates that our scheme is efficient with respect to various parameters, and it provides better security as compared to those for the related existing schemes. Finally, the practical demonstration of our scheme is done using the widely-accepted NS2 simulation.

IEEE, 2019
##### Keywords
Internet of Drones, user authentication, AVISPA, NS2 simulation, security
##### National Category
Media and Communication Technology
##### Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72766 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2018.2888821 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-02-01 Created: 2019-02-01 Last updated: 2019-02-01
Wazid, M., Kumar Das, A., Kumar, N. & Vasilakos, A. (2019). Design of secure key management and user authentication scheme for fog computing services. Future generations computer systems, 91, 475-492
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of secure key management and user authentication scheme for fog computing services
2019 (English)In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 91, p. 475-492Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Fog computing (fog networking) is known as a decentralized computing infrastructure in which data, applications, compute as well as data storage are scattered in the most logical and efficient place among the data source (i.e., smart devices) and the cloud. It gives better services than cloud computing because it has better performance with reasonably low cost. Since the cloud computing has security and privacy issues, and fog computing is an extension of cloud computing, it is therefore obvious that fog computing will inherit those security and privacy issues from cloud computing. In this paper, we design a new secure key management and user authentication scheme for fog computing environment, called SAKA-FC. SAKA-FC is efficient as it only uses the lightweight operations, such as one-way cryptographic hash function and bitwise exclusive-OR (XOR), for the smart devices as they are resource-constrained in nature. SAKA-FC is shown to be secure with the help of the formal security analysis using the broadly accepted Real-Or-Random (ROR) model, the formal security verification using the widely-used Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool and also the informal security analysis. In addition, SAKA-FC is implemented for practical demonstration using the widely-used NS2 simulator.

Elsevier, 2019
##### Keywords
Fog computing, Key management, Authentication, Services, Security, AVISPA, NS2 simulation
##### National Category
Media and Communication Technology
##### Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71007 (URN)10.1016/j.future.2018.09.017 (DOI)000451790900040 ()2-s2.0-85054039812 (Scopus ID)
##### Note

Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
Xu, X., Lu, Q., Liu, Y., Zhu, L., Yao, H. & Vasilakos, A. (2019). Designing blockchain-based applications a case study for imported product traceability. Future generations computer systems, 92, 399-406
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing blockchain-based applications a case study for imported product traceability
2019 (English)In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 92, p. 399-406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Blockchain technology enables decentralization as new forms of distributed software architectures, where components can reach agreements on the shared system states without trusting on a central integration point. Since blockchain is an emerging technology which is still at an early stage of development, there is limited experience on applying blockchain to real-world software applications. We applied blockchain application design approaches proposed in software architecture community in a real-world project called originChain, which is a blockchain-based traceability system that restructures the current system by replacing the central database with blockchain. In this paper, we share our experience of building originChain. By using blockchain and designing towards security, originChain provides transparent tamper-proof traceability data with high availability and enables automated regulatory-compliance checking and adaptation in product traceability scenarios. We also demonstrate both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the software architecture of originChain. Based on our experience and analysis, we found that the structural design of smart contracts has large impact on the quality of the system.

Elsevier, 2019
##### Keywords
Blockchain, Smart contract, Adaptability, Software architecture
##### National Category
Media and Communication Technology
##### Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71483 (URN)10.1016/j.future.2018.10.010 (DOI)000454370600034 ()2-s2.0-85055626212 (Scopus ID)
##### Note

Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2019-03-27Bibliographically approved
Sakr, S., Zomaya, A. & Vasilakos, A. (2019). Editorial for Special issue of FGCS special issue on “Benchmarking big data systems”. Future generations computer systems, 96, 32-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial for Special issue of FGCS special issue on “Benchmarking big data systems”
2019 (English)In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 96, p. 32-34Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Even though several big data processing and analytics systems have been introduced with various design architectures, we are still lacking a deeper understanding of the performance characteristics for the various design architectures in addition to lacking comprehensive benchmarks for the various Big Data platforms. There is a crucial need to conduct fundamental research with a more comprehensive performance evaluation for the various Big Data processing systems and architectures. We also lack the availability of validation tools, standard benchmarks, and system performance prediction methods that can help us have a deeper and more solid understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the various Big Data processing platforms. This special issue is dedicated to original results and achievements by active researchers, designers, and developers working on various issues and challenges related to big data research.

