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Nordlund, Markus
Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Nordlund, M. & Lundström, S. (2010). An investigation of particle deposition mechanisms during impregnation of dual-scale fabrics with micro particle image velocimetry (ed.). Paper presented at . Polymer Composites, 31(7), 1232-1240
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An investigation of particle deposition mechanisms during impregnation of dual-scale fabrics with micro particle image velocimetry
2010 (English)In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 1232-1240Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Injection moulding processing of composite materials most often includes infiltration of a thermoset resin into a multi-scale porous fabric. Controlling the fluid flow within the multi-scale fabric is essential for the quality of the final composite material, since the transport of fluid between regions with different scales is of importance for phenomena such as void formation and filtration of particle doped resins. Hence, the transient flow behaviour in dual scale porous media is investigated in detail with Micro Particle Image Velocimetry. These experiments show that the fluid transport between the two scales can be controlled by the injection velocity. Validation of the measured velocity fields furthermore shows excellent agreement with theory and that transport between the two scales can be substantial at the flow front but negligible up-stream it. POLYM. COMPOS

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-8487 (URN)10.1002/pc.20910 (DOI)000279206500012 ()2-s2.0-77954331118 (Scopus ID)70047e20-6818-11de-9f57-000ea68e967b (Local ID)70047e20-6818-11de-9f57-000ea68e967b (Archive number)70047e20-6818-11de-9f57-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2010; 20090703 (stlu)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Nordlund, M. & Lundström, S. (2008). Effect of multi-scale porosity in local permeability modelling of non-crimp fabrics (ed.). Paper presented at . Transport in Porous Media, 73(1), 109-124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of multi-scale porosity in local permeability modelling of non-crimp fabrics
2008 (English)In: Transport in Porous Media, ISSN 0169-3913, E-ISSN 1573-1634, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 109-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of multi-scale porosity of fibre reinforcements on local permeability is investigated, in order to determine the possibility of simplifying permeability models for more efficient permeability calculations. Unit cell models of a biaxial Non-Crimp Fabric are developed and used to investigate, whether or not the porous bundles can be excluded, when modelling the local permeability. Numerical accuracy of calculations is controlled to guarantee the quality of the results and the conclusions drawn from them. It is found that fibre bundles with high fibre density can be excluded from permeability models, while bundles with low fibre volume fractions need to be included. A new method to model the local permeability of multi-scale reinforcements is developed and verified for low fibre density in the bundles. In this method, the effects of the flow inside the fibre bundles are included through modifications of the boundary conditions of a single-scale model representing the interbundle regions. The local permeability of multi-scale reinforcements can, therefore, be calculated by models with simplified fluid domains for all fibre bundle porosities, instead of being calculated by models consisting of the entire multi-scale geometry.

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15462 (URN)10.1007/s11242-007-9161-0 (DOI)000254462800007 ()2-s2.0-41849131033 (Scopus ID)ef9299d0-71af-11dc-86ab-000ea68e967b (Local ID)ef9299d0-71af-11dc-86ab-000ea68e967b (Archive number)ef9299d0-71af-11dc-86ab-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2008; 20071003 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Michaud, V., Nordlund, M., Lundström, S. & Månsson, J.-E. (2007). Capillary phenomena in liquid composite moulding (ed.). In: (Ed.), Kazuro Kageyama (Ed.), 1CD-ROM proceedings of the Sixtennth International Conference on Composite Materials, July 8 - 13, 2007, Kyoto, Japan: A giant step towards environmental awareness: from green composites to aerospace. Paper presented at International Conference on Composite Materials : 08/07/2007 - 13/07/2007. Kyōto
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capillary phenomena in liquid composite moulding
2007 (English)In: 1CD-ROM proceedings of the Sixtennth International Conference on Composite Materials, July 8 - 13, 2007, Kyoto, Japan: A giant step towards environmental awareness: from green composites to aerospace / [ed] Kazuro Kageyama, Kyōto, 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In liquid composite moulding, capillary phenomena take place as the fibre/air interface is progressively replaced by the fibre/resin interface. These effects are often neglected when computing the flow front progression into the fibre preform, because the surface tension of the resins is low. However, these are recognized to exert an influence on the final void content of the part. In this article, we present experimental results from unidirectional infiltration of an epoxy resin under constant flow rate into non-crimp fabrics. The inlet pressure rise is shown to deviate from linearity, indicating a progressive saturation. A multiphase flow approach is proposed to model infiltration, assuming saturation curves and relative permeability dependence on saturation based on soil science literature. Numerical results using a FEM code show trends that are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results. The interest and validity of this approach is then discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kyōto: , 2007
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-27008 (URN)0502ff80-71c9-11dc-86ab-000ea68e967b (Local ID)9784931136052 (ISBN)0502ff80-71c9-11dc-86ab-000ea68e967b (Archive number)0502ff80-71c9-11dc-86ab-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Composite Materials : 08/07/2007 - 13/07/2007
Note

