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Publications (10 of 31) Show all publications
Månbro, C., Kolodziejczyk, J., Krolop, P., Öberg, E. & Parian, M. (2023). Characterisation of apatite-bearing magnetite ore indrillcores using µ-XRF. In: 17th Biennial SGA Meeting: Proceedings Volume 3: . Paper presented at 17th SGA Biennial Meeting, August 28 - September 1, 2023, Zurich, Switzerland (pp. 279-283). The Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA), 3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of apatite-bearing magnetite ore indrillcores using µ-XRF
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2023 (English)In: 17th Biennial SGA Meeting: Proceedings Volume 3, The Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA) , 2023, Vol. 3, p. 279-283Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA), 2023
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101686 (URN)978-2-8399-4046-7 (ISBN)
Conference
17th SGA Biennial Meeting, August 28 - September 1, 2023, Zurich, Switzerland
Available from: 2023-10-17 Created: 2023-10-17 Last updated: 2024-01-26Bibliographically approved
Månbro, C. & Parian, M. (2023). Chemical and Mineralogical Characterisation of Iron Ore Drillcore using µ-XRF. In: Jan Rosenkranz; Tommy Karlkvist, Bertil Pålsson; Mehdi Parian (Ed.), Proceedings Digital Conference i Minerals Engineering, 7-8 February, 2023, Luleå, Sweden: . Paper presented at Conference in Minerals Engineering 2023, Luleå, Sweden [Digital], February 7-8, 2023 (pp. 159-174). Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical and Mineralogical Characterisation of Iron Ore Drillcore using µ-XRF
2023 (English)In: Proceedings Digital Conference i Minerals Engineering, 7-8 February, 2023, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Jan Rosenkranz; Tommy Karlkvist, Bertil Pålsson; Mehdi Parian, Luleå University of Technology, 2023, p. 159-174Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Traditionally, geochemical assays have been used in geometallurgical programs to determine grade and recovery of the ore. The efficiency of this approach is questionable, since assays i) provide bulk geochemistry without providing host mineralogy for the element(s) of interest, and ii) are performed on small samples. Thus, ore mineral grade might be lower than the assays imply, due to the inclusion of elements of interest in the gangue mineralogy. Also, the samples analysed might not be representative on a deposit size scale due to their small volume. In μ-XRF, areas analysed are on a dm scale, providing a larger, and therefore more representable, analysis than e.g. a scanning electron microscope (SEM), yet providing a resolution comparable to SEM analyses. Another advantage of the μ-XRF is the possibility to detect elements as light as sodium, while simultaneously detecting heavy elements, e.g. REEs.Here, cut drillcore samples were scanned by μ-XRF at varying resolutions. The μ-XRF data was utilised for i) comparison with chemical assays, ii) identification of sample mineralogy, iii) comparison with mineralogy from X-ray diffraction (XRD), and iv) analysis of ore texture. The results show that regardless of the resolution used, the μ-XRF analyses correlate well with the results from geochemical assays, whereas for textural features a finer resolution yielded a more detailed picture, as was expected. The drillcore mineralogy compares well with the phases identified by XRD. However, mineral identification from μ-XRF is based on elemental spectrums. Therefore, polymorphs cannot be successfully discriminated and an insight into the deposit mineralogy, is needed for a correct mineral classification in these cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2023
Keywords
micro-XRF, µ-XRF, Iron ore, Mineralogical characterisation, Characterisation, Mineralogy
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mineral Processing; Centre - Centre for Advanced Mining & Metallurgy (CAMM)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101693 (URN)
Conference
Conference in Minerals Engineering 2023, Luleå, Sweden [Digital], February 7-8, 2023
Note

Funder: Centre of Advanced Mining and Metallurgy (CAMM), Luleå University of Technology

Available from: 2023-10-17 Created: 2023-10-17 Last updated: 2023-11-01Bibliographically approved
Isaksson, J., Andersson, A., Vikström, T., Lennartsson, A., Parian, M. & Samuelsson, C. (2023). Improved Settling Properties of Iron Silicate Slag by CaO Modifications. In: : . Paper presented at 62nd Annual Conference of Metallurgists, COM 2023, August 21 – 24, 2023, Toronto, Canada.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved Settling Properties of Iron Silicate Slag by CaO Modifications
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the most significant sources of copper losses from pyrometallurgical copper extraction is attributed to dissolved and entrained copper in the discarded slag. The entrained copper can be recovered via pyrometallurgical slag cleaning in a settling furnace. Reduced copper losses mean increased smelter profits by improved raw material efficiency, and, in addition, the slag will become a more environmentally safe by-product. One way to increase the copper recovery during the settling process is to modify the slag to improve the properties that decrease copper solubility and slag viscosity. In this study, iron silicate slag was modified using CaCO3 on an industrial scale to evaluate its effect on the settling process. More specifically, the changes in settling were related to the modifications and measurements of slag viscosity and copper droplet size distributions in the slag. The trial was evaluated by comparing the copper content in different batches, the size distribution of copper-containing droplets using automated scanning electron microscopy, and performing rheological studies using a high-temperature rheometer. The results showed that increasing the CaO content of the slag by modification with CaCO3 has a positive effect on the settling process and is thus a possible method to improve the industrial settling process of valuable metals in slag.

