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Carvalho, Lara
Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Carvalho, L., Furusjö, E., Ma, C., Ji, X., Lundgren, J., Hedlund, J., . . . Wetterlund, E. (2018). Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning: Part 2: Techno-economic analysis. Energy, 165(Part B), 471-482
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning: Part 2: Techno-economic analysis
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2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 165, no Part B, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has shown that alkali addition has operational advantages in entrained flow biomass gasification and allows for capture of up to 90% of the biomass sulfur in the slag phase. The resultant low-sulfur content syngas can create new possibilities for syngas cleaning processes. The aim was to assess the techno-economic performance of biofuel production via gasification of alkali impregnated biomass using a novel gas cleaning systemcomprised of (i) entrained flow catalytic gasification with in situ sulfur removal, (ii) further sulfur removal using a zinc bed, (iii) tar removal using a carbon filter, and (iv) CO2 reductionwith zeolite membranes, in comparison to the expensive acid gas removal system (Rectisol technology). The results show that alkali impregnation increases methanol productionallowing for selling prices similar to biofuel production from non-impregnated biomass. It was concluded that the methanol production using the novel cleaning system is comparable to the Rectisol technology in terms of energy efficiency, while showing an economic advantagederived from a methanol selling price reduction of 2–6 €/MWh. The results showed a high level of robustness to changes related to prices and operation. Methanol selling prices could be further reduced by choosing low sulfur content feedstocks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Biomass gasification, Catalysis, Entrained-flowBio-methanol, Techno-economic analysis
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering Chemical Process Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering; Chemical Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68206 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.09.159 (DOI)000455171600039 ()2-s2.0-85056197830 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-12-03 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
Furusjö, E., Ma, C., Ji, X., Carvalho, L., Lundgren, J. & Wetterlund, E. (2018). Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning: Part 1: Gasifier performance. Energy, 157, 96-105
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning: Part 1: Gasifier performance
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2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 157, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research shows that alkali addition in entrained flow biomass gasification can increase char conversion and decrease tar and soot formation through catalysis. This paper investigates two other potential benefits of alkali addition: increased slag flowability and in situ sulfur capture.

Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that addition of 2–8% alkali catalyst to biomass completely changes the chemical domain of the gasifier slag phase to an alkali carbonate melt with low viscosity. This can increase feedstock flexibility and improve the operability of an entrained flow biomass gasification process. The alkali carbonate melt also leads to up to 90% sulfur capture through the formation of alkali sulfides. The resulting reduced syngas sulfur content can potentially simplify gas cleaning required for catalytic biofuel production.