Godkänd; 2007; 20071003 (ysko)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
Nordlund, M., Fernberg, S. & Lundström, S. (2007). Particle deposition mechanisms during processing of advanced composite materials (ed.). Paper presented at . Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, 38(10), 2182-2193
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle deposition mechanisms during processing of advanced composite materials
2007 (English)In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 2182-2193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Liquid composite moulding of advanced composite materials often comprises infiltration of a particle-filled resin into a multi-scale porous fabric. These injections/infusions are subject to severe particle depositions inside the reinforcement, leading to undesired inhomogeneous mechanical and functional properties. Hence, the mechanisms for particle depositions are investigated by detailed meso-scale experiments, analysed by microscopic imaging and micro-particle image velocimetry, and macroscopic infusions of a biaxial non-crimp fabric. It is shown that two main particle deposition mechanisms are filtration during fibre bundle impregnation and filtration induced by stationary flow through fibre bundles. It is also clarified where in the reinforcement the particles will deposit. Finally, a number of suggestions on how to process advanced composite materials with a more homogeneous particle distribution are launched.

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-11895 (URN)10.1016/j.compositesa.2007.06.009 (DOI)000250946500012 ()2-s2.0-34848927453 (Scopus ID)aebf40d0-71ae-11dc-86ab-000ea68e967b (Local ID)aebf40d0-71ae-11dc-86ab-000ea68e967b (Archive number)aebf40d0-71ae-11dc-86ab-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2007; 20071003 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Nordlund, M. & Lundström, S. (2006). Experimental study of particle filtration in dual-scale porous media (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), 2nd International Symposium Nanostructured and Functional Polymer-based Materials and Composites, Lyon, May 29 - 31,2006: . Paper presented at International Symposium on Nanostructured and Functional Polymer : Based Material and Composites 29/05/2006 - 31/05/2006. : Impact press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental study of particle filtration in dual-scale porous media
2006 (English)In: 2nd International Symposium Nanostructured and Functional Polymer-based Materials and Composites, Lyon, May 29 - 31,2006, Impact press, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Impact press, 2006
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-35597 (URN)a2e9bcd0-f234-11db-bb1b-000ea68e967b (Local ID)a2e9bcd0-f234-11db-bb1b-000ea68e967b (Archive number)a2e9bcd0-f234-11db-bb1b-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Conference
International Symposium on Nanostructured and Functional Polymer : Based Material and Composites 29/05/2006 - 31/05/2006
Note
Godkänd; 2006; 20070424 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Lundström, S. & Nordlund, M. (2006). Investigation of transient flow behaviour in dual-scale porous media with micro particle image velocimetry (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Proceedings, 4th International Scientific Colloquium Modelling for Material Processing: . Paper presented at International Scientific Colloquium Modelling for Material Processing : 08/06/2006 - 09/06/2006 (pp. 117-122).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of transient flow behaviour in dual-scale porous media with micro particle image velocimetry
2006 (English)In: Proceedings, 4th International Scientific Colloquium Modelling for Material Processing, 2006, p. 117-122Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Injection processing of composite materials most often includes infiltration of a thermoset resin into a multi-scale porous fabric. Controlling the fluid flow within the multiscale fabric is essential for the quality of the final composite material, since the transport of fluid between regions with different scales plays an important role in phenomena such as void formation and filtration of particle doped resins. In this work, the transient flow behaviour in dual scale porous media is investigated with Micro Particle Image Velocimetry in order to enhance the knowledge and control of the processing of multi-scale composites so that their quality can be improved. Experiments show that the fluid transport between the two scales can be controlled by the injection velocity. Validation of the measured velocity fields furthermore shows excellent agreement with theory.

