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Moghadas, S., Leonhardt, G., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2018). Modeling Urban Runoff from Rain-on-Snow Events with the U.S. EPA SWMM Model for Current and Future Climate Scenarios. Journal of cold regions engineering, 32(1), Article ID 04017021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling Urban Runoff from Rain-on-Snow Events with the U.S. EPA SWMM Model for Current and Future Climate Scenarios
2018 (English)In: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 32, no 1, article id 04017021Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A methodological study of modeling runoff from rain-on-snow events was conducted using the northern Swedish city of Kiruna as a test case, with respect to physiographic, drainage system, and the current and projected future climate data. Runoff simulations were carried out with the PCSWMM, which is a geographic information system (GIS) supported version of the U.S. EPA Storm Water Management Model (U.S. EPA SWMM5) developed by Computational Hydraulics International (CHI). In total, 177 simulations were run covering four scenario categories: eight rain events, three climates (the current and two projected), three soil infiltration rates, and five snow water equivalent (SWE) values. Simulation results were analyzed with respect to influential rainfall/snowmelt/runoff factors and the noted differences were statistically tested for significance. Result analysis revealed new findings concerning the differences between runoff generated by rain-on-snow and summer thunderstorm events. In particular, it was noted that a relatively frequent rain-on-snow event, with a return period of 1.4 year, caused fewer flooded nodes and surcharged pipes in the catchment sewer system, but almost five times greater runoff volume, when compared to the same drainage system performance indicators corresponding to a 10-year event occurring in the summer. Depending on the physical characteristics of the snow cover, among which the depth appears the most important, rainwater and snowmelt may be retained in, or released from, the snowpack, which acts as a dynamic reservoir controlling the generation and release of runoff. Smaller snow depths produce smaller volumes of melt, smaller storage capacity and less effective insulation of soils, which may freeze to greater depths and become practically impervious, until the process of soil thawing has been completed. The impacts of climate change in the study area, described by increases in precipitation and air temperatures, are likely to cause more frequent runoff problems attributed to the future rain-on-snow events. Even though the runoff tendencies reported here reflect the characteristics of the study area and climate, they suggest the need to consider rain-on-snow events in sewer design and storm water management in regions with seasonal snow covers, certainly with respect to runoff volumes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2018
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66278 (URN)10.1061/(ASCE)CR.1943-5495.0000147 (DOI)000428257200007 ()2-s2.0-85032174474 (Scopus ID)
Projects
GREEN / BLUE CITIES - GreenBlue Infrastructure for Sustainable, Attractive Cities
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 1173214VINNOVA, 1173214
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-10-26 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-10-26 Created: 2017-10-26 Last updated: 2018-04-12Bibliographically approved
Leonhardt, G., Moghadas, S., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2017). An exploratory study of snowmelt runoff modelling in an urban catchment using the US EPASWMM model. In: 14th IWA/IAHR International Conference On Urban Drainage: . Paper presented at 14th IWA/IAHR International Conference On Urban Drainage, Prague, Czech Republic, September 10-15 2017 (pp. 78-81).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An exploratory study of snowmelt runoff modelling in an urban catchment using the US EPASWMM model
2017 (English)In: 14th IWA/IAHR International Conference On Urban Drainage, 2017, p. 78-81Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
melt condition, model calibration, snowmelt model, SWMM
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Water Engineering Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66033 (URN)
Conference
14th IWA/IAHR International Conference On Urban Drainage, Prague, Czech Republic, September 10-15 2017
Projects
Reliable modeling of green infrastructure in green urban catchments - Calibration, validation and uncertainty assessment
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2015-121
Available from: 2017-10-10 Created: 2017-10-10 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
Moghadas, S., Perttu, A.-M., Viklander, P., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2016). Laboratory study of infiltration into two frozen engineered (sandy) soils recommended for bioretention (ed.). Paper presented at . Hydrological Processes, 30(8), 1251-1264
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory study of infiltration into two frozen engineered (sandy) soils recommended for bioretention
