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Publications (10 of 35) Show all publications
Mulenga, E., Bollen, M. & Etherden, N. (2019). Overvoltage due to single-phase and three-phase connected PV. In: 25th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Madrid, 3-6 June 2019.: . Paper presented at 25th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Madrid, 3-6 June 2019. (pp. 1-5). CIRED - Congrès International des Réseaux Electriques de Distribution, Article ID No 370.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overvoltage due to single-phase and three-phase connected PV
2019 (English)In: 25th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Madrid, 3-6 June 2019., CIRED - Congrès International des Réseaux Electriques de Distribution, 2019, p. 1-5, article id No 370Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the overvoltage caused by single and three-phase connected PV to a low-voltage distribution grid. Statistics are obtained based on source-impedance data for 40 000 customers. A stochastic approach is applied to a 28-customer low-voltage network and the probability of overvoltage is assessed. It is shown that the voltage rise due to single-phase connected PV is six times the rise for three-phase connected PV.To mitigate the overvoltage, grid-reinforcement, reactive power compensation, curtailment and coordinated connection of PV can be used. It is shown that reactive compensation is not effective in LV grids due to high R/X ratio. Coordinated connection helps in reducing the overvoltages caused by single-phase PV.Policy suggestions towards three-phase PV installations and coordinated single-phase PV connections are included in the paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CIRED - Congrès International des Réseaux Electriques de Distribution, 2019
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74484 (URN)
Conference
25th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Madrid, 3-6 June 2019.
Projects
Hosting Capacity for Solar Power in Northern Sweden
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-10-04
Mulenga, E., Bollen, M. & Etherden, N. (2019). The Role of Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainties in a Stochastic Hosting Capacity Approach for Solar PV. In: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT): . Paper presented at IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT)_2019 (pp. 1-5). Bucharest: IEEE, Article ID 133.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainties in a Stochastic Hosting Capacity Approach for Solar PV
2019 (English)In: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), Bucharest: IEEE, 2019, p. 1-5, article id 133Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper introduces the terms aleatory and epistemic uncertainties for use in a stochastic hosting capacity method. The role these uncertainties play in the hosting capacity determination is illustrated. It is shown that distinction between aleatory (statistical) and epistemic (systematic) uncertainties is helpful to characterize the probability distributions correctly. For epistemic uncertainties, it is often challenging to obtain information on the probability distribution function. For aleatory uncertainties, a method for characterizing the probability distribution is presented. Aleatory uncertainties’ data measurements are used to obtain a distribution best-fit. The background voltage measurement for a customer in a low-voltage distribution network is used to illustrate the method. Values were obtained for the distribution functions of the three-phase voltages. The used distribution functions are found to influence the resulting hosting capacity. This entails that there is need for measurements and data collection. A research challenge remaining concerns the stochastic model of epistemic uncertainty.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bucharest: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Aleatory uncertainty, epistemic uncertainty, photovoltaic, stochastic modelling
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76249 (URN)
Conference
IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT)_2019
Projects
Hosting Capacity for Solar Power in Northern Sweden
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-10-04
Lu, S., Repo, S., Tjäder, J., Kjellström, A., Bollen, M. & Etherden, N. (2017). IEC 61850-based Communication and Aggregation Solution for Demand-Response Application. In: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe: ISGT Europe 2016,  Ljubljana,  Slovenia,  9-12  October 2016. Paper presented at IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe, ISGT Europe, Ljubljana, 9-12 October 2016. Piscataway, NJ, Part F126485, Article ID 7856283.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IEC 61850-based Communication and Aggregation Solution for Demand-Response Application
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2017 (English)In: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe: ISGT Europe 2016,  Ljubljana,  Slovenia,  9-12  October 2016, Piscataway, NJ, 2017, Vol. Part F126485, article id 7856283Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an IEC 61850 standard-based communication and aggregation solution for Demand-Response application, which allows end devices automatically detected, configured and integrated to the overlying Demand-Response system, thereby greatly increasing the integration efficiency, and making large scale of deployment feasible. This communication solution is dedicated to one community-wide Demand-Response application designed for a residential area near an industrial installation in Sweden. The community-wide Demand-Response application will be briefly explained in the paper, however, the main focus of this paper is the communication solution and IT system implementation for this application. The communication solution is realized by the unconventional use of IEC 61850 standard, and implemented in a hierarchical structure consisting of SCADA, communication gateway and low cost micro processor-based spatial heating controllers

