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Eriksson, Ingemar
Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Eriksson, I., Powell, J. & Kaplan, A. (2014). Surface tension generated defects in full penetration laser keyhole welding (ed.). Paper presented at . Journal of laser applications, 26(1), Article ID 12006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface tension generated defects in full penetration laser keyhole welding
2014 (English)In: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, E-ISSN 1938-1387, Vol. 26, no 1, article id 12006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During laser keyhole welding of thin plates the melt pool is relatively wide compared to the plate thickness. Under certain conditions an elongated keyhole can be created and a permanent hole is sometimes left in the weld seam. The generation of such holes is determined by surface tension effects in the melt which can generate a self sustaining geometry at the rear of the melt pool. The geometry of the shape is known as a catenoid and has clear geometrical limits.

National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-4216 (URN)10.2351/1.4830175 (DOI)000345681000006 ()2-s2.0-84891722126 (Scopus ID)221fe57a-44b0-4f84-bf02-08f5236fd04e (Local ID)221fe57a-44b0-4f84-bf02-08f5236fd04e (Archive number)221fe57a-44b0-4f84-bf02-08f5236fd04e (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20130416 (ingeri)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, I., Powell, J. & Kaplan, A. (2013). Guidelines in the choice of parameters for hybrid laser arc welding with fiber lasers (ed.). Paper presented at Lasers in Manufacturing 2013 : 13/05/2013 - 16/05/2013. Physics Procedia, 41, 119-127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guidelines in the choice of parameters for hybrid laser arc welding with fiber lasers
2013 (English)In: Physics Procedia, ISSN 1875-3892, E-ISSN 1875-3892, Vol. 41, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Laser arc hybrid welding has been a promising technology for three decades and laser welding in combination with gas metal arc welding (GMAW) has shown that it is an extremely promising technique. On the other hand the process is often considered complicated and difficult to set up correctly. An important factor in setting up the hybrid welding process is an understanding of the GMAW process. It is especially important to understand how the wire feed rate and the arc voltage (the two main parameters) affect the process. In this paper the authors show that laser hybrid welding with a 1 μm laser is similar to ordinary GMAW, and several guidelines are therefore inherited by the laser hybrid process.

National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-38002 (URN)10.1016/j.phpro.2013.03.059 (DOI)000321039300016 ()2-s2.0-84902263721 (Scopus ID)c3d76924-9345-4bac-9f83-61d604d52b25 (Local ID)c3d76924-9345-4bac-9f83-61d604d52b25 (Archive number)c3d76924-9345-4bac-9f83-61d604d52b25 (OAI)
Conference
Lasers in Manufacturing 2013 : 13/05/2013 - 16/05/2013
Note
Validerad; 2013; 20130410 (andbra); Konferensartikel i tidskriftAvailable from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, I. (2013). High speed imaging analysis of laser welding (ed.). (Doctoral dissertation). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High speed imaging analysis of laser welding
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Undersökande höghastighetsfilmning av lasersvetsning
Abstract [en]