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2016 (English)In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1251-1264Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Infiltration of water into two frozen engineered soils of different gradation was studied in laboratory soil columns 1.2 m long and 0.1 m in diameter. Prior to testing, the soil moisture was adjusted to two levels, described by the gravimetric water content of 5 or 10%, soils were compacted to about 80-90% of the maximum dry density, and refrigerated to temperatures ranging from −8 to −2 °C. Water with temperatures 8-9 °C was thereafter fed on the top of columns at a constant head and the times of water break through the column and reaching a steady percolation rate, as well as the percolation rate, were recorded. The soil water content was a critical factor affecting the thawing process; during freezing, soil moisture was converted into ice, which blocked pores, and its melting required high amounts of energy supplied by infiltrating water. Hence, the thawing of soils with higher initial water content was much slower than in lower moisture soils, and water breakthrough and the attainment of steady percolation required much longer times in higher moisture soils. Heat transfer between infiltrating water, soil ice and frozen soil particles was well described by the energy budget equations, which constitute a parsimonious model of the observed processes. The finer grained soil and more compacted soil columns exhibited reduced porosity and required longer times for soil thawing. Practical implications of study results for design of bioretention facilities (BFs) in cold climate include the use of coarse engineered soils and fitting BFs with a drain facilitating soil drainage before the onset of freezing weather. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

National Category
Water Engineering Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering; Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14505 (URN)10.1002/hyp.10711 (DOI)000373959500007 ()2-s2.0-84947996817 (Scopus ID)ddfe0621-5037-4a4b-a069-375d4859d71b (Local ID)ddfe0621-5037-4a4b-a069-375d4859d71b (Archive number)ddfe0621-5037-4a4b-a069-375d4859d71b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20151110 (shamog)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Moghadas, S., Gustafsson, A.-M., Muthanna, T. M., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2016). Review of models and procedures for modelling urban snowmelt (ed.). Paper presented at . Urban Water Journal, 13(4), 396-411
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of models and procedures for modelling urban snowmelt
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2016 (English)In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 396-411Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A literature review of selected snowmelt models or algorithms was undertaken to identify which of these tools could be readily used, or easily modified, for simulating urban snowmelt. In this context, the urban factors influencing snowmelt were classified into three categories: human activities, land use, and the origin of deposited snow; and served to develop a classification of urban snow covers with characteristic properties influencing snowmelt. Finally, the assessment of capabilities of the surveyed models or algorithms to simulate snowmelt for these covers indicated that: (i) only two of the tools addressed the critical characteristics of urban snow covers (for specific cases only), (ii) urban runoff models with snowmelt subroutines offered best operational flexibility, though modifications and/or guidance on input values would be required for satisfactory simulations, and (iii) the review findings should help modellers in choosing a snowmelt simulation tool best serving their task with respect to urban conditions.

National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-5860 (URN)10.1080/1573062X.2014.993996 (DOI)2-s2.0-84959860652 (Scopus ID)40cc21c3-2f79-40a3-a3a8-252f24fb24ba (Local ID)40cc21c3-2f79-40a3-a3a8-252f24fb24ba (Archive number)40cc21c3-2f79-40a3-a3a8-252f24fb24ba (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20141214 (shamog)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Moghadas, S. (2016). Urban Runoff and Snowmelt: Quantity and Quality Processes in Snow Deposits and Hydrologic Abstractions. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban Runoff and Snowmelt: Quantity and Quality Processes in Snow Deposits and Hydrologic Abstractions
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: , 2016
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-120 (URN)978-91-7583-672-0 (ISBN)978-91-7583-673-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-10-31, A1545, Luleå tekninska universitet, Luleå, 10:00
Opponent
Available from: 2016-09-14 Created: 2016-09-14 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Moghadas, S., Paus, K. H., Muthanna, T. M., Herrmann, I., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2015). Accumulation of Traffic-Related Trace Metals in Urban Winter_Long Roadside Snowbanks (ed.). Paper presented at . Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 226(12), Article ID 404.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accumulation of Traffic-Related Trace Metals in Urban Winter_Long Roadside Snowbanks
