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Vijayan, A., Österlund, H., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2024). Variation in urban snow quality indicated by three seasonal sampling surveys conducted in Luleå (Sweden) within a span of 27 years. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 260, Article ID 104286.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation in urban snow quality indicated by three seasonal sampling surveys conducted in Luleå (Sweden) within a span of 27 years
2024 (English)In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 260, article id 104286Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101682 (URN)10.1016/j.jconhyd.2023.104286 (DOI)38150790 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85181028710 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-05176
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-01-16 (joosat);

Part of special issue: “Special Issue in Honour of Jacques Mehler, Cognition's founding editor”

Available from: 2023-10-17 Created: 2023-10-17 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Lange, K., Furén, R., Österlund, H., Winston, R., Tirpak, R. A., Nordqvist, K., . . . Blecken, G.-T. (2023). Abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastics in the filter media of nine aged stormwater bioretention systems. Chemosphere, 320, Article ID 138103.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastics in the filter media of nine aged stormwater bioretention systems
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2023 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 320, article id 138103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bioretention systems are designed for quality treatment of stormwater. Particulate contaminants are commonly treated efficiently and accumulate mainly in the surface layer of the bioretention filter material. However, concerns exist that microplastic particles may not show equal accumulation behavior as other sediment particles. So far only two field and two laboratory studies are available on the fate of microplastics in few relatively newly built bioretention systems. Therefore, this study investigated the abundance and distribution of microplastics in nine 7–12 years old stormwater bioretention systems. It was found that microplastics generally accumulate on the surface of bioretention systems. Microplastic median particle concentrations decreased significantly from the surface layer (0–5 cm) of the filter material to the 10–15 cm depth layer from 448 to 136 particles/100 g, respectively. The distance to the inlet did not significantly affect the surface accumulation of microplastic particles, suggesting modest spatial variability in microplastics accumulation in older bioretention systems. Further, this study investigated the polymer composition in bioretention systems. It was shown that PP, EVA, PS and EPDM rubber are the most abundant polymer types in bioretention systems. Also, it was found that large percentages of microplastic particles are black particles (median percentage of black particles: 39%) which were found in 28 of the 33 investigated samples. This underlines the importance of including black particles in microplastic studies on stormwater, which has been overlooked in most previous studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Biofilter, LID, Plastic pollution, Rain garden, Soil media, Urban runoff
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering; Centre - Centre for Stormwater Management (DRIZZLE)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95676 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138103 (DOI)000944708300001 ()36775039 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147683211 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Water
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-02-21 (joosat);

Funder: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (208-0182-18)

