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Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Sissakian, V., Laue, J. & Knutsson, S. (2019). Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood WaveRetention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology. Engineering, 11(4), 189-205
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood WaveRetention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology
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2019 (English)In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 189-205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Badush Dam is a partially completed dam and a unique case of flood reten- tion dams. Its intended main function is to perform flood protection once in its lifetime; that is if Mosul Dam would collapse. In such a case, the Badush dam would temporarily store the whole flood wave and route it safely to the downstream. For this end, the bulk of the reservoir is left dry, while the re- maining  volume  at  the  lower  part  which  is  intended  for  power  eneration does  not  give  an  economic  justification  for  building  the  full  height  of  the dam. The short duration of the intended use as a protection dam has led to relaxing many design assumptions which have raised concerns over the dam integrity.  The  current  controversy  rages  now  over  whether  to  continue  the construction of the dam as it was first designed or to change all that in view of the similar site geology of Mosul Dam. Mosul dam foundations suffer at the moment from the severe continuous dissolution of the soluble materials in its foundation  leading  to  continued  maintenance  grouting  of  that  foundation. This paper gives an overview of the history of Badush dam, its current design and what new equirements which are needed if it is to replace Mosul Damitself.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: Scientific Research Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Badush Dam, Mosul Dam, Flood Retention Dam Dry Dam, Foundation
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73608 (URN)10.4236/eng.2019.114014 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Hussain, H. M., Laue, J., Hazim, A., Knutsson, S. & Pusch, R. (2019). Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of ChangeDetection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Environmental science and pollution research international
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of ChangeDetection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq
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2019 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2019
Keywords
MCDM, Change Detection, RSW, AHP, Landfill siting
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73400 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-04-17Bibliographically approved
Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Sissakian, V., Laue, J. & Knutsson, S. (2019). Mosul Dam: Geology and Safety Concerns. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 13(3), 151-177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mosul Dam: Geology and Safety Concerns
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 151-177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam located on the River Tigris northern part of Iraq. The capacity of its reservoir is 11.11 billion cubic meters which makes it the fourth biggest dam in the Middle East. From geological perspective, the dam is located on double plunging anticlines. The rocks of the site are mainly composed of highly jointed and karistified alternating beds of limestones, gysum and marls, since the impoundment of the reservoir seepage of water was recognized under the foundation of the dam. To stop or minimize the seepage, intensive grouting operations were conducted. Recent investigations and evaluation of the conditions of the dam indicate that it is in a critical situation. In this paper, consequences of the dam failure are discussed and possible solutions are given.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: David Publishing Company, 2019
Keywords
Mosul Dam, karst, infiltration, dam foundation, dam failure.
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73526 (URN)10.17265/1934-7359/2019.03.001 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-04-15 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-04-09 Created: 2019-04-09 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Chabuk, A., Al-Ansari, N., Laue, J., Alkaradaghi, K., Hussain, H. M. & Knutsson, S. (2018). Application of the HELP Model for Landfill Design in AridAreas: Case Study Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 12(12), 848-879
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of the HELP Model for Landfill Design in AridAreas: Case Study Babylon Governorate, Iraq
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 848-879Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The landfill design is necessary to be implemented in various regions to protect public human health and the factors ofenvironment. The suggested design of landfill was performed in the arid areas, where that Babylon Governorate, Iraq was selected as a case study. Babylon overnorate is located in the middle of Iraq. The suggested design for the selected sites for landfill in the arid areas was consisted of the base liner and final cover systems. The HELP 3.95D model was applied on both systems to check if there is any leakage by leachate from the suggested soil layers of landfill base on the water balance in Babylon Governorate for the years 2005-2016. The suggested design of final cover system was implemented based on weather parameters in the arid areas through storing water that coming from the surface within upper layers that have fine particles and over the top barrier without leakage into the waste body, thereby preventing leachate generation. This is  allowing to the stored water to evaporate from the surface of soil or transpire through vegetation due to the high temperature during the most months in the study area. The results showed there was no percolation of leachate through the base liner system. The design of final cover system was acted to reduce the runoff on the surface and increase theactual evaporation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: David Publishing Company, 2018
Keywords
Landfill design, arid areas, soil layers, solid waste, HELP model
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72943 (URN)10.17265/1934-7359/2018.12.003 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-03-08 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-04-01Bibliographically approved
Jia, Q. & Laue, J. (2018). Direct Simple Shear Tests on Swedish Tailings. In: Proceedings of China-Europe Conference on Geotechnical Engineering: . Paper presented at China-Europe Conference on Geotechnical Engineering, Vienna, Austria, August 13-16 2018 (pp. 538-541). Cham: Springer, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct Simple Shear Tests on Swedish Tailings