Keywords
Slag modifications, CaO, Rheology, Viscosity, Copper droplets, Size distribution
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy; Mineral Processing; Centre - Centre for Advanced Mining & Metallurgy (CAMM)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101326 (URN)
Conference
62nd Annual Conference of Metallurgists, COM 2023, August 21 – 24, 2023, Toronto, Canada
Note

Funder: Boliden 

Available from: 2023-09-12 Created: 2023-09-12 Last updated: 2023-09-13Bibliographically approved
Schmitt, R., Parian, M., Ghorbani, Y., McElroy, I. & Bolin, N. (2022). A geometallurgical approach towards the correlation between rock type mineralogy and grindability: A case study in Aitik mine, Sweden. In: IMPC Asia-Pacific 2022 Conference Proceedings: . Paper presented at IMPC Asia-Pacific 2022, Melbourne, Australia, August 22-24, 2022 (pp. 51-70). The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A geometallurgical approach towards the correlation between rock type mineralogy and grindability: A case study in Aitik mine, Sweden
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2022 (English)In: IMPC Asia-Pacific 2022 Conference Proceedings, The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2022, p. 51-70Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Aitik is a large copper porphyry type deposit located in northern Sweden, currently exploited at an annual rate of approximately 45Mt. The ore’s exceptionally low head grade of 0.25 % Cu and varying degrees of hardness across the entire deposit pose challenges to the two fully autogenous grinding lines, each of which comprises a 25 MW primary autogenous mill in series with a pebble mill. The variability in ore grindability frequently leads to fluctuations in mill throughput. 

Within the framework of a geometallurgical approach, the present study investigated the relationships between ore grindability and modal mineralogy. For this purpose, drill core samples from different lithologies were subjected to Boliden AB’s in-house grindability tests. This fully autogenous laboratory-scale test generates a grindability index mainly related to abrasion breakage, which is a significant breakage mechanism within autogenous mills. The test results suggested divergent degrees of grindability within and across the selected rock types.

A combination of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence analyses were performed for the grinding products and bulk mineral samples. The resulting mineralogical and elemental properties were subsequently correlated to the parameters from the grindability tests. It was shown that the main mineral phases, such as plagioclase, quartz, and micas, correlate well with the grindability indices. Similar correlations were found regarding the sample’s chemical composition, attributable to the main mineral phases. A further inverse correlation between the sample’s calculated average Mohs hardness and the grindability indices was established. Moreover, mineral liberation information provided by scanning electron microscopy was associated with the parameters mentioned earlier. The identified relationships between grindability, modal mineralogy, and element grades may help Boliden develop a predictive throughput model for Aitik based on the mine’s block model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2022
Keywords
Geometallurgy, autogenous grindability test, abrasion breakage, process mineralogy, automated mineralogy
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92745 (URN)
Conference
IMPC Asia-Pacific 2022, Melbourne, Australia, August 22-24, 2022
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-922395-08-5

Available from: 2022-09-01 Created: 2022-09-01 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Pålsson, B. I., Parian, M., Larsson, S. & Jonsén, P. (2022). An attempt to a full energy balance for a pilot-scale stirred media mill. In: IMPC Asia-Pacific 2022 Conference Proceedings: . Paper presented at IMPC Asia-Pacific 2022, Melbourne, Australia, August 22-24, 2022 (pp. 266-273). The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An attempt to a full energy balance for a pilot-scale stirred media mill
2022 (English)In: IMPC Asia-Pacific 2022 Conference Proceedings, The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2022, p. 266-273Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The question of effective energy utilisation in grinding mills is not new. There are several conflicting arguments about tumbling mills, whether the efficiency is around one per cent or maybe ten per cent, or even much lower. The energy not used is assumed to be lost as heating of the pulp, the grinding mill body, the charge, generation of shockwaves and vibrations, etc. Stirred media mills on the other hand are generally considered to have better energy utilisation, but their energy efficiency is still not that clear. To shed some light on this a pilot-scale, wet stirred media mill was investigated over a range of operating conditions. The wet stirred media mill is a Drais PMH 5 TEX pearl mill fitted with an electric motor at 11 kW. It has been investigated over a range of operating conditions to try to balance the dissemination of the input energy in forms of the net grinding energy, mechanical energy losses, and the heating transferred to the pulp, the mill, the charge, and the cooling water. It is found that approximately 20 – 40 per cent of the input energy accounts for the grinding process. Also, that the difference between gross and net input electrical energy is mainly disseminated as heating of the pulp and cooling water. Mechanical energy losses appear to be much smaller than the heating effects. The use of a dispersant seems to mainly influence the heating effect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2022
Keywords
Energy balance, stirred media mill
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Mineral Processing; Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92705 (URN)
Conference
IMPC Asia-Pacific 2022, Melbourne, Australia, August 22-24, 2022
Projects
Stirred media mill performance and grinding wear prediction
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-05463
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-922395-08-5