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-31251 (URN)55eeca70-a549-11db-8975-000ea68e967b (Local ID)55eeca70-a549-11db-8975-000ea68e967b (Archive number)55eeca70-a549-11db-8975-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Conference
International Scientific Colloquium Modelling for Material Processing : 08/06/2006 - 09/06/2006
Note
Godkänd; 2006; Bibliografisk uppgift: CD-ROM; 20070116 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Nordlund, M. (2006). Permeability modelling and particle deposition mechanisms related to advanced composites manufacturing (ed.). (Doctoral dissertation). Paper presented at . Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Permeability modelling and particle deposition mechanisms related to advanced composites manufacturing
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Advanced composite materials reinforced by Non-Crimp Fabrics (NCFs) are becoming increasingly popular for high performance, light weight, complex structures, due to their high mechanical properties and relatively cheap production costs. These materials, not only improve the structural properties, but also induce great possibilities for reduced fuel consumptions for aircrafts and automotives, due to their high strength to weight ratio. In recent years, even more advanced composite materials have been developed, in order to meet the increasing demands of optimized composite structures from the manufacturers. These materials can have functional properties such as thermal resistance, electromagnetic shielding, conductivity, sensor or self healing properties integrated into the material through functional filler-particles, which are pre-mixed into the resin before being injected into the preform. In order to use these kind of materials in high-end applications, they need to be of highest possible quality, meaning few defects and homogeneous distribution of the functionality and often also produced at the lowest possible cost. An extensive control of the manufacturing is therefore required, since defects and inhomogeneous particle distributions are usually initiated there. During the impregnation stage, resin flows at low Reynolds number through a porous medium in the form of a fibre reinforcement. In order to control the filling process, the permeability of the reinforcement need to be determined accurately. Initially, the local permeability distribution of biaxial NCFs is investigated. Three types of unit cells are identified, where each one represents a specific geometrical feature originating from the stitching process. The local permeabilities of these unit cells are computed for various dimensions by combining Computational Fluid Dynamics and Darcy’s law, in order to scrutinize the importance of the different features and fabric dimensions on the local permeability. It is, for example, shown in this study, that the widths and heights of the interbundle channels in NCFs and the fibres crossing them between adjacent stitches, have the greatest influence on the local permeability, while the stitching thread itself and the shape of the fibre bundles affect it less. In order to improve the speed of the local permeability computations, without reducing the accuracy, a model as simple as possible is sought after. An investigation of whether or not the fibre bundles need to be included into the permeability model is therefore performed. Modelling the fibre bundles of NCFs is proved to be irrelevant for the local permeability for high fibre volume fractions inside the fibre bundles, fb, while the fibre bundles is shown to be important for low fb:s. A new model, including the effect from the fibre bundles without modelling them directly, is developed for low fb:s, in order to facilitate faster, but still accurate permeability computations on models with reduced fluid domains for the entire span of fb:s. Knowing the influence from the geometry on the local permeability, a global permeability model is developed for biaxial NCFs. Unlike most other developed permeability models for NCFs, this model comprises the complex geometrical features originating from the stitching process as well as the spatial variations of the fabric dimensions. The model is based on a network of interconnecting unit cells, with local permeability values calculated numerically. Validation of the global permeability model shows that inclusion of the features from the stitching process into the permeability model, together with an accurate determination of the average dimensions of the interbundle channels, are fundamental, in order to predict the global permeability of NCFs. The second topic considered in the present thesis is related to the inhomogeneous particle distribution, resulting in poor mechanical and functional properties of liquid composite moulded functional composites. To be able to control the distribution of filler-particles in the composites, knowledge and control about the particle deposition mechanisms occurring during the filling process are mandatory. The mechanisms and their resulting particle depositions are examined by microscopic imaging and from velocity fields measured by Micro Particle Image Velocimetry, on the flow in simplified miniscule geometries. In particular, two main mechanisms are studied, being filtration during fibre bundle impregnation and filtration induced by stationary flow through fibre bundles. These mechanisms, not only result in particle depositions, but also in particle-free regions, which are also observed in the analysis of a macroscopic vacuum infused, real biaxial NCF. Several suggestions of adjustments of the process and material parameters, such as the injection flow rate, fabric architecture and orientation, are furthermore outlined, with the aim of reducing these depositions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006. p. 71
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544 ; 2006:45
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-17156 (URN)1f0d8900-86cd-11db-8975-000ea68e967b (Local ID)1f0d8900-86cd-11db-8975-000ea68e967b (Archive number)1f0d8900-86cd-11db-8975-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note