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-02-21 Created: 2023-02-21 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Gavrić, S., Flanagan, K., Wei, H., Österlund, H., Lundy, L. & Viklander, M. (2023). Accumulation and contamination of gully pot sediments from varied land-use types: metal loads, concentrations and speciation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30, 109825-109840
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accumulation and contamination of gully pot sediments from varied land-use types: metal loads, concentrations and speciation
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 30, p. 109825-109840Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban stormwater typically enters sewer networks through gully pots, which allow a primary sedimentation of solids upstream of the piped network. The regular removal and disposal of retained sediment are necessary, costly and can involve environmental risks due to the contamination of sediments with substances from the urban environment such as metals. The concentrations and speciation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were analysed in sediments from 26 gully pots located in different land use areas in Stockholm, Sweden. In addition, accumulation rates of both sediment and metal masses were evaluated, providing a basis for optimising maintenance practices and better understanding of impacts of characteristic urban land use types. Metal concentrations varied by at most a factor of eight between samples and were always below Swedish polluted site guidelines for less sensitive land use, with only eight samples exceeding the guideline values for Cu and Zn for sensitive land use. Sequential extraction showed Pb and Zn to be the most mobile metals. Sediment accumulation rates varied from 0.003 to 0.197 kg/m2 impermeable surface/year. Metal accumulation rates were much more variable than metal concentrations, with a factor of up to 172 between the highest and lowest rates and the highest metal accumulation rates corresponding to the lower range of mass loads in road runoff. Differences in metal concentrations, sediment or metal mass accumulations could not be solely attributed to either traffic or catchment land use. In contrast, traction grit used for winter road maintenance, which has low (but detectable) metal concentrations, is identified as a major component of gully pot sediments, with a combined effect of both moderating metal concentrations and contributing to total mass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Urban stormwater runof, Catch basin, Metal mobility, Sediment quality assessment, Sediment accumulation, Sediment loads
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101514 (URN)10.1007/s11356-023-30062-1 (DOI)001078239900002 ()
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-05176
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-14 (marisr);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2023-10-02 Created: 2023-10-02 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Taneez, M., Österlund, H., Lundy, L. & Viklander, M. (2023). An evaluation of the impact of alternative pipe materials on stormwater quality: [Évaluation de l'impact de matériaux de canalisation alternatifs sur la qualité des eaux pluviales]. In: : . Paper presented at 11th Novatech international conference, Lyon, France, July 3-7, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An evaluation of the impact of alternative pipe materials on stormwater quality: [Évaluation de l'impact de matériaux de canalisation alternatifs sur la qualité des eaux pluviales]
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103797 (URN)
Conference
11th Novatech international conference, Lyon, France, July 3-7, 2023
Available from: 2024-01-17 Created: 2024-01-17 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved
Furén, R., Österlund, H., Winston, R. J., Tirpak, R. A., Dorsey, J. D., Smith, J., . . . Blecken, G.-T. (2023). Concentration, distribution, and fractionation of metals in the filter material of 29 bioretention facilities: a field study. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 9(12), 3158-3173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concentration, distribution, and fractionation of metals in the filter material of 29 bioretention facilities: a field study
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, ISSN 2053-1400, E-ISSN 2053-1419, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 3158-3173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pollutant loads stemming from anthropogenic activities conveyed in urban stormwater runoff contribute to the impairment of downstream water bodies. Cities and municipalities are increasingly turning toward green infrastructure stormwater control measures to treat pollutants at the source of runoff. One example of these technologies is bioretention, which is commonly applied for stormwater treatment in urban areas due to its demonstrated effectiveness in removing various pollutants from water, including sediment, nutrients (e.g., N and P), and metals. As metals are mainly removed by filtration or adsorption to soil particles, the filter media is important for metal removal in bioretention. However, the capacity to remove metals through adsorption by bioretention media is finite; thus, the media may need to be replaced and disposed of after maintenance or at the end of its operational lifespan. Pollutant accumulation in bioretention media has the potential to approach toxicity thresholds, which may introduce complexities for safe handling and disposal. To fully capture the potential challenges associated with metals accumulation in media over time, it is important to understand the accumulation processes and mobility of metals in bioretention facilities as they age. Although several studies have investigated metal accumulation and distribution in bioretention media, few have assessed metal mobility by fractionation using sequential extraction methods in older (i.e., >7 years) facilities. In November 2019, we conducted a comprehensive field study of older facilities in Ohio, Michigan, and Kentucky (USA) to improve the understanding of the accumulation processes and metal mobility in bioretention. In this study, concentrations of several metals (i.e., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed in samples of filter material from 29 bioretention sites in operation for 7–16 years. Except for Cd, all metals were found in all samples. Metals accumulation was clear with highest concentrations found in the top (0–5 cm) layer of the filter material, attributable to the filtration of particles percolating through the media profile. Lower concentrations were observed in deeper (i.e., >10 cm) layers of the bioretention media. The fractionation showed that the metals of interest were present at high levels with a risk of leaching over time, among which Cd, Zn, and Pb were suggested to be mobile from the filter material during precipitation. Thus, there is a potential risk of leakage from filter material or sediment removed from biofilters, e.g., during maintenance and disposal. The results of principal component analysis indicated specifically correlations between metal concentrations and the filter material soil texture including the organic matter content. These results contribute to improved design and operation and suggest regular maintenance to reduce long-term risks associated with the accumulation of metals in bioretention and similar urban stormwater treatment facilities. Since most metals are trapped in the top layer of the filter it may be enough to remove only the top layer. However, metal fractionation should be considered when handling the material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2023
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93529 (URN)10.1039/D2EW00823H (DOI)000996904200001 ()2-s2.0-85161513644 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-05176 DRIZZLESvenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF), 13623
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-12-06 (hanlid);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2022-10-10 Created: 2022-10-10 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Tedoldi, D., Flanagan, K., Gavrić, S., Blecken, G.-T., Couvidat, J., Gautier, M., . . . Chatain, V. (2023). Geochemical signature of urban stormwater sediments: a France/Sweden comparison: [Signature géochimique des sédiments de bassins pluviaux : une comparaison France/Suède]. In: : . Paper presented at 11th Novatech international conference, Lyon, France, July 3-7, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geochemical signature of urban stormwater sediments: a France/Sweden comparison: [Signature géochimique des sédiments de bassins pluviaux : une comparaison France/Suède]
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Detention- and infiltration-based systems for stormwater management trap runoff particles, which gradually form a sediment layer loaded with multiple contaminants. This study examines the trace metal composition of stormwater sediments, through a comparison between French and Swedish infrastructures. Composite sediment samples were collected from 18 infiltration basins in France and 17 wet ponds in Sweden, the catchments of which encompass a diversity of urban and sub-urban contexts. Zinc and copper were consistently more concentrated in sediments than the baseline levels in local soils, while this was not always the case for the other metals in Sweden. Overall, contamination levels were higher in the French sites: median Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations were respectively 154, 152, and 570 mg/kg in France, and 19, 46, and 178 mg/kg in Sweden. This difference may be due to the functioning of the devices (infiltration vs. detention), but also suggests a possible “dilution” of runoff suspended solids in the Swedish catchments. The latter may originate from crushed traction grit or eroded soil particles, as some of the least polluted Swedish ponds had a relatively high share of permeable surface in their catchments. The geochemical signature of stormwater sediments was also found to be different between the two countries, as illustrated by the different ratios between metals, indicating dissimilarities in emission sources.