Alkali catalyst recovery and recycling is a precondition for the economic feasibility of the proposed process and is effected through a wet quench. It is shown that the addition of Zn for sulfur precipitation in the alkali recovery loop enables the separation of S, Ca and Mg from the recycle. For high Si and Cl biomass feedstocks, an alternative separation technology for these elements may be required to avoid build-up.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68753 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.05.097 (DOI)000440876600010 ()2-s2.0-85048465146 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-25 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
Carvalho, L., Lundgren, J., Wetterlund, E., Wolf, J. & Furusjö, E. (2018). Methanol production via black liquor co-gasification with expanded raw material base: Techno-economic assessment. Applied Energy, 225, 570-584
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methanol production via black liquor co-gasification with expanded raw material base: Techno-economic assessment
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 225, p. 570-584Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Entrained flow gasification of black liquor combined with downstream-gas-derived synthesis of biofuels in Kraft pulp mills has shown advantages regarding energy efficiency and economic performance when compared to combustion in a recovery boiler. To further increase the operation flexibility and the profitability of the biofuel plant while at the same time increase biofuel production, black liquor can be co-gasified with a secondary feedstock (blend-in feedstock). This work has evaluated the prospects of producing biofuels via co-gasification of black liquor and different blend-in feedstocks (crude glycerol, fermentation residues, pyrolysis liquids) at different blend ratios. Process modelling tools were used, in combination with techno-economic assessment methods. Two methanol grades, crude and grade AA methanol, were investigated. The results showed that the co-gasification concepts resulted in significant increases in methanol production volumes, as well as in improved conversion efficiencies, when compared with black liquor gasification; 5-11 and 4-10 percentage point in terms of cold gas efficiency and methanol conversion efficiency, respectively. The economic analysis showed that required methanol selling prices ranging from 55-101 €/MWh for crude methanol and 58-104 €/MWh for grade AA methanol were obtained for an IRR of 15%. Blend-in led to positive economies-of-scale effects and subsequently decreased required methanol selling prices, in particular for low cost blend-in feedstocks (prices below approximately 20 €/MWh). The co-gasification concepts showed economic competitiveness to other biofuel production routes. When compared with fossil fuels, the resulting crude methanol selling prices were above maritime gas oil prices. Nonetheless, for fossil derived methanol prices higher than 80 €/MWh, crude methanol from co-gasification could be an economically competitive option. Grade AA methanol could also compete with taxed gasoline. Crude glycerol turned out as the most attractive blend-in feedstock, from an economic perspective. When mixed with black liquor in a ratio of 50/50, grade AA methanol could even be cost competitive with untaxed gasoline.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Bio-methanol, Gasification, Black liquor, Pyrolysis liquid, Crude Glycerol, Fermentation residues
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68207 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.04.052 (DOI)000438181000043 ()2-s2.0-85047259948 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-04 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-08-08Bibliographically approved
Carvalho, L., Furusjö, E., Kirtania, K., Wetterlund, E., Lundgren, J., Anheden, M. & Wolf, J. (2017). Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production. Bioresource Technology, 237, 167-177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production
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2017 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 237, p. 167-177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90-130 €/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25 €/MWh to be economically beneficial.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61962 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2017.02.019 (DOI)000402482600022 ()28228328 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85013076658 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-06-02 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-02-13 Created: 2017-02-13 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Schwabl, M., Schwartz, M., Figl, F., Carvalho, L., Staudinger, M., Kalb, W., . . . Haslinger, W. (2013). Development of a biomass heating device for low energy and passive houses (ed.). Management of environmental quality, 24(5), 652-666
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a biomass heating device for low energy and passive houses
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2013 (English)In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 652-666Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Decreasing energy demand due to improved building standards requires the development of new biomass combustion technologies to be able to provide individual biomass heating solutions. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, the development of a pellet water heating stove with minimal emission at high thermal efficiency. Design/methodology/approach: The single components of a 10 kW water heating pellet stove are analysed and partly redesigned considering the latest scientific findings and experimental know-how in combustion engineering. The outcome of this development is a 12 kW prototype which is subsequently down-scaled to a 6 kW prototype. Finally, the results of the development are evaluated by testing of an accredited institute. Findings: Based on an existing pellet water heating stove, the total excess air ratio was reduced, a strict air staging was implemented and the fuel supply was homogenized. All three measures improved the operating performance regarding emissions and thermal efficiency. The evaluation of the development process showed that the CO emissions are reduced by over 90 per cent during full load and by 30-60 per cent during minimum load conditions. Emissions of particulate matter are reduced by 70 per cent and the thermal efficiency increased to 95 per cent. Originality/value: The result represents a new state of technology in this sector for minimal emissions and maximal thermal efficiency, which surpasses the directives of the Eco label "UZ37" in Austria and "Blauer Engel" in Germany, which are amongst the most stringent performance requirements in the European Union. Hence this design possesses a high potential as heating solution for low and passive energy houses.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-11749 (URN)10.1108/MEQ-10-2010-0046 (DOI)2-s2.0-84881056054 (Scopus ID)ac0b2f19-9e4c-4ffd-a023-a24cac1f6742 (Local ID)ac0b2f19-9e4c-4ffd-a023-a24cac1f6742 (Archive number)ac0b2f19-9e4c-4ffd-a023-a24cac1f6742 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2013; 20130815 (ysko)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Carvalho, L. (2012). Small-scale combustion of agricultural biomass fuels (ed.). (Licentiate dissertation). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small-scale combustion of agricultural biomass fuels
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The ambitious targets of the European Union in increasing the use of renewable energies to 20% of Europe’s energy needs, call for urgent changes, including in the biomass sector. The share of solid biomass for heating purposes could be further increased by replacing oil- and gas-fired furnaces with biomass boilers and by expanding the spectrum of biomass raw materials for small-scale combustion systems. The interest in using non-woody biomass fuels for heat production has been increasing in Europe due to two main factors. First, the market for fossil fuels is unstable and their prices are continuously rising. Second, the increase competition for woody biomass between the heating sector and other industries, have increased the price of wood. As a result, the interest for alternative biomass fuels is growing rapidly, covering woody materials of low quality, energy crops and forest residues.The present work aims at investigating the technical feasibility of using non-woody biomass fuels in existing small-scale combustion appliances developed for burning wood. Therefore, combustion tests with different non-woody biomass fuels and in different combustion appliances were performed in standard laboratory conditions and in households under real life conditions (field tests). The laboratory tests were performed using eight different fuels (straw, Miscanthus, maize, vineyard pruning, hay, wheat bran and Sorghum) while in the field tests straw, Miscanthus and maize were burned. The gaseous and particle emissions, the slag tendency and the efficiency of the combustion systems operated with non-woody biomass fuels were analysed and when possible compared with the legal requirements defined in FPrEN 303-5. The limitations of the investigated combustion appliances when operated with non-woody biomass fuels were analysed and discussed.Non-woody biomass fuels could be used for heat production in existing combustion appliances as long as the systems are adapted for burning high ash content fuels. Among the investigated fuels, Miscanthus, vineyard pruning and hay could be burnt in most of the tested combustion appliances while fulfilling the legal European requirements (defined in FprEN303-5) in terms of emissions and efficiency. The non-woody biomass fuels showed problems with ash accumulation and slag formation and could only be burned without unwanted shutdowns in combustion appliances adapted to manage high ash content fuels. Straw, wheat bran and maize were the most problematic fuels regarding slagging. The combustion appliances require appropriate technological developments to manage the strong variability in terms of chemical and thermal properties of the non-woody biomass fuels. The results of the laboratory tests were generally in agreement with the field test results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012. p. 146
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-18748 (URN)a2575f13-37dc-477c-a90c-200075710294 (Local ID)978-91-7439-529-7 (ISBN)a2575f13-37dc-477c-a90c-200075710294 (Archive number)a2575f13-37dc-477c-a90c-200075710294 (OAI)
Note

Godkänd; 2012; 20121113 (joakim); LICENTIATSEMINARIUM Ämne: Energiteknik/Energy Engineering Examinator: Professor Marcus Öhman, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Luleå tekniska universitet Diskutant: Ph.D, Ass. Senior Lecturer Markus Broström, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Umeå universitet Tid: Tisdag den 18 december 2012 kl 10.00 Plats: E246, Luleå tekniska universitet

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
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