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: , 2017
Series
IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe, ISSN 2165-4816
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60504 (URN)10.1109/ISGTEurope.2016.7856283 (DOI)000405511300111 ()2-s2.0-85017544699 (Scopus ID)9781509033584 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe, ISGT Europe, Ljubljana, 9-12 October 2016
Available from: 2016-11-17 Created: 2016-11-17 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Etherden, N., Vyatkin, V. & Bollen, M. (2016). Virtual Power Plant for Grid Services using IEC 61850 (ed.). IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 12(1), 437-447
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtual Power Plant for Grid Services using IEC 61850
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 437-447Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper assesses the communication, information and functional requirements of Virtual Power Plants (VPPs). A conceptual formulation of the interoperability requirements is presented as well as a comparative study of their fulfillment by state-of-the-art communication techniques. VPP requirements are then mapped against services and information models of IEC 61850 and CIM power utility automation standards. Proposals are given for extensions of the IEC 61850 standard to enhance the interaction between VPP controller and the distributed energy resources. Finally the methodology and concepts are applied to a specific VPP consisting of hydro and wind plants, solar PV and storage facilities. Several applications to provide grid services from the proposed VPP in an existing 50 kV grid are covered. The implementation of the VPP communication and control architecture in the SCADA of demonstration plant is also presented.

National Category
Computer Sciences Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems; Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-3831 (URN)10.1109/TII.2015.2414354 (DOI)000370764200042 ()2-s2.0-84962550992 (Scopus ID)1add708a-bef0-421d-8401-ebd646d0e0df (Local ID)1add708a-bef0-421d-8401-ebd646d0e0df (Archive number)1add708a-bef0-421d-8401-ebd646d0e0df (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20150408 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Bollen, M., Etherden, N. & Tjäder, J. (2015). Increasing hosting capacity through dynamic line rating: risk aspects (ed.). Paper presented at CIGRE Symposium : 27/05/2015 - 28/05/2015. Paper presented at CIGRE Symposium : 27/05/2015 - 28/05/2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing hosting capacity through dynamic line rating: risk aspects
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The availability of monitoring, control and communication technology makes it possible to estimate the ampacity of an overhead transmission line continuously. This allows the transport of substantially larger amounts of energy over that line that when a static ampacity value is used. It is shown in this paper that the use of such dynamic line rating allows more wind power to be connected to the grid, i.e. it results in an increase of the hosting capacity. For the numerical example presented in the paper, the hosting capacity is increase from 214 to 390 MW. There are different types of risk associated with the introduction of dynamic line rating, some of which are discussed in this paper. Two main types of risk are distinguished. Risks associated with possible overload of components, even when the ampacity is exactly known. Additional risks due to the difference between the actual and the estimated ampacity.The introduction of curtailment, in combination with dynamic line rating, makes it possible to manage the first type of risk. The risk of overload carried by all customers is replaced by the risk of temporality being disconnected for the wind-park owner. The latter is however also the stakeholder gaining most from the increase in hosting capacity.To reduce the second type of risk, several practical aspects need to be considered before implementing dynamic line rating, several of which are discussed in this paper.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-32138 (URN)6865d54a-d01f-492e-9f8c-086afeeb904d (Local ID)6865d54a-d01f-492e-9f8c-086afeeb904d (Archive number)6865d54a-d01f-492e-9f8c-086afeeb904d (OAI)
Conference
CIGRE Symposium : 27/05/2015 - 28/05/2015
Note
Upprättat; 2015; 20150817 (matbol)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Etherden, N., Bollen, M., Ackeby, S. & Lennerhag, O. (2015). The transparent hosting-capacity approach – overview, applications and developments (ed.). In: (Ed.), : . Paper presented at International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution : 15/06/2015 - 18/06/2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The transparent hosting-capacity approach – overview, applications and developments
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper summarizes the hosting capacity approach and gives some recent developments: including uncertainty in location and size of production units; curtailment to connect more production than according to the initial hosting capacity. For both developments it is shown that the transparency of the approach still holds but also that the results may be strongly location dependent. It is however also shown that the hosting-capacity approach can be used to obtain rough estimations, rules-of-thumbs, and to make a first assessment in case more detailed studies are not possible for example because insufficient data is available.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-39121 (URN)dbe0009f-3b55-47cc-8c10-562e0d41a586 (Local ID)dbe0009f-3b55-47cc-8c10-562e0d41a586 (Archive number)dbe0009f-3b55-47cc-8c10-562e0d41a586 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution : 15/06/2015 - 18/06/2015
Note

Godkänd; 2015; 20150625 (matbol)

Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Etherden, N., Lundmark, M., Fernandez, J. M. & Bollen, M. (2014). Converter induced resonances in microgrids due to high harmonic distortion (ed.). Paper presented at International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality : 07/04/2014 - 10/04/2014. The Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ) (12), Article ID 317.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Converter induced resonances in microgrids due to high harmonic distortion
2014 (English)In: The Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ), ISSN 2172-038X, E-ISSN 2172-038X, no 12, article id 317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the resonance introduced by adverse interaction of electronic converters. With the presence of multiple power-electronic converters, situations can occur where the harmonics are amplified due to the interaction between converters. An observation of undamped oscillation leading to instability in a microgrid is described. The term “converter induced resonances” is proposed to describe this phenomenon. The amount of distributed generation, active loads, FACTS and battery energy storage systems are expected to increase in future Smart Grids. All these resources will be interfaced with electronic converters. The potential impact of converter induced resonances in such grids is described. A coordinated design of the control systems of all converters is in practice not feasible. Each device will be independently tested to fulfil grid codes and have its own converter control implemented that can include functionality to modify voltage and /or current waveform.

Keywords
Technology - Electrical engineering, electronics and photonics, Teknikvetenskap - Elektroteknik, elektronik och fotonik
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-40618 (URN)fcfec8f9-c4d6-428f-8a3c-707be6920ef8 (Local ID)fcfec8f9-c4d6-428f-8a3c-707be6920ef8 (Archive number)fcfec8f9-c4d6-428f-8a3c-707be6920ef8 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality : 07/04/2014 - 10/04/2014
Projects
SmartGrid Energilager
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20131205 (niceth); Konferensartikel i tidskriftAvailable from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Etherden, N. (2014). Increasing the hosting capacity of distributed energy resources using storage and communication (ed.). (Doctoral dissertation). Paper presented at . : Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing the hosting capacity of distributed energy resources using storage and communication
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Öka acceptansgränsen för förnyelsebaraenergikällor med hjälp av lagring och kommunikation i smarta elnät
Abstract [en]