Abstract [fr]

Les ouvrages de rétention et d’infiltration des eaux pluviales interceptent les matières en suspension, qui forment progressivement une couche de sédiments poly-contaminés. Cette étude s’intéresse à la composition en métaux traces de ces sédiments, en comparant des infrastructures situées en France et en Suède. Des échantillons composites de sédiments ont été prélevés dans 18 bassins d’infiltration en France et 17 bassins de rétention en Suède, dont les bassins versants représentent une diversité de contextes urbains et péri-urbains. En comparaison du bruit de fond anthropisé des sols environnants, le zinc et le cuivre étaient systématiquement plus concentrés dans les sédiments, mais ce n’était pas toujours le cas pour les autres métaux en Suède. Les niveaux de contamination étaient globalement plus élevés dans les sites français : les teneurs médianes en Pb, Cu, et Zn étaient respectivement de 154, 152, et 570 mg/kg en France, et de 19, 46, et 178 mg/kg en Suède. Cette différence peut s’expliquer par le mode de fonctionnement des bassins (infiltration vs. rétention), mais suggère également une possible « dilution » des matières en suspension sur les bassins versants suédois, due à des graviers de traction broyés ou des particules de sol érodées. Les sédiments des deux pays présentaient une signature géochimique différente, comme l’illustrent les ratios entre métaux, ce qui indique des différences dans les sources d’émissions en France et en Suède.

Keywords
Detention, Infiltration, Metals, Ratios, Sediments, Sustainable Drainage Systems, Gestion durable des eaux pluviales, Infiltration, Métaux, Ratios, Rétention, Sédiments
National Category
Water Engineering Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103339 (URN)
Conference
11th Novatech international conference, Lyon, France, July 3-7, 2023
Available from: 2023-12-18 Created: 2023-12-18 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved
Taneez, M., Österlund, H., Lundy, L. & Viklander, M. (2023). Impacts of stormwater pipe materials and pipe repairs on stormwater quality: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of stormwater pipe materials and pipe repairs on stormwater quality: a review
2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The water quality implications of transferring stormwater through pipes composed of concrete (new and used), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), galvanized corrugated steel (GCS), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and pipes subjected to cured in place pipe (CIPP) and spray in place pipe (SIPP) trenchless repair technologies on stormwater quality are reviewed. Studies involve either the use of flowing water or an immersion experimental design, with data showing contact with pipe materials can affect stormwater quality parameters including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and concentrations of minerals, metals, and organic constituents, e.g. styrene. ‘In-transport’ changes in pH (1–3 units), EC (2–3-fold), bicarbonate (3–44-fold), and calcium (2–17-fold) in stormwaters were reported following exposure to concrete pipes. Differences between the use of synthetic and field-collected stormwater were identified, e.g. turbidity levels in field-collected stormwater reduced on passage through all pipe types, compared to synthetic water where levels of turbidity on exposure to concrete and cement-based SIPP increased slightly. Transfer through PVC and HDPE pipes had minimal effects on physicochemical parameters, whereas exposure to galvanized corrugated steel pipes led to increases in EC, Zn, and Pb. Though limited data was available, the use of CIPP repairs and associated waste condensate generated during thermal curing and/or incomplete curing of resins was identified to release organic contaminants of concerns (e.g. styrene, vinylic monomers, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and benzaldehyde). The implications of findings for both future research and stakeholders with responsibility for reducing diffuse pollution loads to receiving waters are considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Stormwater, Pipe materials, CIPP, Metals, Organic contaminants
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-102490 (URN)10.1007/s11356-023-30508-6 (DOI)
Funder
Vinnova, Grant no. 2016-05176
Note

