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Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Chelgani, S. C., Parian, M., Semsari, P., Ghorbani, Y. & Rosenkranz, J. (2019). A comparative study on the effects of dry and wet grinding on mineral flotation separation: a review. Journal of Materials Research and Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparative study on the effects of dry and wet grinding on mineral flotation separation: a review
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Water scarcity dictates to limit the use of water in ore processing plants particularly in arid regions. Since wet grinding is the most common method for particle size reduction and mineral liberation, there is a lack of understanding about the effects of dry grinding on downstream separation processes such as flotation. This manuscript compiles various effects of dry grinding on flotation and compares them with wet grinding. Dry grinding consumes higher energy and produces wider particle size distributions compared with wet grinding. It significantly decreases the rate of media consumption and liner wear; thus, the contamination of pulp for flotation separation is lower after dry grinding. Surface roughness, particle agglomeration, and surface oxidation are higher in dry grinding than wet grinding, which all these effects on the flotation process. Moreover, dry ground samples in the pulp phase correlate with higher Eh and dissolved oxygen concentration. Therefore, dry grinding can alter the floatability of minerals. This review thoroughly assesses various approaches for flotation separation of different minerals, which have been drily ground, and provides perspectives for further future investigations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Flotation, Energy consumption, Grinding media type, HPGR, Dry grinding, Wet grinding
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75591 (URN)10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.07.053 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-08-25
Larsson, S., Pålsson, B., Parian, M. & Jonsén, P. (2019). Preliminary validation of a stirred media mill model. In: : . Paper presented at Conference in Minerals Engineering 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preliminary validation of a stirred media mill model
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wet fine grinding is an important process in the minerals industry. Modelling of wet grinding in stirred media mills is challenging since it requires the simultaneous modelling of grinding media consisting of a huge number of small grinding bodies, moving internal stirrer, and the pulp fluid. All of them in interaction with each other. In the present study, wet grinding in a stirred media mill is studied using coupled incompressible computational fluid dynamics (ICFD) and discrete element method (DEM) and finite element method (FEM) simulations. The DEM is used to model the grinding media, and the pulp fluid flow is modelled using the ICFD. Moreover, the FEM is used to model the structure of the mill body and is in combination with DEM used to estimate the wear rate in the system. The present implementation of the coupled ICFD-DEM-FEM preserves the robustness and efficiency of both methods, and it gives the possibility to use large time steps for the fluid with very low computation times.

