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Sandberg, E., Toffolo, A. & Krook-Riekkola, A. (2019). A bottom-up study of biomass and electricity use in a fossil free Swedish industry. Energy, 167, 1019-1030
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A bottom-up study of biomass and electricity use in a fossil free Swedish industry
2019 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 167, p. 1019-1030Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While previous research has focused on single industrial sectors or specific technologies, this study aims to explore the impacts of various industrial technology options on the use of biomass and electricity in a future fossil free Swedish industry. By building a small optimization model, that decomposes each industrial sector into site categories by type and technology to capture critical synergies among industrial processes. The results show important synergies between electrification, biomass and CCS/U (sequestration of CO2 is required to reach net-zero emissions). Reaching an absolute minimum of biomass use within the industry has a very high cost of electricity due to the extensive use of power-to-gas technologies, and minimising electricity has a high cost of biomass due to extensive use of CHP technologies. Meanwhile, integrated bio-refinery processes are the preferable option when minimising the net input of energy. There is, thus, no singular best technology, instead the system adapts to the given circumstances showing the importance of a detailed bottom-up modelling approach and that the decarbonisation of the industry should not be treated as a site-specific problem, but rather as a system-wide problem to allow for optimal utilisation of process synergies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Industry modelling, Energy-intensive industries, Biomass utilisation, CO2 mitigation, Energy transition, Energy system optimisation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71680 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.11.065 (DOI)000456351800084 ()2-s2.0-85059339023 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-12-05 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
Toffolo, A. & Lazzaretto, A. (2019). A practical tool to generate complex energy system configurations based on the synthsep methodology. International Journal of Thermodynamics, 22(1), 45-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A practical tool to generate complex energy system configurations based on the synthsep methodology
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Thermodynamics, ISSN 1301-9724, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traditional fossil fueled power plants are commonly based on steam Rankine cycle or Brayton Joule cycle. Using water or air as working fluid is obviously the most obvious choice for the wide availability of these substances in nature. However, the scarcity of natural energy sources and the strong need of reducing environmental impact have necessarily drawn the research to new energy systems configurations operating with other working fluids, which are able to recover lower temperature sources, such as Sun or industrial wasted heat. The variety of new working fluids (refrigerants or organic fluids) widens the choice to a variety of configurations that can be tailored to the specific source characteristics and boundary constraints. It is not always easy or even possible to conceive the best configuration for given specifications with the mere experience of a common designer. To design a new system configuration, the designer normally uses some “non-codified rules” deriving from his knowledge of basic thermodynamics and energy engineering. This paper aims instead at showing a practical tool that is based on a new methodology, named SYNTHSEP, to generate new energy system configurations. This methodology starts from the simple thermodynamic cycles operated by a given fluid made up of the four fundamental processes (compression, heating, expansion and cooling) and uses a rigorous set of codified rules to build the final system configuration. The paper presents the basics of the new methodology and how it has been implemented in a practical tool that simply requires the information about the elementary cycles and their shared processes as input data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Yaşar DEMİREL, 2019
Keywords
Optimization, Software tool, Synthesis, System configuration
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73391 (URN)10.5541/ijot.506382 (DOI)000460141700006 ()2-s2.0-85063282791 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-04-02 (svasva)

Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-04-02Bibliographically approved
Mesfun, S., Lundgren, J., Toffolo, A., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Engvall, K. (2019). Integration of an electrolysis unit for producer gas conditioning in a bio-synthetic natural gas plant. Journal of energy resources technology, 141(1), Article ID 012002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of an electrolysis unit for producer gas conditioning in a bio-synthetic natural gas plant
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2019 (English)In: Journal of energy resources technology, ISSN 0195-0738, E-ISSN 1528-8994, Vol. 141, no 1, article id 012002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Producer gas from biomass gasification contains impurities like tars, particles, alkali salts, and sulfur/nitrogen compounds. As a result, a number of process steps are required to condition the producer gas before utilization as a syngas and further upgrading to final chemicals and fuels. Here, we study the concept of using molten carbonate electrolysis cells (MCEC) both to clean and to condition the composition of a raw syngas stream, from biomass gasification, for further upgrading into synthetic natural gas (SNG). A mathematical MCEC model is used to analyze the impact of operational parameters, such as current density, pressure and temperature, on the quality and amount of syngas produced. Internal rate of return (IRR) is evaluated as an economic indicator of the processes considered. Results indicate that, depending on process configuration, the production of SNG can be boosted by approximately 50-60% without the need of an additional carbon source, i.e., for the same biomass input as in standalone operation of the GoBi-Gas plant. Copyright