CC BY 4.0 License

Available from: 2023-11-17 Created: 2023-11-17 Last updated: 2023-11-17
Österlund, H., Blecken, G., Lange, K., Marsalek, J., Gopinath, K. & Viklander, M. (2023). Microplastics in urban catchments: Review of sources, pathways, and entry into stormwater. Science of the Total Environment, 858, Article ID 159781.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microplastics in urban catchments: Review of sources, pathways, and entry into stormwater
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2023 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 858, article id 159781Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban areas play a key role in the production of microplastics (MPs) and their entry into water bodies. This article reviews the literature on the sources, transport, and control of MPs in urban environments with the aim of clarifying the mechanisms underlying these processes. Major MP sources include atmospheric deposition, micro-litter, and tire and road wear particles (TRWPs). MPs deposited from the atmosphere are mostly fibers and may be particularly important in catchments without traffic. Littering and attrition of textiles and plastic products is another important MP source. However, the quantities of MPs originating from this source may be hard to estimate. TRWPs are a significant source of MPs in urban areas and are arguably the best quantified source. The mobilization of MPs in urban catchments is poorly understood but it appears that dry unconsolidated sediments and MP deposits are most readily mobilized. Sequestration of MPs occurs in green areas and is poorly understood. Consequently, some authors consider green/pervious parts of urban catchments to be MP sinks. Field studies have shown that appreciable MP removal occurs in stormwater quality control facilities. Street cleaning and snow removal also remove MPs (particularly TRWPs), but the efficacy of these measures is unknown. Among stormwater management facilities, biofiltration/retention units seem to remove MPs more effectively than facilities relying on stormwater settling. However, knowledge of MP removal in stormwater facilities remains incomplete. Finally, although 13 research papers reported MP concentrations in stormwater, the total number of field samples examined in these studies was only 189. Moreover, the results of these studies are not necessarily comparable because they are based on relatively small numbers of samples and differ widely in terms of their objectives, sites, analytical methods, size fractions, examined polymers, and even terminology. This area of research can thus be considered “data-poor” and offers great opportunities for further research in many areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Micro litter, Microplastics, Snowmelt quality, Stormwater quality, Urban diffuse pollution, Urban runoff
National Category
Water Engineering Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering; Centre - Centre for Stormwater Management (DRIZZLE)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93841 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.159781 (DOI)000897483700005 ()36309285 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85140888594 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-05176 DRIZZLESwedish Environmental Protection Agency, 208-0182-18Swedish Water
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-11-07 (hanlid)

Available from: 2022-11-07 Created: 2022-11-07 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Kali, S. E., Österlund, H., Blecken, G.-T. & Viklander, M. (2023). Occurrence and Concentration of Pollutants from Stormwater Runoff in Receiving Water: A Case Study Fyrisån River: [Occurrence et concentration des polluants provenant des eaux de ruissellement dans les eaux réceptrices : Une étude de cas Fyrisån]. In: : . Paper presented at 11th edition of Novatech 2023, July 3-7, 2023, Lyon, France.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence and Concentration of Pollutants from Stormwater Runoff in Receiving Water: A Case Study Fyrisån River: [Occurrence et concentration des polluants provenant des eaux de ruissellement dans les eaux réceptrices : Une étude de cas Fyrisån]
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study investigated how urban stormwater runoff, known to contain various chemical substances, alters pollutant concentrations in the receiving water bodies. Samples were collected under dry and wet weather conditions at 4 sampling stations along the Fyrisån, a river that passes along the city of Uppsala, Sweden. Samples were analyzed for 80 organic substances, 19 metals (total and dissolved phase), and conventional physicochemical parameters. 19 of 80 organic substances were qualified above the limit of quantification (LOQ) in at least one sampling event. The most detected substance family was poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The concentrations of detected organic substances and metals increased in wet weather conditions. Organic substance and metal concentrations showed similar spatial variation with higher concentrations measured at sampling locations close to urbanized areas.