Laser welding is often considered a new and exotic manufacturing method even though it has been used in industrial applications for nearly fifty years. In the early years only a few special applications justified the high investment cost involved, but as the price of the laser sources has reduced, industrial interest in laser welding has increased. As different weld situations have appeared, involving new materials etc. there is an increasing need to understand the weld process on a fundamental level, especially for the newer, high power and high quality 1μm laser sources (Disk laser, Fiber laser). Laser welding sometimes involves production limitations that are caused by the process itself, not the laser source. Weld defects such as humping or severe spattering can make the weld quality unacceptable and more knowledge of the physics involved in defect generation is needed. In this thesis high speed imaging is used as a method of acquiring fundamental knowledge about laser welding. Modern digital high speed cameras in combination with powerful laser illumination provide a clear and detailed view of the actual weld process. The information in these high speed videos provides a possibility to see how the process behaves. Just as a slow motion goal camera helps the referees to rule accurately in an athletic event, the high speed cameras can help laser welding researchers to improve their fundamental understanding. This thesis is composed of seven publications in scientific journals which are thematically linked by their focus on high speed imaging analysis of laser welding. In two shorter letters, new measurement methods are presented. In the first case a streak image method is utilized to measure the fluid flow velocity on the keyhole front, and in the second a pulsed digital holography method was employed to measure deformation during laser spot welding. The streak image method is further developed in two subsequent papers to confirm and quantify the downward flow on the keyhole front during high speed welding. In the three additional papers both new and previously known laser welding phenomena are analyzed by high speed imaging. The first of these papers discusses the correlation between the size of the vapor plume above the keyhole and the signal acquired by a commercial “laser weld monitoring” system. The next paper gives practical guidelines on how to choose parameters in a laser hybrid welding system, and the final paper discusses conditions under which surface tension effects can produce a self-sustaining hole in the melt pool that might produce defects in the weld.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013. p. 123
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Materials science - Other processing/assembly, Laser welding, Teknisk materialvetenskap - Övrig bearbetning/sammanfogning
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-18780 (URN)a45ab40b-58ae-438f-bd7e-c7623cc0c8c0 (Local ID)a45ab40b-58ae-438f-bd7e-c7623cc0c8c0 (Archive number)a45ab40b-58ae-438f-bd7e-c7623cc0c8c0 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20130416 (ingeri); Tillkännagivande disputation 2013-05-16 Nedanstående person kommer att disputera för avläggande av teknologie doktorsexamen. Namn: Ingemar Eriksson Ämne: Produktionsutveckling/Manufacturing Systems Engineering Avhandling: High Speed Imaging Analysis of Laser Welding Opponent: Professor William O’Neill, Institute of Manufacturing, University of Cambridge, England Ordförande: Professor Alexander Kaplan, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Luleå tekniska universitet Tid: Onsdag den 5 juni 2013, kl 09.00 Plats: E632, Luleå tekniska universitetAvailable from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Sundqvist, J., Eriksson, I., Kaplan, A., Keskitalo, M. & Mentyjärvi, K. (2013). Influence of the metallurgy on fatigue crack propagation in welded high strength steel joints (ed.). In: (Ed.), Alexander Kaplan; Hans Engström (Ed.), 14th NOLAMP Conference: The 14th Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference, August 26th – 28th 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden. Paper presented at Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference : 26/08/2013 - 28/08/2013 (pp. 25-35). Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of the metallurgy on fatigue crack propagation in welded high strength steel joints
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2013 (English)In: 14th NOLAMP Conference: The 14th Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference, August 26th – 28th 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden / [ed] Alexander Kaplan; Hans Engström, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013, p. 25-35Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A literature study of high strength steels, fatigue and fatigue assessment of welds has beenconducted and is briefly presented in this paper together with experiments on fatigue crackgrowth rates of laser welded high strength steel. It is well-known that the fatigue life ofwelded joints is heavily dependent upon the surface geometry and welding defects because ofcrack initiation from the high stress concentrations associated with these types of weldingflaws. However, the crack propagation through different weld zones of laser-welded highstrength steels and the corresponding impact from the metallurgy is not fully understood.The experiments comprise three-point bending fatigue tests on laser-welded highstrength steel with machined surfaces. Measurement of the fatigue crack propagation ratetransverse the weld and hence through the different metallurgy and hardness of the heataffected zone and of the weld can contain information on the impact of the metallurgy on thecrack propagation speed. The influence of different high strength steel grades and of differentwelding parameters on the crack propagation and fatigue life is discussed