National Category
Applied Mechanics Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Solid Mechanics; Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72951 (URN)
Conference
Conference in Minerals Engineering 2019
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-02-22
Parian, M., Lamberg, P. & Rosenkranz, J. (2018). Process simulations in mineralogy-based geometallurgy of iron ores. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Section C - Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process simulations in mineralogy-based geometallurgy of iron ores
2018 (English)In: Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Section C - Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Mineral processing simulation models can be classified based on the level that feed stream to the plant and unit models are described. The levels of modelling in this context are: bulk, mineral or element by size, and particle. Particle level modelling and simulation utilises liberation data in the feed stream and is more sensitive to the variations in ore quality, specifically ore texture. In this paper, simulations for two texturally different magnetite ores are demonstrated at different modelling levels. The model parameters were calibrated for current run-of-mine ore and then in the simulation applied directly to the other ore. For the second ore, the simulation results vary between the different levels. This is because, at the bulk level, the model assumes minerals do not change their behaviour if ore texture or grinding fineness are changed. At the mineral by size level, the assumption is that minerals behave identically in each size fraction even if the ore texture changes. At the particle level, the assumption is that similar particles behave in the same way. The particle level approach gives results that are more realistic and it can be used in optimisation, thus finding the most optimal processing way for different geometallurgical domains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70357 (URN)10.1080/25726641.2018.1507072 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-13
Mwanga, A., Parian, M., Lamberg, P. & Rosenkranz, J. (2017). Comminution modeling using mineralogical properties of iron ores. Minerals Engineering, 111, 182-197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comminution modeling using mineralogical properties of iron ores
2017 (English)In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 111, p. 182-197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Comminution modeling aims to predict the size and liberation distribution of mineral particles and the required comminution energy. The current state-of-the-art comminution models provide a calculation of neither particle size distribution, grinding energy and throughput dependency with neither a broad understanding of how the mineral grade varies by size nor the liberation distribution of the product. The underlying breakage mechanisms affect the liberation of mineral grains and are dependent on modal mineralogy and mineral texture (micro structure). It has also been a challenge to model comminution systems to predict the optimal energy and size for better mineral liberation because of the variability of the mineral particle properties i.e. grains arrangement and composition. A detailed mineralogical study was carried out in order to broaden the understanding of the nature and distribution of comminuted particles in a ball mill product. Focusing on iron ore samples the study showed how the particle breakage rate decreases when the particles reach the grain size of the main mineral component. Below that size, comminution does not increase mineral liberation and therefore in most of the cases passing over that boundary is only a waste of energy. The study involving iron ores from Malmberget and Kiruna, Northern Sweden, showed that certain shortcuts can be applied to empirically model the mineral liberation distribution of the particles in a ball mill based on the mineral grade-by-size pattern from a geometallurgical program. In Malmberget and Kiruna the mineral grade-by-size pattern is depending on the mineral distribution and grain size of gangue as well as magnetite or hematite minerals. A significant difference between mineral breakage of the same grade and gangue minerals can be observed due to texture differences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-64658 (URN)10.1016/j.mineng.2017.06.017 (DOI)000406729800020 ()2-s2.0-85021449830 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-06-29 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-06-29 Created: 2017-06-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Parian, M. (2017). Development of a geometallurgical framework for iron ores - A mineralogical approach to particle-based modeling. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a geometallurgical framework for iron ores - A mineralogical approach to particle-based modeling
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Utveckling av ett geometallurgiskt ramverk för järnmalmer - Ett mineralogiskt angreppssätt till partikelbaserad modellering.
Abstract [en]

The demands for efficient utilization of ore bodies and proper risk management in the mining industry have resulted in a new cross-disciplinary subject called geometallurgy. Geometallurgy connects geological, mineral processing and subsequent downstream processing information together to provide a comprehensive model to be used in production planning and management. A geometallurgical program is an industrial application of geometallurgy. Various approaches that are employed in geometallurgical programs include the traditional way, which uses chemical elements, the proxy method, which applies small-scale tests, and the mineralogical approach using mineralogy or the combination of those. The mineralogical approach provides the most comprehensive and versatile way to treat geometallurgical data. Therefore it was selected as a basis for this study.

For the mineralogical approach, quantitative mineralogical information is needed both for the deposit and the process. The geological model must describe the minerals present, give their chemical composition, report their mass proportions (modal composition) in the ore body and describe the ore texture. The process model must be capable of using mineralogical information provided by the geological model to forecast the metallurgical performance of different geological volumes and periods. A literature survey showed that areas, where more development is needed for using the mineralogical approach, are: 1) quick and inexpensive techniques for reliable modal analysis of the ore samples; 2) ore textural characterization of the ore to forecast the liberation distribution of the ore when crushed and ground; 3) unit operation models based on particle properties (at mineral liberation level) and 4) a system capable of handling all this information and transferring it to production model. This study focuses on developing tools in these areas.

A number of methods for obtaining mineral grades were evaluated with a focus on geometallurgical applicability, precision, and trueness. A new technique developed called combined method uses both quantitative X-ray powder diffraction with Rietveld refinement and the Element-to-Mineral Conversion method. The method not only delivers the required turnover for geometallurgy but also overcomes the shortcomings if X-ray powder diffraction or Element-to-Mineral Conversion were used alone.

Characterization of ore texture before and after breakage provides valuable insights about the fracture pattern in comminution, the population of particles for specific ore texture and their relation to parent ore texture. In the context of the mineralogical approach to geometallurgy, predicting the particle population from ore texture is a critical step to establish an interface between geology and mineral processing. A new method called Association Indicator Matrix developed to assess breakage pattern of ore texture and analyze mineral association. The results of ore texture and particle analysis were used to generate particle population from ore texture by applying particle size distribution and breakage frequencies. The outcome matches well with experimental data specifically for magnetite ore texture.