Abstract [fr]

Cette étude a examiné comment le ruissellement des eaux pluviales urbaines, connues pour contenir diverses substances chimiques, modifie les concentrations de polluants dans les masses d'eau réceptrices. Des échantillons ont été collectés dans des conditions de temps sec et humide dans 4 stations d'échantillonnage le long de la Fyrisån, une rivière qui passe le long de la ville d'Uppsala, en Suède. Les échantillons ont été analysés pour 80 substances organiques, 19 métaux (phase totale et dissoute), et des paramètres physico-chimiques conventionnels. 19 des 80 substances organiques ont été qualifiées au-dessus de la limite de quantification (LOQ) à au moins un des événements d'échantillonnage. La famille de substances la plus détectée était les substances polyfluoroalkyles (PFAS). Les concentrations des substances organiques et des métaux détectés ont augmenté par temps humide. Les concentrations de substances organiques et de métaux présentaient une variation spatiale similaire, les concentrations les plus élevées étant mesurées aux points d'échantillonnage proches des zones urbanisées.

Keywords
heavy metals, organic micropollutants, receiving water bodies, stormwater, surface water quality, urban runoff
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering; Centre - Centre for Stormwater Management (DRIZZLE)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-100667 (URN)
Conference
11th edition of Novatech 2023, July 3-7, 2023, Lyon, France
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-06920-21Vinnova, 2016-05176
Available from: 2023-08-21 Created: 2023-08-21 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved
Sami, M., Hedström, A., Kvarnström, E. & Herrmann, I. (2023). On-site greywater treatment systems - influent and effluent quality. Svensk nationell datatjänst (SND)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On-site greywater treatment systems - influent and effluent quality
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2023 (English)Data set
Alternative title[sv]
Behandling av bad-, disk- och tvättvatten i enskilda avloppsanläggningar - Kvalitet på inkommande och utgående vatten
Abstract [en]

The dataset presented here consists of raw data on the quality of influent and effluent greywater from eight on-site greywater treatment systems situated in Södertälje municipality, Sweden. These on-site treatment systems included three types of commercially available package plants and one sand filter. The influent and effluent samples were taken as grab samples between August 2020 and December 2021 and analysed for organic material, nutrients, pathogens, anionic surfactants, salt and (for two of the eight on-site systems) microplastics. Supporting parameters, e.g. suspended solids and pH, are also included. Further, for microplastics, results from blank samples are included.

This dataset was used to evaluate the treatment efficiency of the on-site greywater treatment systems and to assess the suitability of the treated water for reuse.

Abstract [sv]

Datasammanställningen som presenteras här innehåller rådata från provtagningar som utfördes vid åtta enskilda anläggningar för behandling av bad-, disk- och tvättvatten (BDT) i Södertälje kommun. Prover togs från tre typer av minireningsverk och en markbädd för BDT rening. Stickprover togs från inkommande och utgående vatten mellan augusti 2020 och december 2021 och analyserades på organisk substans, näringsämnen, indikatorbakterier, anjoniska tensider, salt och (för två av anläggningar) mikroplast. Mätningar på andra parametrar såsom pH och suspenderat material är inkluderade. För mikroplast inkluderas dessutom resultat på blankprover.

Detta dataset har använts för att utvärdera reningseffektiviteten av de enskilda BDT-vattenanläggningarna och för att bedöma om det renade vattnet skulle kunna återanvändas.

Place, publisher, year
Svensk nationell datatjänst (SND), 2023
Keywords
water quality, package plants, matter, phosphorus, nitrogen, pathogens, greywater, package plant, surfactants, microplastics, graywater
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Environmental Engineering Water Treatment
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95204 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2019-01903Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 208-0182-18
Available from: 2023-01-10 Created: 2023-01-10 Last updated: 2023-01-11
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4732-7348

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