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of China-Europe Conference on Geotechnical Engineering, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 538-541Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Tailings is a waste stream produced by mining industry. It is often stored on the surface in a retaining structure, called tailing impoundment surrounded by tailing dams. Strength property of tailings is important for safety of tailings dam construction. In this study, direct simple shear tests were performed on two Swedish tailings from Malmberget mine and Svappaavare mine in Northern Sweden. The apparatus used is NGI direct simple shear apparatus. The estimated maximal friction angle from shear tests ranged from 15.9 to 24.3°, with cohesions from 0‐16.3 kPa. One phenomenon noticed was that for tailings the sample height started decrease after dilatancy. In order to know whether this is a material property, or it is due to the defect of the simple shear apparatus, a series of shear tests were done on Kalix sand. The result showed that this phenomenon happened also to the densely compacted sand, though more rarely. The decreased sample height after reaching the peak values is assumed to be related to both particle breakage and the deficiency of the shear apparatus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018
Series
Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering, ISSN 1866-8755
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70309 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-97112-4_120 (DOI)978-3-319-97111-7 (ISBN)978-3-319-97112-4 (ISBN)
Conference
China-Europe Conference on Geotechnical Engineering, Vienna, Austria, August 13-16 2018
Available from: 2018-08-09 Created: 2018-08-09 Last updated: 2018-08-09Bibliographically approved
Silva, I., Viklander, P. & Laue, J. (2018). Effects of Void Ratio and Hydraulic Gradient on Permeability and Suffusion of Glacial Till Cores. In: Stéphane Bonelli, Cristina Jommi, Donatella Sterpi (Ed.), Internal Erosion in Earthdams, Dikes and Levees: Proceedings of EWG‐IE 26th Annual Meeting 2018. Paper presented at European Working Group on Internal Erosion, Milan, Italy, 10-13 September 2018 (pp. 98-109). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Void Ratio and Hydraulic Gradient on Permeability and Suffusion of Glacial Till Cores
2018 (English)In: Internal Erosion in Earthdams, Dikes and Levees: Proceedings of EWG‐IE 26th Annual Meeting 2018 / [ed] Stéphane Bonelli, Cristina Jommi, Donatella Sterpi, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 98-109Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Dams with core of broadly graded glacial moraines (tills) exhibit signs of internal erosion by suffusion to a larger extent than dams constructed with other types of materials, as reported by Sherard (1979). Garner and Fannin (2010) indicated that internal erosion initiates when an unfavorable combination of soil material, stress conditions and hydraulic load occur. A laboratory program, carried out at Luleå University of Technology (LTU), aims to study the effects of void ratio and hydraulic gradient on the initiation of suffusion of glacial till. It consists of suffusion tests conducted in permeameters with an inner diameter 101.6 mm and a height of 115 mm. Results show, as expected, that the hydraulic conductivity is lower with lower void ratio. Nevertheless, as the hydraulic gradient increases, the hydraulic conductivity reaches steady values. Changes in the hydraulic conductivity suggest variation in the initial void ratio due to detachment of the finer particles from the soil matrix. These fine particles start clogging the lower layers, therefore the rate of water flow decreases and so does the hydraulic conductivity. The hydraulic gradient for which the hydraulic conductivity reaches steady values is considered as the upper limit without suffusion evolved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70716 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99423-9_10 (DOI)978-3-319-99422-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-99423-9 (ISBN)
Conference
European Working Group on Internal Erosion, Milan, Italy, 10-13 September 2018
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Alkaradaghi, K., Ali, S. S., Al-Ansari, N. & Laue, J. (2018). Evaluation of Land Use & Land Cover Change Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Imagery: A Case Study Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq. Journal of Geographic Information System, 10(6), 247-260
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Land Use & Land Cover Change Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Imagery: A Case Study Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq
2018 (English)In: Journal of Geographic Information System, ISSN 2151-1950, E-ISSN 2151-1969, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 247-260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Land use & land cover change detection in rapid growth urbanized area have been studied by many researchers and there are many works on this topic. Commonly, settlement sprawl in area depends on many factors such as economic prosperity and population growth. Iraq is one of the countries which witnessed rapid development in the settlement area. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) are analytical software technologies to evaluate this familiar worldwide phenomenon. This study illustrates settlement development in Sulaimaniyah Governorate from 2001 to 2017 using Landsat satellite imageries of different periods. All images had been classified using remote sensing software in order to proceed powerful mapping of land use classification. Maximum likelihood method is used in the accurately extracted solution information from geospatial imagery. Landsat images from the study area were categorized into four different classes. These are: forest, vegetation, soil, and settlement. Change detection analysis results illustrate that in the face of an explosive demographic shift in the settlement area where the record + 8.99 percent which is equivalent to 51.80 Km2 over a 16-year period and settlement area increasing from 3.87 percent in 2001 to 12.86 percent in 2017. Accuracy assessment model was used to evaluate (LULC) classified images. Accuracy results show an overall accuracy of 78.83% to 90.09% from 2001 to 2017 respectively while convincing results of Kappa coefficient given between substantial and almost perfect agreements. This study will help decision-makers in urban plan for future city development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2018
Keywords
Settlement Expansion, Geographic Information System (GIS), Land Use Land
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69666 (URN)10.4236/jgis.2018.103013 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 1;2018-06-19 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-06-19 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Sissakian, V., Adamo, N., Al-Ansari, N., Knutsson, S. & Laue, J. (2018). Geological and Geotechnical Study of Badush Dam, Iraq. In: : . Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), WAT2018, Article ID 2546.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geological and Geotechnical Study of Badush Dam, Iraq
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed) [Artistic work]
Abstract [en]