In geometallurgy, process models can be classified based on in which level the ore, i.e. the feed stream to the processing plant and each unit operation, is defined and what information subsequent streams carry. The most comprehensive level of mineral processing models is the particle-based one which includes practically all necessary information on streams for modeling unit operations. Within this study, a particle-based unit operation model was built for wet low-intensity magnetic separation, and existing size classification and grinding models were evaluated to be used in particle level. A property-based model of magnetic beneficiation plant was created based on one of the LKAB operating plants in mineral and particle level and the results were compared. Two different feeds to the plant were used. The results revealed that in the particle level, the process model is more sensitive to changes in feed property than any other levels. Particle level is more capable for process optimization for different geometallurgical domains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2017. p. 107
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Geometallurgy, process simulation, breakage characterization, ore texture, iron ore, modal mineralogy
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62515 (URN)978-91-7583-860-1 (ISBN)978-91-7583-861-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-05-09, F531, F-hus, Luleå University of Technology Campus, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-04-05 Created: 2017-03-30 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Parian, M., Lamberg, P. & Rosenkranz, J. (2016). Developing a particle-based process model for unit operations of mineral processing: WLIMS (ed.). International Journal of Mineral Processing, 154, 53-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing a particle-based process model for unit operations of mineral processing: WLIMS
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Mineral Processing, ISSN 0301-7516, E-ISSN 1879-3525, Vol. 154, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Process models in mineral processing can be classified based on the level of information required from the ore, i.e. the feed stream to the processing plant. Mineral processing models usually require information on total solid flow rate, mineralogical composition and particle size information. The most comprehensive level of mineral processing models is the particle-based one (liberation level), which gives particle-by-particle information on their mineralogical composition, size, density, shape i.e. all necessary information on the processed material for simulating unit operations. In flowsheet simulation, the major benefit of a particle-based model over other models is that it can be directly linked to any other particle-based unit models in the process simulation. This study aims to develop a unit operation model for a wet low intensity magnetic separator on particle property level. The experimental data was gathered in a plant survey of the KA3 iron ore concentrator of Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB in Kiruna. Corresponding feed, concentrate and tailings streams of the primary magnetic separator were sampled, assayed and mass balanced on mineral liberation level. The mass-balanced data showed that the behavior of individual particles in the magnetic separation is depending on their size and composition. The developed model involves a size and composition dependent entrapment parameter and a separation function that depends on the magnetic volume of the particle and the nature of gangue mineral. The model is capable of forecasting the behavior of particles in magnetic separation with the necessary accuracy. This study highlights the benefits that particle-based models in simulation offer whereas lower level process models fail to provide.

National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6803 (URN)10.1016/j.minpro.2016.07.001 (DOI)000383937600007 ()2-s2.0-84978300151 (Scopus ID)51940004-00c5-4a57-b700-a8a32111b368 (Local ID)51940004-00c5-4a57-b700-a8a32111b368 (Archive number)51940004-00c5-4a57-b700-a8a32111b368 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160815 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Parian, M. (2016). Particle-based Process Models in Mineral Processing (ed.). In: (Ed.), : . Paper presented at Conference in Minerals Engineering 2016 : 02/02/2016 - 03/02/2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle-based Process Models in Mineral Processing
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Geology
Research subject
Mineral Processing; Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-40582 (URN)fc3487e8-f4c1-479e-a4f4-2b31b968cfca (Local ID)fc3487e8-f4c1-479e-a4f4-2b31b968cfca (Archive number)fc3487e8-f4c1-479e-a4f4-2b31b968cfca (OAI)
Conference
Conference in Minerals Engineering 2016 : 02/02/2016 - 03/02/2016
Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Parian, M. & Lamberg, P. (2016). Reconciling modal mineralogy and chemical compositions of a sample (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland: Special Volume (pp. 181).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconciling modal mineralogy and chemical compositions of a sample
2016 (English)In: Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland: Special Volume, 2016, p. 181-Conference paper, Meeting abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of the grade of valuable elements and its variation is not sufficient for geometallurgy. Minerals define not only the value of the deposit, but also the method of extraction and concentration. However, mineralogy is quite rarely used as the key information in geometallurgy and it is even more exceptional in mineral resource estimation.One of the reasons is the lack of fast, low-cost but still reliable modal analysis. The other is that the results from various methods of modal mineralogy such as automated mineralogy and quantitative XRD are not consistent with chemical assay. In other words, the chemical composition back calculated from modal analysis does not match with the true chemical assay. Element-to-mineral conversion is the known method to get modal mineralogy that matches with the chemical composition of samples. However, in complicated mineralogy or the lack of enough chemical components assayed, it fails to provide accurate results. Reconciling the results of a modal analysis with chemical assays can improve the agreement between chemical assays and back-calculated chemical composition. This is achievable by doing minor adjustments to modal mineralogy. The method used here is called combined method and it principally uses Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to minimize differences (residuals) between chemical assays and back-calculated chemical composition of a sample. The advantage of the method over other combined methods is that it does not use weighting factors. Additionally, the adjustments are minor unlike other methods that can cause mineral grades to drift away significantly. These features make it possible to apply the method for a large number of samples unsupervised.