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2015 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, no 12, article id 404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accumulations of mass loads of selected chemicals in roadside snowbanks were studied at five sites with various traffic densities in the City of Trondheim (Norway) by collecting snow samples throughout the winter period and analysing them for 13 water quality constituents: pH, EC, alkalinity, Cl, Na, TSS, Cd, Cr, Cu. Ni, Pb, W, and Zn. The resulting dataset was then supplemented by similar data collected earlier in the City of Luleå (Sweden). Regression analyses for individual sites indicated linear trends in unit-area constituent accumulations with time (0.65

Keywords
Civil engineering and architecture - Water engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Vattenteknik
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-4045 (URN)10.1007/s11270-015-2660-7 (DOI)000365492600010 ()2-s2.0-84946781977 (Scopus ID)1e80f378-f1ee-4ca1-a853-f63fdc8cebb9 (Local ID)1e80f378-f1ee-4ca1-a853-f63fdc8cebb9 (Archive number)1e80f378-f1ee-4ca1-a853-f63fdc8cebb9 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20151110 (shamog)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Leonhardt, G., Moghadas, S., Johansson, L., Gustafsson, A.-M., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2015). Modelling the effects of the joint occurrence of rainfall and snowmedlt in urban catchments (ed.). In: (Ed.), Thomas Maere; Sovanna Tik; Sophie Duchense; Peter A. Vanrolleghem (Ed.), Urban Drainage Modelling 2015: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Urban Drainage Modelling, Mont-Sainte-Anne, Québec, Canada 20-23 Swptember 2015. Paper presented at International Urban Drainage Modelling Conference : 20/09/2015 - 23/09/2015 (pp. 25-31).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling the effects of the joint occurrence of rainfall and snowmedlt in urban catchments
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2015 (English)In: Urban Drainage Modelling 2015: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Urban Drainage Modelling, Mont-Sainte-Anne, Québec, Canada 20-23 Swptember 2015 / [ed] Thomas Maere; Sovanna Tik; Sophie Duchense; Peter A. Vanrolleghem, 2015, p. 25-31Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-34733 (URN)90298c07-57bc-40f2-9193-4f2f89710bdf (Local ID)90298c07-57bc-40f2-9193-4f2f89710bdf (Archive number)90298c07-57bc-40f2-9193-4f2f89710bdf (OAI)
Conference
International Urban Drainage Modelling Conference : 20/09/2015 - 23/09/2015
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20151009 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
Leonhardt, G., Moghadas, S., Gustafsson, A.-M., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2015). Modelling the effects of the joint occurrence of rainfall and snowmelt in urban catchments (ed.). Paper presented at NORDIWA 2015 : Nordic Wastewater Conference 04/11/2015 - 06/11/2015. Paper presented at NORDIWA 2015 : Nordic Wastewater Conference 04/11/2015 - 06/11/2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling the effects of the joint occurrence of rainfall and snowmelt in urban catchments
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Keywords
Cold climate, Rain-on-snow events, Snowmelt modelling, Civil engineering and architecture - Water engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Vattenteknik
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering; Attractive built environment (AERI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-37394 (URN)b65b556e-11cf-436b-a748-e469471feff1 (Local ID)b65b556e-11cf-436b-a748-e469471feff1 (Archive number)b65b556e-11cf-436b-a748-e469471feff1 (OAI)
Conference
NORDIWA 2015 : Nordic Wastewater Conference 04/11/2015 - 06/11/2015
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20151202 (gunleo)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
Leonhardt, G., Moghadas, S., Gustafsson, A.-M., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2015). Modelling the effects of the joint occurrence of rainfall and snowmelt in urban catchments (ed.). Paper presented at NORDIWA 2015 : Nordic Wastewater Conference 04/11/2015 - 06/11/2015. Paper presented at NORDIWA 2015 : Nordic Wastewater Conference 04/11/2015 - 06/11/2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling the effects of the joint occurrence of rainfall and snowmelt in urban catchments
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Keywords
Cold climate, Rain-on-snow events, Snowmelt modelling, Civil engineering and architecture - Water engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Vattenteknik
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-31890 (URN)634ecd93-7e5a-4af6-b7e7-e070cd3cce5d (Local ID)634ecd93-7e5a-4af6-b7e7-e070cd3cce5d (Archive number)634ecd93-7e5a-4af6-b7e7-e070cd3cce5d (OAI)
Conference
NORDIWA 2015 : Nordic Wastewater Conference 04/11/2015 - 06/11/2015
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20151202 (gunleo)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
