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Publications (10 of 31) Show all publications
Westerberg, L.-G., Li, J., Höglund, E., Lugt, P. & Baart, P. (2015). Free-surface grease flow: influence of surface roughness and temperature (ed.). Paper presented at . Tribology letters, 59(1), Article ID 18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Free-surface grease flow: influence of surface roughness and temperature
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2015 (English)In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 59, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Grease flow in grease lubricated systems can often be qualified as free-surface flow. It occurs for example in rolling bearings after the churning phase or on open gears. Here only a fraction of the bearing or gearbox volume is filled with grease. Part of the grease is flowing in relatively thin layers induced by centrifugal forces caused by rotation of the various components. In this paper a model problem is investigated in the form of a free-surface flow of grease on a rotating disc. Experiments have been performed where the onset of flow and remaining grease have been studied varying the surface roughness, temperature and the centrifugal forces. The experiments have been coupled to analytical models describing the flow and temperature distribution in the grease. It was found that the impact of surface roughness could be neglected. The flow is determined by the centrifugal forces and rheology of the grease. Temperature effects the rheology but also the oil separation creating low shear strength/low viscosity layers at the surface.

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics; Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-8807 (URN)10.1007/s11249-015-0537-y (DOI)000356539000018 ()2-s2.0-84930656362 (Scopus ID)75ade837-7eab-45d5-9ec4-9cb64e09e705 (Local ID)75ade837-7eab-45d5-9ec4-9cb64e09e705 (Archive number)75ade837-7eab-45d5-9ec4-9cb64e09e705 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; Bibliografisk uppgift: This article is part of the Topical Collection on STLE Tribology Frontiers Conference 2014; 20150414 (lgwe)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Baart, P., Lugt, P. & Prakash, B. (2015). On the Normal Stress Effect in Grease-Lubricated Bearing Seals (ed.). Paper presented at . Tribology & Lubrication Technology, 71(9), 939-943
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Normal Stress Effect in Grease-Lubricated Bearing Seals
2015 (English)In: Tribology & Lubrication Technology, ISSN 1545-858X, Vol. 71, no 9, p. 939-943Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The film formation in lip seals, due to non-Newtonian rheology of the lubricant, has been a topic of speculation. Earlier work suggests that normal stresses in grease would be favorable for the film build-up between the seal lip and shaft or bearing ring. In the current paper we evaluate this earlier work and our earlier theoretical seal lip model with a series of experiments. We use a modified concentric cylinder geometry and a model fluid to study the fluid pressure distribution in the seal type geometry. The results are then related to grease lubricated seals and our earlier theoretical predictions. The present analysis shows that this earlier work and our earlier predictions are not correct and indicate that normal stresses in the grease pull the seal lip towards the shaft, increasing the contact pressure. However, normal stresses also ensure the presence of grease on the shaft or bearing inner ring which enhances replenishment of the sealing contact.

National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-2931 (URN)0abbac1d-4457-46e5-8f40-bf42268cf5af (Local ID)0abbac1d-4457-46e5-8f40-bf42268cf5af (Archive number)0abbac1d-4457-46e5-8f40-bf42268cf5af (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20150925 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Li, J., Westerberg, L.-G., Höglund, E., Baart, P. & Lugt, P. (2014). Experimental study of free surface grease flow subjected to centrifugal forces (ed.). Paper presented at Nordic Symposium on Tribology : 10/06/2014 - 13/06/2014. Paper presented at Nordic Symposium on Tribology : 10/06/2014 - 13/06/2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental study of free surface grease flow subjected to centrifugal forces
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2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In order to improve the understanding of grease flow in various applications such as gears, seals and rolling bearings, the free surface flow of different greases under different running conditions has been investigated. A rotating disc has been used to study grease flow as the grease was subjected to a centrifugal force. The grease flow and mass loss was measured for greases with different rheology on different surfaces and with surface textures. It is shown that the speed at which grease starts to move is mostly determined by grease type and yield stress, while the impact of the surface material and roughness is less pronounced. The mass loss is shown to be influenced both by the rheology of the grease and the surface material

National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Machine Elements; Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-37478 (URN)b866aeae-26f3-4d8c-9fed-d5678698efc5 (Local ID)b866aeae-26f3-4d8c-9fed-d5678698efc5 (Archive number)b866aeae-26f3-4d8c-9fed-d5678698efc5 (OAI)
Conference
Nordic Symposium on Tribology : 10/06/2014 - 13/06/2014
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20140618 (andbra)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Westerberg, L.-G., Li, J., Höglund, E., Lugt, P. & Baart, P. (2014). Free-surface grease flow on a rotating plate (ed.). Paper presented at . Tribology letters, 56(2), 317-325
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Free-surface grease flow on a rotating plate
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2014 (English)In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 317-325Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Grease lubrication is traditionally used in a great variety of mechanical systems such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears where it has been shown more advantageous than oil, mainly due to its consistency allowing the grease to stay inside the system and not leak out. Knowledge of the flow dynamics of grease is important for the understanding and prediction of grease distribution for optimum lubrication and for the migration of wear and contaminant particles. Free-surface effects play an important role in rolling bearings and open gears as the configuration normally is filled with about 30 % grease to avoid heavy churning. In this study, an analytical model of the stationary uniform flow on a rotating disc is developed and validated with experiments. The model results in the velocity profile for the flow in the thin fully yielded viscous layer in connection to the surface as well as an expression for the plug flow region on top of the viscous layer. Furthermore, the depth-averaged velocity is derived as is the shear stress value on the plate. From the latter, follows a condition for the grease to start moving and in turn yielding an expression for the viscous layer thickness as a function of the grease yield stress value, grease density, angular velocity, and radial position. In addition, an expression of the layer thickness containing the ratio between the flow rate and the layer width which in turn can account for effects not included in the model such as wall slip and surface adhesion and thus add another degree of freedom into the model. Experiments with two different greases having NLGI grade 1 and 2, respectively, shows it is possible to obtain a good fit with the analytically obtained thickness using the rheological parameters for actual greases.