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-38678 (URN)d226fbd6-5b41-43a2-a282-83e49280c3e5 (Local ID)978-91-7439-688-1 (ISBN)978-91-7439-689-8 (ISBN)d226fbd6-5b41-43a2-a282-83e49280c3e5 (Archive number)d226fbd6-5b41-43a2-a282-83e49280c3e5 (OAI)
Conference
Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference : 26/08/2013 - 28/08/2013
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20131210 (andbra)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Sundqvist, J., Eriksson, I., Kaplan, A., Keskitalo, M., Mäntyjärvi, K., Granström, J. & Sundin, K.-G. (2013). Measuring the influence of laser welding on fatigue crack propagation in high strength steel (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), ICALEO, 32nd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics: October 6-10, 2013, Hyatt Regency Miami, Miami, FL USA. Orlando, Fl.: Laser institute of America
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring the influence of laser welding on fatigue crack propagation in high strength steel
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2013 (English)In: ICALEO, 32nd International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics: October 6-10, 2013, Hyatt Regency Miami, Miami, FL USA, Orlando, Fl.: Laser institute of America , 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Orlando, Fl.: Laser institute of America, 2013
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering; Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-32582 (URN)71e189df-916a-46ad-b3dd-d218b42014d4 (Local ID)978-0-912035-98-7 (ISBN)71e189df-916a-46ad-b3dd-d218b42014d4 (Archive number)71e189df-916a-46ad-b3dd-d218b42014d4 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20151117 (jessun)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, I., Kaplan, A. & Powell, J. (2013). Melt behavior on the keyhole front during high speed laser welding (ed.). Paper presented at . Optics and lasers in engineering, 51(6), 735-740
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Melt behavior on the keyhole front during high speed laser welding
2013 (English)In: Optics and lasers in engineering, ISSN 0143-8166, E-ISSN 1873-0302, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 735-740Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The flow of molten metal on the front wall of a laser generated welding keyhole has been observed by high speed photography, optically measured by mapping the flow of ripples on the liquid surface and theoretically calculated. A clear downward flow can be observed and measured by a Particle Image Velocimetry algorithm. A theoretical calculation of the melt thickness on the keyhole front is also presented. Results indicate that the thickness of the liquid on the keyhole front is similar to that of the resolidified layer found in micrographs of the front if the laser is suddenly turned off. The measured surface ripple flow speeds are between two and four times as high as the theoretical average fluid flow rate.

National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-4447 (URN)10.1016/j.optlaseng.2013.01.008 (DOI)000316528900010 ()2-s2.0-84875278005 (Scopus ID)263f5b3e-0da3-4c03-a6ac-0d580ad2acbf (Local ID)263f5b3e-0da3-4c03-a6ac-0d580ad2acbf (Archive number)263f5b3e-0da3-4c03-a6ac-0d580ad2acbf (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2013; 20130211 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Haglund, P., Eriksson, I., Powell, J. & Kaplan, A. (2013). Surface tension stabilized laser welding (donut laser welding): A new laser welding technique (ed.). Paper presented at . Journal of laser applications, 25(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface tension stabilized laser welding (donut laser welding): A new laser welding technique
2013 (English)In: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, E-ISSN 1938-1387, Vol. 25, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new laser welding process is presented which delivers a porosity free, spatter free weld. The process involves a donut shaped melt with a central hole of the same order of magnitude as the material thickness. The laser illuminates only the leading section of this melt. The hole is kept open by the melt surface tension.