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2019
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70732 (URN)10.1115/1.4040942 (DOI)000452421900004 ()2-s2.0-85052065806 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-09-03 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
Toffolo, A., Rech, S. & Lazzaretto, A. (2018). Generation of Complex Energy Systems by Combination of Elementary Processes. Journal of energy resources technology, 140(11), Article ID 112005.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generation of Complex Energy Systems by Combination of Elementary Processes
2018 (English)In: Journal of energy resources technology, ISSN 0195-0738, E-ISSN 1528-8994, Vol. 140, no 11, article id 112005Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The fundamental challenge in the synthesis/design optimization of energy systems is the definition of system configuration and design parameters. The traditional way to operate is to follow the previous experience, starting from the existing design solutions. A more advanced strategy consists in the preliminary identification of a superstructure that should include all the possible solutions to the synthesis/design optimization problem and in the selection of the system configuration starting from this superstructure through a design parameter optimization. This top–down approach cannot guarantee that all possible configurations could be predicted in advance and that all the configurations derived from the superstructure are feasible. To solve the general problem of the synthesis/design of complex energy systems, a new bottom–up methodology has been recently proposed by the authors, based on the original idea that the fundamental nucleus in the construction of any energy system configuration is the elementary thermodynamic cycle, composed only by the compression, heat transfer with hot and cold sources and expansion processes. So, any configuration can be built by generating, according to a rigorous set of rules, all the combinations of the elementary thermodynamic cycles operated by different working fluids that can be identified within the system, and selecting the best resulting configuration through an optimization procedure. In this paper, the main concepts and features of the methodology are deeply investigated to show, through different applications, how an artificial intelligence can generate system configurations of various complexity using preset logical rules without any “ad hoc” expertise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71419 (URN)10.1115/1.4040194 (DOI)000447273300005 ()2-s2.0-85058262950 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-11-01 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2019-01-11Bibliographically approved
Nwachukwu, C. M., Toffolo, A., Grip, C.-E., Wang, C. & Wetterlund, E. (2018). Systems analysis of sawmill by-products gasification towards a bio-based steel production. In: José Carlos Teixeira, Ana Cristina Ferreira, Ângela Silva, Senhorinha Teixeira (Ed.), ECOS 2018: Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems. Paper presented at 31st International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS 2018), Guimarães, Portugal, 17-22 June 2018. Universidade do Minho. Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica Campus Azurém, Guimarães Portugal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systems analysis of sawmill by-products gasification towards a bio-based steel production
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2018 (English)In: ECOS 2018: Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems / [ed] José Carlos Teixeira, Ana Cristina Ferreira, Ângela Silva, Senhorinha Teixeira, Universidade do Minho. Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica Campus Azurém, Guimarães Portugal , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universidade do Minho. Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica Campus Azurém, Guimarães Portugal, 2018
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69979 (URN)978-972-99596-4-6 (ISBN)
Conference
31st International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS 2018), Guimarães, Portugal, 17-22 June 2018
Available from: 2018-06-28 Created: 2018-06-28 Last updated: 2018-10-30Bibliographically approved
Gobbato, P., Masi, M., Lazzaretto, A. & Toffolo, A. (2017). Analysis of the natural acoustic modes of a gas turbine combustor using isothermal CFD simulations. Applied Thermal Engineering, 126, 489-499
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of the natural acoustic modes of a gas turbine combustor using isothermal CFD simulations
2017 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 126, p. 489-499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermoacoustic instabilities usually result from the coupling between the oscillatory heat release and one or more natural acoustic modes of the combustion system. When the shifting of system frequencies caused by the unsteady heat release is limited, the calculation of natural modes allows to identify which of them are excited by the flame once changes in flow temperature and composition due to combustion are considered. In this paper, isothermal computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed to predict the natural modes of a heavy-duty gas turbine combustor in reactive conditions. Combustion and heat transfer are neglected in the numerical analysis to simplify the model and limit the computational effort. The natural frequencies resulting from isothermal simulations are then corrected using a rather basic post-processing approach to account for temperature and gas composition changes due to combustion process. Frequency and amplitude of the calculated modes are finally compared to experimental measurements to evaluate the ability of the acoustic analysis to capture frequency and spatial shape of the combustor natural modes excited by the flame