Available from: 2022-08-30 Created: 2022-08-30 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Semsari Parapari, P., Parian, M. & Rosenkranz, J. (2022). Quantitative analysis of ore texture breakage characteristics affected by loading mechanism: Fragmentation and mineral liberation. Minerals Engineering, 182, Article ID 107561.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative analysis of ore texture breakage characteristics affected by loading mechanism: Fragmentation and mineral liberation
2022 (English)In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 182, article id 107561Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mineral liberation as the main purpose of comminution in ore beneficiation is not applied in the design of comminution machines or even often neglected in designing comminution circuits. In addition, other factors critical for comminution efficiency such as fracture energy, and particle fragmentation are rarely considered. The current study investigates the combined effects of particle textural properties and process operational conditions on the fragmentation of bed particle. In particular, the influence of ore texture and loading displacement rate (as the material and machine properties) on particle specific fracture energy, breakage mode, liberation, and fragmentation was studied. The results indicate that ore textures with coarsest grain sizes and lower quantities of cleavage minerals have the least amount of fracture energy. In terms of fragmentation, a lower displacement rates results in higher quantities of the fragmented particles compared to the higher displacement rate. Among studied ore textures, two types of hematite ore textures which had the coarsest grain sizes had lower liberation in finer size fractions. Overall, the outcomes show that the displacement rate and ore texture can affect the specific fracture energy, particle fragmentation, mineral liberation, and breakage mode at different degrees.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Comminution, Loading mechanism, Breakage mode, Mineral liberation, Displacement rate, Ore texture, Energy consumption, Mineralogy
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87482 (URN)10.1016/j.mineng.2022.107561 (DOI)000793661100007 ()2-s2.0-85128191801 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-04-19 (sofila);

Funder: Centre for Advanced Mining and Metallurgy (CAMM)

Available from: 2021-10-13 Created: 2021-10-13 Last updated: 2023-12-19Bibliographically approved
Semsari Parapari, P., Parian, M., Pålsson, B. I. & Rosenkranz, J. (2022). Quantitative analysis of ore texture breakage characteristics affected by loading mechanism: Multivariate data analysis of particle texture parameters. Minerals Engineering, 181, Article ID 107531.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative analysis of ore texture breakage characteristics affected by loading mechanism: Multivariate data analysis of particle texture parameters
2022 (English)In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 181, article id 107531Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding and optimizing the comminution process in terms of mineral liberation, fragmentation, and fracture energy are aligned with sustainable approaches and overall international goals of green solutions. This study investigates the combined effect of material properties (ore textural features) and process factors (displacement rate) on mineral liberation, fracture energy, and fragmentation. For achieving this aim, multivariate data analysis tools are used to examine the fragmentation by compression of multiple layers of iron oxide minerals in a particle bed. The results indicate that ore textural features distinctively influence particle fragmentation, mineral liberation, and fracture energy and the ore textural effects are more pronounced compared to displacement rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Comminution, Loading mechanism, Ore texture, Statistical analysis, Multivariate projection, Liberation, Fracture energy, Fragmentation
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87483 (URN)10.1016/j.mineng.2022.107531 (DOI)000821456900003 ()2-s2.0-85127515584 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-04-08 (hanlid);

Funder: Centre for Advanced Mining and Metallurgy (CAMM)

Available from: 2021-10-13 Created: 2021-10-13 Last updated: 2023-12-19Bibliographically approved
Parian, M., Pålsson, B. I. & Kuva, J. (2022). XCT investigation on the generation of fatigue in autogenous grinding pebbles and its contribution to pre-weakening before fracture. In: IMPC Asia-Pacific 2022 Conference Proceedings: . Paper presented at IMPC Asia-Pacific 2022, Melbourne, Australia, August 22-24, 2022 (pp. 274-280). The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>XCT investigation on the generation of fatigue in autogenous grinding pebbles and its contribution to pre-weakening before fracture
2022 (English)In: IMPC Asia-Pacific 2022 Conference Proceedings, The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2022, p. 274-280Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Comminution is the process for the liberation and size reduction of ores prior to separationprocesses. Generally, in mineral processing, grinding is done using rod, ball, autogenous, or semiautogenous mills. The fully autogenous grinding (AG) is the most cost- and process-efficient grinding by benefiting from eliminating steel grinding media. It is also a superior choice for downstream processes such as flotation of some sulphide minerals that are sensitive to the reducing conditions caused by iron chipped away from the steel media.