National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13697 (URN)10.2351/1.4798219 (DOI)000322535700001 ()2-s2.0-84877247296 (Scopus ID)cf936747-f126-4872-a25f-84616458ee4d (Local ID)cf936747-f126-4872-a25f-84616458ee4d (Archive number)cf936747-f126-4872-a25f-84616458ee4d (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2013; 20130416 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Keskitalo, M., Mentyjärvi, K., Sundqvist, J., Eriksson, I. & Kaplan, A. (2013). The influence of shielding gas on the properties of laser welded stainless steel (ed.). In: (Ed.), Alexander Kaplan; Hans Engström (Ed.), 14th NOLAMP Conference: The 14th Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference, August 26th – 28th 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden. Paper presented at Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference : 26/08/2013 - 28/08/2013 (pp. 155-161). Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of shielding gas on the properties of laser welded stainless steel
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2013 (English)In: 14th NOLAMP Conference: The 14th Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference, August 26th – 28th 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden / [ed] Alexander Kaplan; Hans Engström, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013, p. 155-161Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Argon is generally used as shielding gas for laser welding. As Argon is an inert gas it doesnot have influence on the microstructure of the weld material or on the heat input of the weld,whereas nitrogen has solubility to austenite. Therefore nitrogen as an interstitial atomincreases the hardness of the weld. This has been detected when comparing the hardnessprofiles of nitrogen shielded welds of austenitic stainless steel with Argon shielded welds.Nitrogen as the shielding gas can compensate the softer structure of the weld in workhardenedand nitrogen-alloyed steels.For the duplex stainless steel grades the nitrogen additions promote formation ofaustenite in the weld, which decreases the risk of lowered toughness. In this study theinfluence of nitrogen shielding gas on the strength of the laser weld has been examined. Thestrength of laser welds of nitrogen alloyed work-hardened stainless steel seems to be slightlybetter when using nitrogen shielding gas compared to welds for argon shielding gas. It hasalso been verified that nitrogen as shielding gas decreases the risk of weak toughness of laserwelded duplex stainless steel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28298 (URN)20cebdf2-acda-4ff3-89a2-bf12460b5daa (Local ID)978-91-7439-688-1 (ISBN)978-91-7439-689-8 (ISBN)20cebdf2-acda-4ff3-89a2-bf12460b5daa (Archive number)20cebdf2-acda-4ff3-89a2-bf12460b5daa (OAI)
Conference
Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference : 26/08/2013 - 28/08/2013
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20131210 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, I., Haglund, P., Powell, J., Sjödahl, M. & Kaplan, A. (2012). Holographic measurement of thermal distortion during laser spot welding (ed.). Paper presented at . Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, 51(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Holographic measurement of thermal distortion during laser spot welding
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2012 (English)In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 51, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Welding distortion is an important engineering topic for simulation and modeling, and there is a need for experimental verification of such models by experimental studies. High-speed pulsed digital holography is proposed as a measurement technique for out-of-plane welding distortion. To demonstrate the capability of this technique, measurements from a laser spot weld are presented. A complete twodimensional deformation map with submicrometer accuracy was acquired at a rate of 1000 measurements per second. From this map, particular points of interest can be extracted for analysis of the temporal development of the final distortion geometry.

National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering; Experimental Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-10878 (URN)10.1117/1.OE.51.3.030501 (DOI)000302780500002 ()2-s2.0-84858667516 (Scopus ID)9c2d5f12-1aa9-4ef8-970c-caa818a3b92c (Local ID)9c2d5f12-1aa9-4ef8-970c-caa818a3b92c (Archive number)9c2d5f12-1aa9-4ef8-970c-caa818a3b92c (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2012; 20120410 (ingeri)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Kaplan, A., Soldatov, A., Noël, M., Norman, P., Eriksson, I., Powell, J., . . . Baughman, R. (2012). Incorporation of CNT-yarns into metals by laser melting of powder (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), 31st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (ICALEO) Proceedings: . Paper presented at International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics : 23/09/2012 - 27/09/2012 (pp. 1239-1246). : Laser institute of America
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incorporation of CNT-yarns into metals by laser melting of powder
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2012 (English)In: 31st International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (ICALEO) Proceedings, Laser institute of America , 2012, p. 1239-1246Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Laser institute of America, 2012
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering; Experimental physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-38373 (URN)cbf32c4a-32df-469e-b601-d2e84c7b1ede (Local ID)978-0-912035-96-3 (ISBN)cbf32c4a-32df-469e-b601-d2e84c7b1ede (Archive number)cbf32c4a-32df-469e-b601-d2e84c7b1ede (OAI)
Conference
International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics : 23/09/2012 - 27/09/2012
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20130513 (maxnoe)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
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