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65086 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.07.076 (DOI)000412251200046 ()2-s2.0-85026446129 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-08-15 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Vesterlund, M. & Toffolo, A. (2017). Design optimization of a district heating network expansion: a case study for the town of Kiruna. Applied Sciences, 7(5), Article ID 488.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design optimization of a district heating network expansion: a case study for the town of Kiruna
2017 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 488Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The urbanization of new areas beyond the existing perimeter of a town implies the expansion of several infrastructures, including the district heating network. The main variables involved in the design of the district heating network expansion are the layout of the new pipes, their diameters, and the capacity of the new heat production sites that are required to satisfy the increased demand of room heating and hot tap water. In this paper, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is applied to the minimization of the costs related to the expansion of the district heating network of the town of Kiruna, in northern Sweden. The results show that the spectrum of the optimal design compromises between investment costs for the new pipes and the new heat generation site on one side, and operating costs due to overall fuel consumption and pumping power in the network on the other. The presented methodology is a tool meant for the decision makers in the company who own the district heating network, to evaluate all the possible best design alternatives before making a decision.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63545 (URN)10.3390/app7050488 (DOI)000404449000055 ()2-s2.0-85019071046 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-05-26 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-05-26 Created: 2017-05-26 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Mesfun, S., Lundgren, J., Toffolo, A., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Engvall, K. (2017). Integration of an electrolysis unit for producer gas conditioning in a bio-SNG plant. In: 30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2017: . Paper presented at 30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2017, San Diego, United States, 2-6 July 2017. International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of an electrolysis unit for producer gas conditioning in a bio-SNG plant
Show others...
2017 (English)In: 30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2017, International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) , 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Producer gas from biomass gasification contains impurities like tars, particles, alkali salts and sulfur/nitrogen compounds. As a result a number of process steps are required to condition the producer gas before utilization as a syngas and further upgrading to final chemicals and fuels. Here, we study the concept of using molten carbonate electrolysis cells (MCEC) both to clean and to condition the composition of a raw syngas stream, from biomass gasification, for further upgrading into SNG. A mathematical MCEC model is used to analyze the impact of operational parameters, such as current density, pressure and temperature, on the quality and amount of tailored syngas produced. Investment opportunity is evaluated as an economic indicator of the processes considered. Results indicate that the production of SNG can be boosted by approximately 50% without the need of an additional carbon source, i.e. for the same biomass input as in standalone operation of the GoBiGas plant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO), 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69897 (URN)
Conference
30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2017, San Diego, United States, 2-6 July 2017
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Vesterlund, M., Toffolo, A. & Dahl, J. (2017). Optimization of multi-source complex district heating network, a case study. Energy, 126, 53-63
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of multi-source complex district heating network, a case study
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 126, p. 53-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The level of complexity for a district heating network increases with the maturity of the network, and this affects the pattern of the distribution of the hot water from the heat production sites to the end users. The majority of district heating systems are also multi-source networks, typically supported with heat from one main production site and other smaller satellite sites that are activated when required. In general, local energy companies have a lack of knowledge regarding how a meshed network behaves when different production sites are operated. The schedule of heat generation at the different sites is often based on staff experience and some general rules of thumb.

In this paper a method for modeling and simulating complex district networks is further developed in order to optimize the total operating costs of a multi-source network, with constraints on the pressure and temperature levels in the user areas and on the heat generation characteristics at each production site.

The optimization results show that the usage of the cheapest resources is preferred to a distributed generation of heat, even if some of the pipes may exceed the recommended thermal load capacity. The main site water supply temperature is found to be the lowest allowed by the constraint on the temperature of the water supplied to the end users, since the decrease of the costs associated with the lower thermal losses in the network is not counterbalanced by the increase of those associated with the pumping power of a larger water mass flow rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62320 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.03.018 (DOI)000404305900006 ()2-s2.0-85014911271 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-03-15 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-03-06 Created: 2017-03-06 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Mesfun, S., Anderson, J.-O., Umeki, K. & Toffolo, A. (2016). Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill (ed.). Paper presented at . Energies, 9(5), Article ID 333..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill
2016 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 333.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Advanced biomass-based motor fuels and chemicals are becoming increasingly important to replace fossil energy sources within the coming decades. It is likely that the new biorefineries will evolve mainly from existing forest industry sites, as they already have the required biomass handling infrastructure in place. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential for increasing the profit margin from sawmill byproducts by integrating innovative downstream processes. The focus is on the techno-economic evaluation of an integrated site for biomass-based synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG) production. The option of using the syngas in a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (b-IGCC) for the production of electricity (instead of SNG) is also considered for comparison. The process flowsheets that are used to analyze the energy and material balances are modelled in MATLAB and Simulink. A mathematical process integration model of a typical Nordic sawmill is used to analyze the effects on the energy flows in the overall site, as well as to evaluate the site economics. Different plant sizes have been considered in order to assess the economy-of-scale effect. The technical data required as input are collected from the literature and, in some cases, from experiments. The investment cost is evaluated on the basis of conducted studies, third party supplier budget quotations and in-house database information. This paper presents complete material and energy balances of the considered processes and the resulting process economics. Results show that in order for the integrated SNG production to be favored, depending on the sawmill size, a biofuel subsidy in the order of 28–52 €/MWh SNG is required.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-11602 (URN)10.3390/en9050333 (DOI)000377263400025 ()2-s2.0-84968807206 (Scopus ID)a9cad9b4-9937-43e1-b40d-14eaef443c81 (Local ID)a9cad9b4-9937-43e1-b40d-14eaef443c81 (Archive number)a9cad9b4-9937-43e1-b40d-14eaef443c81 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160701 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4532-4530

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