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics; Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15967 (URN)10.1007/s11249-014-0411-3 (DOI)000344612900014 ()2-s2.0-84925532980 (Scopus ID)f8d7807a-34ee-4614-8f55-56dda6554617 (Local ID)f8d7807a-34ee-4614-8f55-56dda6554617 (Archive number)f8d7807a-34ee-4614-8f55-56dda6554617 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140331 (lgwe)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Li, J., Westerberg, L.-G., Höglund, E., Lugt, P. & Baart, P. (2014). Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration (ed.). Paper presented at . Tribology Transactions, 57(6), 1106-1115
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration
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2014 (English)In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 1106-1115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant for the prediction of grease distribution for optimum lubrication and for the migration of wear and contaminant particles. In this study, grease flow is visualized using microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV). The experimental setup includes a concentric cylinder configuration with a rotating shaft to simulate the grease flow in a double restriction seal geometry with two different grease pocket sizes. It is shown that the grease is partially yielded in the large grease pocket geometry and fully yielded in the small grease pocket. For the small grease pocket, it is shown that three distinct grease flow layers are present: a high shear rate region close to the stationary wall, a bulk flow layer, and a high shear rate boundary region near the rotating shaft. The grease shear thinning behavior and its wall slip effects have been identified. The μPIV experimental results have been compared with a numerical model for both the large and small gap size. It is shown that the flow is close to one-dimensional in the center of the small pocket. A one-dimensional analytical model based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheology model has been developed, showing good agreement with the measured velocity profiles in the small grease pocket. Furthermore, wall slip effects and shear banding are observed, where the latter imply that using the assumption of uniform shear in conventional concentric cylinder rheometers may result in erroneous rheological results.

National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Machine Elements; Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13094 (URN)10.1080/10402004.2014.937886 (DOI)000345317900016 ()2-s2.0-84907971464 (Scopus ID)c41d8f9f-1834-4a91-9c10-469a34da5e96 (Local ID)c41d8f9f-1834-4a91-9c10-469a34da5e96 (Archive number)c41d8f9f-1834-4a91-9c10-469a34da5e96 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140331 (lgwe)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Baart, P., Lugt, P. & Prakash, B. (2014). On the Normal Stress Effect in Grease-Lubricated Bearing Seals (ed.). Paper presented at . Tribology Transactions, 57(5), 939-943
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Normal Stress Effect in Grease-Lubricated Bearing Seals
2014 (English)In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 939-943Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The film formation in lip seals, due to non-Newtonian rheology of the lubricant, has been a topic of speculation. Earlier work suggests that normal stresses in grease would be favorable for the film build-up between the seal lip and shaft or bearing ring. In the current paper we evaluate this earlier work and our earlier theoretical seal lip model with a series of experiments. We use a modified concentric cylinder geometry and a model fluid to study the fluid pressure distribution in the seal type geometry. The results are then related to grease lubricated seals and our earlier theoretical predictions. The present analysis shows that this earlier work and our earlier predictions are not correct and indicate that normal stresses in the grease pull the seal lip towards the shaft, increasing the contact pressure. However, normal stresses also ensure the presence of grease on the shaft or bearing inner ring which enhances replenishment of the sealing contact.

National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6204 (URN)10.1080/10402004.2014.935120 (DOI)000340204700019 ()2-s2.0-84906084111 (Scopus ID)4662efbf-1384-41ac-ab8d-e33f0f865b6b (Local ID)4662efbf-1384-41ac-ab8d-e33f0f865b6b (Archive number)4662efbf-1384-41ac-ab8d-e33f0f865b6b (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2014; 20140703 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Baart, P., Green, T., Li, J., Lundström, T. S., Westerberg, L.-G., Höglund, E. & Lugt, P. (2013). Contaminant particle migration in a double restriction seal (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Proceedings of the STLE Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2013, Detroit MI, USA.: . Paper presented at STLE Annual Meeting and Exhibition : 05/05/2013 - 09/05/2013 (pp. 125). : STLE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contaminant particle migration in a double restriction seal
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2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the STLE Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2013, Detroit MI, USA., STLE , 2013, p. 125-Conference paper, Meeting abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) is used to measure the grease velocity profile in small seal-like geometries and the radial migration of contaminant particles is predicted. In the first part, the influence of shaft speed, grease type, and temperatures on the flow of lubricating greases in a narrow double restriction sealing pocket is evaluated. Such geometries can be found in, for example, labyrinth-type seals. In a wide pocket the velocity profile is one-dimensional and the Herschel-Bulkley model is used. In a narrow pocket, it is shown by the experimental results that the side walls have a significant influence on the grease flow, implying that the grease velocity profile is two-dimensional. In this area, a single empirical grease parameter for the rheology is sufficient to describe the velocity profile.In the second part, the radial migration of contaminant particles through the grease is evaluated. Centrifugal forces acting on a solid spherical particle are calculated from the grease velocity profile. Consequently, particles migrate to a larger radius and finally settle when the grease viscosity becomes large due to the low shear rate. This behavior is important for the sealing function of the grease in the pocket and relubrication