Elsevier, 2019
##### National Category
Media and Communication Technology
##### Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72966 (URN)10.1016/j.future.2019.02.001 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061273818 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Wu, W., Wang, W., Fang, X., Junzhou, L. & Vasilakos, A. (2019). Electricity Price-aware Consolidation Algorithms for Time-sensitive VM Services in Cloud Systems. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electricity Price-aware Consolidation Algorithms for Time-sensitive VM Services in Cloud Systems
2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, ISSN 1939-1374, E-ISSN 1939-1374Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
##### Abstract [en]

Despite the salient feature of cloud computing, the cloud provider still suffers from electricity bill, which mainly comes from 1) the power consumption of running physical machines and 2) the dynamically varying electricity price offered by smart grids. In the literature, there exist viable solutions adaptive to electricity price variation to reduce the electricity bill. However, they are not applicable to serving time-sensitive VM requests. In serving time-sensitive VM requests, it is potential for the cloud provider to apply proper consolidation strategies to further reduce the electricity bill. In this work, to address this challenge, we develop electricity-price-aware consolidation algorithms for both the offline and online scenarios. For the offline scenario, we first develop an consolidation algorithm with constant approximation, which always approaches the optimal solution within a constant factor of 5. For the online scenario, we propose an $O(\log(\frac{L_{max}}{L_{min}}))$ -competitive algorithm that is able to approach the optimal offline solution within a logarithmic factor, where $\frac{L_{max}}{L_{min}}$ is the ratio of the longest length of the processing time requirement of VMs to the shortest one. Our trace-driven simulation results further demonstrate that the average performance of the proposed algorithms produce near-optimal electricity bill.

IEEE, 2019
##### Keywords
Cloud computing, Approximation algorithms, Data centers, Resource management, Quality of service, Power demand, Virtual machining
##### National Category
Media and Communication Technology
##### Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73551 (URN)10.1109/TSC.2019.2894742 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-04-10
Fu, Z., Huang, F., Sun, X. & Vasilakos, A. (2019). Enabling Semantic Search based on ConceptualGraphs over Encrypted Outsourced Data. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling Semantic Search based on ConceptualGraphs over Encrypted Outsourced Data
2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, ISSN 1939-1374, E-ISSN 1939-1374Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
##### Abstract [en]

Currently, searchable encryption is a hot topic in the field of cloud computing. The existing achievements are mainly focused on keyword-based search schemes, and almost all of them depend on predefined keywords extracted in the phases of index construction and query. However, keyword-based search schemes ignore the semantic representation information of users’ retrieval and cannot completely match users’ search intention. Therefore, how to design a content-based search scheme and make semantic search more effective and context-aware is a difficult challenge. In this paper, for the first time, we define and solve the problems of semantic search based on conceptual graphs(CGs) over encrypted outsourced data in clouding computing (SSCG).We firstly employ the efficient measure of ”sentence scoring” in text summarization and Tregex to extract the most important and simplified topic sentences from documents. We then convert these simplified sentences into CGs. To perform quantitative calculation of CGs, we design a new method that can map CGs to vectors. Next, we rank the returned results based on ”text summarization score”. Furthermore, we propose a basic idea for SSCG and give a significantly improved scheme to satisfy the security guarantee of searchable symmetric encryption (SSE). Finally, we choose a real-world dataset – ie., the CNN dataset to test our scheme. The results obtained from the experiment show the effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

IEEE, 2019
##### Keywords
Searchable encryption, cloud computing, ranked search, semantic search, conceptual graphs
##### National Category
Media and Communication Technology
##### Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62874 (URN)10.1109/TSC.2016.2622697 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-04-04 Created: 2017-04-04 Last updated: 2019-03-18
Sun, G., Li, Y., Yu, H., Vasilakos, A., Du, X. & Guizani, M. (2019). Energy-efficient and traffic-aware service function chaining orchestration in multi-domain networks. Future generations computer systems, 91, 347-360
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-efficient and traffic-aware service function chaining orchestration in multi-domain networks
2019 (English)In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 91, p. 347-360Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Service function chaining (SFC) provisioning is helpful not only for saving the capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) of a network provider but also for reducing energy consumption in the substrate network. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been little research on the problem of energy consumption for orchestrating online SFC requests in multi-domain networks. In this paper, we first formulate the problem of an energy-efficient online SFC request that is orchestrated across multiple clouds as an integer linear programming (ILP) model to find an optimal solution. Then, we analyze the complexity of this ILP model and prove that the problem is NP-hard. Additionally, we propose a low-complexity heuristic algorithm named energy-efficient online SFC request orchestration across multiple domains (EE-SFCO-MD) for near-optimally solving the mentioned problem. Finally, we conduct simulation experiments to evaluate the performance of our algorithm. Simulation results show that EE-SFCO-MD consumes less energy than existing approaches while the online SFC’s requirements are met and the privacy of each cloud is effectively guaranteed. The low computational complexity of the heuristic approach makes it applicable for quickly responding to online SFC requests.

Elsevier, 2019
##### Keywords
Service function chaining, Orchestration, Energy efficiency, Multi-domain networks
##### National Category
Media and Communication Technology
##### Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71011 (URN)10.1016/j.future.2018.09.037 (DOI)000451790900029 ()2-s2.0-85053801008 (Scopus ID)