National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-37535 (URN)b99671f1-d09a-44f6-93e6-c5c5df98ada5 (Local ID)b99671f1-d09a-44f6-93e6-c5c5df98ada5 (Archive number)b99671f1-d09a-44f6-93e6-c5c5df98ada5 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2016; 20160114 (mehpar)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Parian, M., Lamberg, P., Möckel, R. & Rosenkranz, J. (2015). Analysis of mineral grades for geometallurgy: Combined element-to-mineral conversion and quantitative X-ray diffraction (ed.). Paper presented at Process Mineralogy : 17/11/2014 - 19/11/2014. Minerals Engineering, 82, 25-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of mineral grades for geometallurgy: Combined element-to-mineral conversion and quantitative X-ray diffraction
2015 (English)In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 82, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of the grade of valuable elements and its variation is not sufficient for geometallurgy. Minerals define not only the value of the deposit, but also the method of extraction and concentration. A number of methods for obtaining mineral grades were evaluated with a focus on geometallurgical applicability, precision and trueness. For a geometallurgical program, the number of samples to be analyzed is large, therefore a method for obtaining mineral grades needs to be cost-efficient, relatively fast, and reliable. Automated mineralogy based on scanning electron microscopy is generally regarded as the most reliable method for analyzing mineral grades. However, the method is time demanding and expensive. Quantitative X-ray diffraction has a relatively high detection limit, 0.5%, while the method is not suitable for some base and precious metal ores, it still provides significant details on gangue mineral grades. The application of the element-to-mineral conversion has been limited to the simple mineralogy because the number of elements analyzed limits the number of calculable mineral grades. This study investigates a new method for the estimation of mineral grades applicable for geometallurgy by combining both the element-to-mineral conversion method and quantitative X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement. The proposed method not only delivers the required turnover for geometallurgy, but also overcomes the shortcomings if quantitative X-ray diffraction or element-to-mineral is used alone

National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-29511 (URN)10.1016/j.mineng.2015.04.023 (DOI)000362617800004 ()2-s2.0-84942190839 (Scopus ID)304b2a4f-f491-4bf6-8d10-14bc9b45181c (Local ID)304b2a4f-f491-4bf6-8d10-14bc9b45181c (Archive number)304b2a4f-f491-4bf6-8d10-14bc9b45181c (OAI)
Conference
Process Mineralogy : 17/11/2014 - 19/11/2014
Note

Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20150616 (andbra)