Badush Dam is a combined earthfill and concrete buttress dam; uncompleted, it is planned to be a protection dam downstream of Mosul Dam, which impounds the Tigris River. Mosul Dam is also an earthfill dam; it is the largest dam in Iraq. The safety of Mosul Dam is a matter of debate since its commissioning in 1986. This is attributed to the geological conditions at the dam site are not suitable due to thick exposures of karstified gypsum rocks, which extend

, deep down, into the foundations. Therefore, Badush Dam was planned and designed to protect the population and present infrastructures downstream of Mosul Dam, if the latter would collapse. The geological conditions at Badush Dam site are similar to those at Mosul Dam site, which means; the foundations of the dam, are located on karstified gypsum beds also. Grouting works were planned and designed, and they were partly performed simultaneously with the beginning of the construction of Badush Dam in 1988 and continued until the suspension of the construction in 1991. The constructed parts attained about (30 – 40)% of the work items. The design of the Badush Dam indicates clearly the temporary nature of its use, which is reflected in the thin inclined clay core and other embankment details. The basic design considerations of the dam were to have a dam, which is high enough to contain the full volume of Mosul Dam wave of 10 X 109 m3 when routed through its reservoir, and to limit at the same time the released discharge within the capacity across the downstream reach of the river without causing flooding. In this study, we have presented and discussed the geological and engineering geological conditions; whether Badush Dam can function as a protection dam or can it be remodeled to become a normal storage dam to replace Mosul Dam.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), 2018
Series
Atiner Conference Paper Series, ISSN 2241-2891
Keywords
Collapse of Dam, Grouting, Karstification
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71086 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-10-19
Knutsson, R., Viklander, P., Knutsson, S. & Laue, J. (2018). How to avoid permafrost while depositing tailings in cold climate. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 153, 86-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to avoid permafrost while depositing tailings in cold climate
2018 (English)In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 153, p. 86-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Managing tailings deposition in cold climate requires specific measures not to create permafrost. The risk of generating permafrost due to tailings deposition exists even in regions where permafrost would naturally not occur. Material being frozen during winter might not fully thaw in the following summer due to added height of the tailings on the surface. Such embedded layers of permafrost should be avoided especially close to tailing dams. Main reasons are to prevent impermeable layers in tailings facilities, and to reduce the risk of having implications if such layers thaw during warmer summers causing increase in pore water pressure, reduced effective stress, and increased water content.

This paper presents a numerical study on the effects of tailings deposition in cold regions in relation to the potential formation of permafrost. Various deposition rates, schedules and tailings properties were evaluated. One-dimensional heat conduction analyses were performed with a temperature scenario representing a mine district in northern Sweden. Results show, that the thickness of permafrost layers increase with increased deposition rate and with increased water content. It was also shown that wet and loose tailings must be deposited in short periods during summer to avoid permafrost generation. In the case of dry and dense tailings more time is available for deposition in order not to cause aggradation of permafrost in the deposit.

These findings can help mining operation to set up deposition schedules for tailings facilities in cold climate. For known tailings properties, results can be used to identify periods of the year when, and how much, tailings can be deposited in critical areas of a deposit in order to avoid permafrost formation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68963 (URN)10.1016/j.coldregions.2018.05.009 (DOI)000439349800010 ()2-s2.0-85047628128 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-04 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-08-09Bibliographically approved
Dagli, D., Zeinali, A., Gren, P. & Laue, J. (2018). Image analyses of frost heave mechanisms based on freezing tests with free access to water. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 146, 187-198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Image analyses of frost heave mechanisms based on freezing tests with free access to water
2018 (English)In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 146, p. 187-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A freezing test apparatus was supplemented with a camera to allow for recording and monitoring one-dimensional freezing tests to analyze the development of ice lenses via particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the laboratory. Two tests on disturbed, partially saturated samples of silt loam were conducted. Image recording and correlation analyses provided detailed information about frost front penetration and ice lens formation(s) under varying temperature boundary conditions. Thawing has also been regarded in further studies.

Results of the image analyses were compared to readings from conventional displacement measurements during the same test. Significant agreement between the results of image analyses and displacement measurements has been found. Test results were also used to establish a qualitative relationship between heat extraction and heave rates. Advantages and disadvantages of utilizing image analysis methods were discussed. Potential remedies for overcoming the drawbacks of using image analysis are suggested.

Image analysis is shown to be a viable method in further understanding of frost heave mechanisms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Soil Mechanics; Experimental Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66263 (URN)10.1016/j.coldregions.2017.10.019 (DOI)000423963300021 ()
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2017-12-21 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-10-25 Created: 2017-10-25 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1935-1743

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