Moghadas, S. (2014). Generation of urban runoff: Seasonal and climate change perspective (ed.). (Licentiate dissertation). Paper presented at . : Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generation of urban runoff: Seasonal and climate change perspective
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Runoff generation in cold regions is characterized by snowmelt contributions to runoff during the periods of thawing and changing runoff patterns due to frozen ground. This thesis project aimed at addressing these challenges by advancing the procedures for winter urban runoff computations and the assessment of control measures during the winter/spring period, when the snowmelt and frozen soils dominantly impact runoff generation in the current and future climates. In such considerations, contributions of green/pervious areas to runoff and stormwater drainage systems were found particularly important and were addressed in one of the study components by conducting sensitivity analysis of the runoff modelling tool used, the MIKE SHE model. For this purpose, four runoff generation scenarios were defined, including the baseline reference scenario, a future climate scenario with up-scaled precipitation, and two scenarios with widely different infiltration rates. The results showed that the variations of infiltration capacity and the precipitation magnitude largely influenced runoff generation and impacted on the drainage system. Such impacts were measured by the number of flooded nodes and surcharged pipes, which greatly increased with decreasing infiltration capacity (described by Ks=1×10-10 m/s, which corresponds to the bedrock) and somewhat increased for increasing future precipitation (+20%). Projection of future climatological parameters to 2100 (i.e. temperature, precipitation and maximum hourly precipitation) were obtained for investigating seasonal changes in the town of Kalmar (southern Sweden). The results indicated that the seasonal precipitation patterns would become more similar in all the seasons, and the winter period would experience more changes in runoff generation, which would require more attention in stormwater management with respect to both snowmelt simulation and considerations of frozen grounds. To advance the understanding of urban snowmelt modelling, a literature review of selected snowmelt models was undertaken to identify which of them could be readily used, or easily modified, for improving the current snow modelling practice. For this purpose an urban snow cover classification (13 classes) was developed on the basis of the following considerations: human activities affecting snowmelt, land use, and the origin of deposited snow. Various snow covers in urban areas were then assessed and general recommendations were made for selecting the most appropriate model for specific studies, considering the study goals, constraints on the collection of field data, budget/time restriction, and the required accuracy. Urban runoff controls by green infrastructures, during the cold season, were studied for green roofs and infiltration facilities. Green roofs were found to be effective in warm weather, when they could counterbalance almost all the extra rainfall imposed by climate change, in a mixed land use catchment in Luleå, retrofitted with green roofs covering 30% of the catchment area. On the other hand, green roofs produced no benefits in the cold season with sub-zero temperatures and snow removal. Infiltration of runoff into two frozen engineered (sandy) soils, with slightly varying gradation, was studied in the laboratory for two values of the initial gravimetric water content (5 and 10%). Soil thawing process and restoration of infiltration capacity was slowed down by increasing water content and the content of fines in the soil. Thus, the soil with higher water content and finer gradation required more time for attaining full infiltration capacity after soil thawing. Practical implications of study results for bioretention facilities include the recommended use of coarser engineered soils, conservative estimation of infiltration rates, provision for bypassing of high flows, and fitting the facility with a valve-controlled under-drain facilitating bioretention drainage before the onset of freezing weather.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-17568 (URN)40110b90-a797-431c-bfc9-fa01ff10f009 (Local ID)978-91-7583-063-6 (ISBN)978-91-7583-064-3 (ISBN)40110b90-a797-431c-bfc9-fa01ff10f009 (Archive number)40110b90-a797-431c-bfc9-fa01ff10f009 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20141020 (shamog); Nedanstående person kommer att hålla licentiatseminarium för avläggande av teknologie licentiatexamen. Namn: Shahab Moghadas Ämne: VA-teknik/Urban Water Engineering Uppsats: Generation of Urban Runoff Seasonal and Climate Change Perspective Examinator: Professor Maria Viklander, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå Tekniska universitet Diskutant: Forskare Claes Hernebring, DHI Sverige, Göteborg Tid: Måndag den 1 decemver 2014 kl 10.00 Plats: F1031, Luleå tekniska universitetAvailable from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0010-522x

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