One of the main factors affecting the suitability of an ore for autogenous grinding is the ore competency, i.e., provide enough critical stones for the grinding process. Several experimental test routines exist and are used for assessing the viability of the ore for autogenous grinding. However, very little attention is given to the generation of fatigue in large stones experiencing repeated shocks in the mill. To investigate this, large pebbles sampled from industrial autogenous grinding mills for hard and soft ores which were categorized based on the grinding energy.

From the pebbles, small drill core samples were prepared and went through a series of fatigue cycle tests. Both hard and soft ores showed similar average resistance to failure in compression tests, but the hard ore had a consistent resistance with lower variations. The cores were scanned before and in-between fatigue tests at the highest reachable resolution, 1.5 µm voxel size. The outcome showed that higher number of micro-cracks were visible in the soft ore compared to the hard ore. The frequency of micro-crack development in the soft ore may be the reason for its lower specific grinding energy compared to the hard ore.

It is obvious that for realistic conditions in an autogenous grinding mill, stones are pre-weakened by fatigue before they fracture. Therefore, shortcut methods focusing only on running tests on fresh and small samples may operate in unrealistic conditions by ignoring the fatigue phenomenon. This is even more important for ores that are in between the soft and hard ore boundary or on the borderline to be considered as a competent ore for autogenous milling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2022
Keywords
Fatigue, micro-crack, critical stones, XCT
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92744 (URN)
Conference
IMPC Asia-Pacific 2022, Melbourne, Australia, August 22-24, 2022
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-05194
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-922395-08-5

Available from: 2022-09-01 Created: 2022-09-01 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Guntoro, P. I., Ghorbani, Y., Parian, M., Butcher, A. R., Kuva, J. & Rosenkranz, J. (2021). Development and experimental validation of a texture-based 3D liberation model. Minerals Engineering, 164, Article ID 106828.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and experimental validation of a texture-based 3D liberation model
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2021 (English)In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 164, article id 106828Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prediction of mineral liberation is one of the key steps in establishing a link between ore texture and its processing behavior. With the rapid development of X-ray Microcomputed Tomography (µCT), the extension of liberation modeling into 3D realms becomes possible. Liberation modeling allows for the generation of particle population from 3D texture data in a completely non-destructive manner. This study presents a novel texture-based 3D liberation model that is capable of predicting liberation from 3D drill core image acquired by µCT. The model takes preferential, phase-boundary, and random breakage into account with differing relative contributions to the liberation depending on the ore texture itself. The model was calibrated using experimental liberation data measured in 3D µCT. After calibration, the liberation model was found to be capable of explaining on average of around 84% of the variance in the experimental liberation data. The generated particle population can be used for particle-based process simulation to evaluate the process responses of various ore textures subjected to various modes of breakage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Liberation modeling, x-ray microcomputed tomography, ore texture
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-81041 (URN)10.1016/j.mineng.2021.106828 (DOI)000634857800002 ()2-s2.0-85101275629 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 722677
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-02-26 (alebob);

Artikeln har tidigare förekommit som manuskript i avhandling

Available from: 2020-10-06 Created: 2020-10-06 Last updated: 2023-12-19Bibliographically approved
Parian, M., Lamberg, P. & Rosenkranz, J. (2021). Process simulations in mineralogy-based geometallurgy of iron ores. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy: Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 130(1), 25-30
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process simulations in mineralogy-based geometallurgy of iron ores
2021 (English)In: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy: Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2572-6641, E-ISSN 2572-665X, Vol. 130, no 1, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mineral processing simulation models can be classified based on the level that feed stream to the plant and unit models are described. The levels of modelling in this context are: bulk, mineral or element by size, and particle. Particle level modelling and simulation utilises liberation data in the feed stream and is more sensitive to the variations in ore quality, specifically ore texture. In this paper, simulations for two texturally different magnetite ores are demonstrated at different modelling levels. The model parameters were calibrated for current run-of-mine ore and then in the simulation applied directly to the other ore. For the second ore, the simulation results vary between the different levels. This is because, at the bulk level, the model assumes minerals do not change their behaviour if ore texture or grinding fineness are changed. At the mineral by size level, the assumption is that minerals behave identically in each size fraction even if the ore texture changes. At the particle level, the assumption is that similar particles behave in the same way. The particle level approach gives results that are more realistic and it can be used in optimisation, thus finding the most optimal processing way for different geometallurgical domains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2021
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Mineral Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70357 (URN)10.1080/25726641.2018.1507072 (DOI)000621217800004 ()2-s2.0-85051936925 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-03-08 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2023-12-19Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5979-5608

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