Godkänd; 2006; 20061116 (pafi)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
Nordlund, M., Lundström, S., Frishfelds, V. & Jakovics, A. (2006). Permeability network model for non-crimp fabrics (ed.). Paper presented at . Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, 37(6), 826-835
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Permeability network model for non-crimp fabrics
2006 (English)In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 826-835Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work a global permeability model is developed and applied to a biaxial Non-crimp stitched fabric (NCF). This model focuses on a detailed meso-scale description of the fabric geometry, which takes into account the local permeability distribution in a fabric due to perturbations of the geometry as well as the geometrical features which arise from the stitching process. It is shown in this work that these features significantly affects the global permeability. The influence of the amount and type of perturbation of a fabric is also studied in this work. It is shown that perturbation of the fabric geometry affect the global permeability but not as much as the stitching process. The model developed is finally validated with experimental permeability data and it is suggested how to use the model for an arbitrary lay-up.

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6363 (URN)10.1016/j.compositesa.2005.02.009 (DOI)000236961800003 ()2-s2.0-33645090700 (Scopus ID)497b61d0-c359-11db-9ea3-000ea68e967b (Local ID)497b61d0-c359-11db-9ea3-000ea68e967b (Archive number)497b61d0-c359-11db-9ea3-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2006; Bibliografisk uppgift: Contributions from the 7th International Conference on Flow Processes in Composite Materials held at University of Delaware, USA; 20070111 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Nordlund, M. & Lundström, S. (2005). Numerical study of the local permeability of noncrimp fabrics (ed.). Paper presented at . Journal of composite materials, 39(10), 929-947
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical study of the local permeability of noncrimp fabrics
2005 (English)In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 929-947Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Noncrimp stitched fabrics (NCFs) are often used as reinforcing materials in high-performance composite materials. Prediction models of the processing stage of the manufacturing are highly desirable in order to enhance the control of the process and enable the production of materials with higher quality. In NCFs, layers of parallel fiber bundles consisting of a large number of fibers are stitched together with other layers to form a network of interbundle channels in different directions. In earlier works, numerical simulations on unit cells had been performed in order to predict the global permeability of NCFs. It was shown that features like the thread influence the local permeability of the unit cells and therefore, the local permeability distribution of a fabric also. Furthermore, this influences the global permeability of the entire fabric. In the present paper, different geometrical features are therefore studied in order to investigate their influence on the local permeability within an NCF. The stitching process in addition to the interbundle channels, gives rise to two geometrical features, the thread which penetrates the channels and the crossing of fibers between two neighboring fiber bundles. The influences of these two features on the local permeability are studied together with variations of other geometrical parameters of the fabric. Computational Fluid Dynamics are used for the flow simulations in order to calculate the local permeability for the different unit cells. To ensure quality and trust, the numerical accuracy of the simulations is also studied. This work proves that the thread and the crossings, as well as the variations of the width and the height of the interbundle channels, have great influence on the local permeability. Prediction models therefore, have to take these features as well as geometry distortions, which influence the local permeability distribution, into account in order to make accurate predictions of the global permeability of a fabric.

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-12131 (URN)10.1177/0021998305048734 (DOI)000229347600005 ()2-s2.0-18844404097 (Scopus ID)b34a2530-a610-11db-9811-000ea68e967b (Local ID)b34a2530-a610-11db-9811-000ea68e967b (Archive number)b34a2530-a610-11db-9811-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2005; 20061212 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Nordlund, M. & Lundström, S. (2005). Permeability network model of non-crimp fabrics (ed.). In: (Ed.), Viktor E. Verijenko (Ed.), Fifteenth international conference on composite materials (ICCM-15): extended abstracts : 27 June - 1 July 2005, Durban, South Africa. Paper presented at International Conference on Composite Materials : 27/06/2005 - 01/07/2005. Durban: Centre for Composite and Smart Materials and Structures, University of KwaZulu-Natal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Permeability network model of non-crimp fabrics
2005 (English)In: Fifteenth international conference on composite materials (ICCM-15): extended abstracts : 27 June - 1 July 2005, Durban, South Africa / [ed] Viktor E. Verijenko, Durban: Centre for Composite and Smart Materials and Structures, University of KwaZulu-Natal , 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Durban: Centre for Composite and Smart Materials and Structures, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2005
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-32593 (URN)722dbfd0-a610-11db-9811-000ea68e967b (Local ID)1868405877 (ISBN)722dbfd0-a610-11db-9811-000ea68e967b (Archive number)722dbfd0-a610-11db-9811-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Composite Materials : 27/06/2005 - 01/07/2005
Note
Godkänd; 2005; 20070111 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved

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