; Konferensartikel i tidskriftAvailable from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Parian, M. (2015). Development of the mineralogical path for geometallurgical modeling of iron ores (ed.). (Licentiate dissertation). Paper presented at . : Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of the mineralogical path for geometallurgical modeling of iron ores
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The demands for more effective utilization of ore bodies and proper risk management in the mining industry have resulted in a new cross discipline called geometallurgy. Geometallurgy connects geological, mineral processing and subsequent downstream processing information together to provide a comprehensive model to be used in production planning and management. A geometallurgical program is the industrial application of geometallurgy. It provides a way to map the variation in the ore body, to handling the data and giving metallurgical forecast on spatial level.Three different approaches are used in geometallurgical programs. These include the traditional way, which uses chemical elements, the proxy method, which applies geometallurgical tests, and the mineralogical approach using mineralogy. The mineralogical approach provides the most comprehensive and versatile way to treat geometallurgical data. Therefore it was selected as a basis for this study. For the mineralogical method, quantitative mineralogical information is needed both on deposit and for the process. The geological model must describe the minerals present, give their chemical composition, report their mass proportions (modal composition) in the ore body and describe the texture. The process model must be capable of using mineralogical information provided by the geological model to forecast the metallurgical performance of different geological volumes (samples, ore blocks, geometallurgical domains or blends prepared for the plant) and periods (from minutes via hourly and daily scale to week, monthly and annual production). A literature survey showed that areas, where more development is needed for using the mineralogical approach, are: 1) quick and inexpensive techniques for reliable modal analysis of the ore samples; 2) textural classification of the ore capable to forecast the liberation distribution of the ore when crushed and ground; 3) unit operation models based on particle properties (at mineral liberation level) and 4) a system capable to handle all this information and transfer it to production model. This study focuses on solving the first and the third problem. A number of methods for obtaining mineral grades were evaluated with a focus on geometallurgical applicability, precision and trueness. The method survey included scanning electron microscopy based automated mineralogy, quantitative X-ray powder diffraction with Rietveld refinement, and element-to-mineral conversion. A new technique called combined method uses both quantitative X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement and the element-to-mineral conversion method. The method not only delivers the required turnover for geometallurgy, but also overcomes the shortcomings if X-ray powder diffraction or element-to-mineral conversion when used alone. Furthermore, various methods of obtaining modal mineralogy were compared and a model for evaluating precision and closeness of the methods was developed.Different levels of processing models can be classified in geometallurgy based on in which level the ore, i.e. the feed stream to the processing plant, is defined and what information subsequent streams carry. For mineral processing models the following five levels can be distinguished: particle size only level, elemental level, element by particle size level, mineral level, mineral by particle size level and mineral liberation (particle) level. The most comprehensive level of mineral processing models is the particle-based one which includes all necessary information for modeling unit operations. Within this study, as the first step, a unit operation model is built on particle level for wet low-intensity magnetic separation. The experimental data was gathered through a survey of the KA3 iron ore concentrator plant of Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) in Kiruna. The first wet magnetic separator of the process was used as the basis for the model development since the degree of liberation is important at this stage. Corresponding feed, concentrate and tailings streams were mass balanced on a mineral by size and liberation level. The mass balanced data showed that the behavior of individual particles in the magnetic separation is depending on their size and composition. The model, which has a size dependent by-pass parameter and a separation parameter dependent of the magnetic volume of the particle, is capable of forecasting the behavior of particles in magnetic separation. Modeling and simulation show the benefits that particle-based simulation provides compared to lower level process models which take into account only elemental or mineral grades.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå tekniska universitet, 2015. p. 42
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-17874 (URN)5a6cc6e8-3642-402e-afae-afc64bfa55dd (Local ID)978-91-7583-304-0 (ISBN)978-91-7583-305-7 (ISBN)5a6cc6e8-3642-402e-afae-afc64bfa55dd (Archive number)5a6cc6e8-3642-402e-afae-afc64bfa55dd (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20150410 (mehpar); Nedanstående person kommer att hålla licentiatseminarium för avläggande av teknologie licentiatexamen. Namn: Mehdi Amiri Parian Ämne: Mineralteknik/Mineral Processing Uppsats: Development of the Mineralogical Path for Geometallurgical Modeling of Iron Ores Examinator: Professor Pertti Lamberg, Avd Mineralteknik och metallurgi, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå tekniska universitet Diskutant: Ph.D; Technology manager – Process Modeling, Antti Remes, Outotec OY, Espoo, Finland Tid: Tisdag 12 maj 2015 kl 10.00 Plats: F341, Luleå tekniska universitetAvailable from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5979-5608

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