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
STLE, 2013
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics; Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-30350 (URN)42082389-6a74-48d9-9213-41a096257c3a (Local ID)42082389-6a74-48d9-9213-41a096257c3a (Archive number)42082389-6a74-48d9-9213-41a096257c3a (OAI)
Conference
STLE Annual Meeting and Exhibition : 05/05/2013 - 09/05/2013
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20130616 (lgwe)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Westerberg, L.-G., Lundström, T. S., Green, T., Höglund, E., Li, J., Lugt, P. & Baart, P. (2013). Grease flow modeling using micro particle image velocimetry (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Svenska mekanikdagar 2013: . Paper presented at Svenska mekanikdagar 2013 : 12/06/2013 - 14/06/2013 (pp. 106). Lund: Lunds tekniska högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grease flow modeling using micro particle image velocimetry
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2013 (English)In: Svenska mekanikdagar 2013, Lund: Lunds tekniska högskola , 2013, p. 106-Conference paper, Meeting abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Lunds tekniska högskola, 2013
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics; Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-30636 (URN)4820e700-1101-4a15-97b4-f7833948aa75 (Local ID)4820e700-1101-4a15-97b4-f7833948aa75 (Archive number)4820e700-1101-4a15-97b4-f7833948aa75 (OAI)
Conference
Svenska mekanikdagar 2013 : 12/06/2013 - 14/06/2013
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20130616 (lgwe)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Li, J., Westerberg, L.-G., Höglund, E., Lundström, T. S., Baart, P. & Lugt, P. (2013). Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Tribology Symposium of IFoMM (International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science), Luleå, March 19-21, 2013: . Paper presented at International Tribology Symposium of IFToMM : 19/03/2013 - 21/03/2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration
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2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Tribology Symposium of IFoMM (International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science), Luleå, March 19-21, 2013, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rollingbearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant forthe prediction of the grease distribution for optimum lubrication and the migration ofwear- and contaminant particles. In this study grease flow is visualized using themethod of micro Particle Image Velocimetry; the experimental setup comprises aconcentric cylinder with rotating shaft to simulate the grease flow in a DoubleRestriction Seal (DRS) geometry with two different grease pocket heights. It is shownthat grease may be partially yielded in the large grease pocket geometry and fullyyielded in the small grease pocket geometry. For the small grease pocket geometry, itis shown that three distinct grease flow layers are present: a high shear rate regionclose to the stationary wall, a bulk flow layer, and a high shear rate boundary regionnear the rotating shaft. The grease shear thinning behaviour and its wall slip effectshave been detected and discussed.

National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Machine Elements; Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-30540 (URN)463aa467-a9c4-4420-a8a2-3152c36c2691 (Local ID)463aa467-a9c4-4420-a8a2-3152c36c2691 (Archive number)463aa467-a9c4-4420-a8a2-3152c36c2691 (OAI)
Conference
International Tribology Symposium of IFToMM : 19/03/2013 - 21/03/2013
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20130408 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Baart, P., Lugt, P., Westerberg, L.-G., Green, T., Li, J., Höglund, E. & Lundström, T. S. (2012). Sealing improvements by grease selection in double lip seals and labyrinth seals (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), 17th ISC: International Sealing Conference ; Stuttgart, Germany, Sept. 13 - 14, 2012. Paper presented at International Sealing Conference : 13/09/2012 - 14/09/2012. Frankfurt am Main: Fachverband Fluidtechnik im VDMA e.V
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sealing improvements by grease selection in double lip seals and labyrinth seals
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2012 (English)In: 17th ISC: International Sealing Conference ; Stuttgart, Germany, Sept. 13 - 14, 2012, Frankfurt am Main: Fachverband Fluidtechnik im VDMA e.V , 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frankfurt am Main: Fachverband Fluidtechnik im VDMA e.V, 2012
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics; Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-29467 (URN)2f635e3c-8233-4749-8541-328ae148166d (Local ID)9783000391989 (ISBN)2f635e3c-8233-4749-8541-328ae148166d (Archive number)2f635e3c-8233-4749-8541-328ae148166d (OAI)
Conference
International Sealing Conference : 13/09/2012 - 14/09/2012
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20140926 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9356-7599

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