This thesis develops methods to increase the amount of renewable energy sources that can be integrated into a power grid. The assessed methods include i) dynamic real-time assessment to enable the grid to be operated closer to its design limits; ii) energy storage and iii) coordinated control of distributed production units. Power grids using such novel techniques are referred to as “Smart Grids”. Under favourable conditions the use of these techniques is an alternative to traditional grid planning like replacement of transformers or construction of a new power line. Distributed Energy Resources like wind and solar power will impact the performance of the grid and this sets a limit to the amount of such renewables that can be integrated. The work develops the hosting capacity concept as an objective metric to quantify the ability of a power grid to integrate new production. Several case studies are presented using actual hourly production and consumption data. It is shown how the different variability of renewables and consumption affect the hosting capacity. The hosting capacity method is extended to the application of storage and curtailment. The goal is to create greater comparability and transparency, thereby improving the factual base of discussions between grid operators, electricity producers and other stakeholders on the amount and type of production that can be connected to a grid.Energy storage allows the consumption and production of electricity to be decoupled. This in turn allows electricity to be produced as the wind blows and the sun shines while consumed when required. Yet storage is expensive and the research defines when storage offers unique benefits not possible to achieve by other means. Focus is on comparison of storage to conventional and novel methods.As the number of distributed energy resources increase, their electronic converters need to provide services that help to keep the grid operating within its design criteria. The use of functionality from IEC Smart Grid standards, mainly IEC 61850, to coordinate the control and operation of these resources is demonstrated in a Research, Development and Demonstration site. The site contains wind, solar power, and battery storage together with the communication and control equipment expected in the future grids.Together storage, new communication schemes and grid control strategies allow for increased amounts of renewables into existing power grids, without unacceptable effects on users and grid performance.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen studerar hur existerande elnät kan ta emot mer produktion från förnyelsebara energikällor som vindkraft och solenergi. En metodik utvecklas för att objektivt kvantifiera mängden ny produktion som kan tas emot av ett nät. I flera fallstudier på verkliga nät utvärderas potentiella vinster med energilager, realtids gränser för nätets överföringsförmåga, och koordinerad kontroll av småskaliga energiresurser. De föreslagna lösningarna för lagring och kommunikation har verifierats experimentellt i en forskning, utveckling och demonstrationsanläggning i Ludvika.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Electric Power Systems, Renewable Energy, Energy Storage, Hosting Capacity, Curtailment, Power Utility Automation, IEC 61850, Smart Grid, Technology - Electrical engineering, electronics and photonics, Elkraft, Förnyelsebara energikällor, Energilager, Acceptansgräns, Produktionsnedstyrning, Kraftsystemsautomation, IEC 61850, Smarta elnät, Teknikvetenskap - Elektroteknik, elektronik och fotonik
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-18490 (URN)8dcabe1b-6e16-45fe-bac6-ff61f33ced12 (Local ID)978-91-7439-870-0 (ISBN)978-91-7439-871-7 (ISBN)8dcabe1b-6e16-45fe-bac6-ff61f33ced12 (Archive number)8dcabe1b-6e16-45fe-bac6-ff61f33ced12 (OAI)
Projects
SmartGrid Energilager
Note
Godkänd; 2014; Bibliografisk uppgift: Nicholas Etherden är industridoktorand på STRI AB i Göteborg. Vid sidan av doktoreringen har Nicholas varit aktiv som konsult inom kraftsystemsautomation och Smarta Elnät. Hans specialitet är IEC 61850 standarden för kommunikation inom elnät, vindkraftparker och distribuerad generering. Författaren har en civilingenjörsexamen i Teknisk fysik från Uppsala Universitet år 2000. Under studietiden läste han även kurser i kemi, miljökunskap och teoretisk filosofi. Han var under studietiden ordförande för Student Pugwash Sweden och ledamot International Network of Engineers and of Scientists for Global Responsibility (INES). Efter studietiden var han ordförande i Svenska Forskare och Ingenjörer mot Kärnvapen (FIMK). Han började sin professionella bana som trainee på ABB i Västerås där han spenderade sex år som utvecklare och grupp ledare för applikationsutvecklingen i ABB reläskydd. I parallell till arbete har han läst elkraft vid Mälardalenshögskola. År 2008 började han på STRI AB som ansvarig för dess IEC 61850 interoperabilitetslab. Han är på uppdrag av Svenska Kraftnät aktiv i ENTSO-E IEC 61850 specificeringsarbete och svensk representant i IEC tekniska kommitté 57, arbetsgrupp 10 som förvaltar IEC 61850 standarden. Han har hållit över 30 kurser i IEC 61850 standarden i fler än 10 länder.; 20140218 (niceth); Nedanstående person kommer att disputera för avläggande av teknologie doktorsexamen. Namn: Nicholas Etherden Ämne: Elkraftteknik/Electric Power Engineering Avhandling: Increasing the Hosting Capacity of Distributed Energy Resources Using Storage and Communication Opponent: Professor Joao A Peças Lopes, Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Portugal Ordförande: Professor Math Bollen, Avd för energivetenskap, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Luleå tekniska universitet Tid: Måndag den 24 mars 2014, kl 09.00 Plats: Hörsal A, Campus Skellefteå, Luleå tekniska universitetAvailable from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Etherden, N. & Bollen, M. (2014). Overload and overvoltage in low-voltage and medium-voltage networks due to renewable energy: some illustrative case studies (ed.). Paper presented at . Electric power systems research, 114, 39-48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overload and overvoltage in low-voltage and medium-voltage networks due to renewable energy: some illustrative case studies
2014 (English)In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 114, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the use of curtailment to allow more wind or solar power to be connected to a distribution network when overcurrent or overvoltage set a limit. Four case studies, all based on measurements, are presented. In all cases the hosting capacity method is used to quantify the gain in produced energy for increased levels of distributed renewable energy resources. A distinction is made between “hard curtailment” where all production is disconnected when overcurrent and overvoltage limits are exceeded and “soft curtailment” where the amount of production to be disconnected is minimized. It is shown that the type of curtailment method used has a large impact on the amount of delivered energy to the grid. The paper further discusses details of the curtailment algorithm, alternatives to curtailment, the communication needs and risks associated with the use of curtailment

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15957 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2014.03.028 (DOI)000337992000005 ()2-s2.0-84899724718 (Scopus ID)f899147c-0e85-4766-857b-cbd7a4624c5f (Local ID)f899147c-0e85-4766-857b-cbd7a4624c5f (Archive number)f899147c-0e85-4766-857b-cbd7a4624c5f (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140502 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Etherden, N., Bollen, M. & Lundmark, M. (2014). Project: Test bed – Energy supply for innovative mining from an environmental and energy perspective. Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project: Test bed – Energy supply for innovative mining from an environmental and energy perspective
2014 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36090 (URN)643c6217-9873-49bc-ae99-31ea69c8f6cd (Local ID)643c6217-9873-49bc-ae99-31ea69c8f6cd (Archive number)643c6217-9873-49bc-ae99-31ea69c8f6cd (OAI)
Note

Anteckningar: Pre-study Vinnova_x000D_ Cooperation: High Voltage Valley (Ludvika); Nordic Iron Ore; VB Elnät; Högskolan Dalarna; Linköping Universitet; Status: Ansökt; Period: 01/01/2014 → …

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0749-7366

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