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Kompatsiari, K., Ciardo, F., Tikhanoff, V., Metta, G. & Wykowska, A. (2019). It’s in the Eyes: The Engaging Role of Eye Contact in HRI. International Journal of Social Robotics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>It’s in the Eyes: The Engaging Role of Eye Contact in HRI
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper reports a study where we examined how a humanoid robot was evaluated by users, dependent on established eye contact. In two experiments, the robot was programmed to either establish eye contact with the user, or to look elsewhere. Across the experiments, we altered the level of predictiveness of the robot’s gaze direction with respect to a subsequent target stimulus (in Exp.1 the gaze direction was non-predictive, in Exp. 2 it was counter-predictive). Results of subjective reports showed that participants were sensitive to eye contact. Moreover, participants felt more engaged with the robot when it established eye contact, and the majority attributed higher degree of human-likeness in the eye contact condition, relative to no eye contact. This was independent of predictiveness of the gaze cue. Our results suggest that establishing eye contact by embodied humanoid robots has a positive impact on perceived socialness of the robot, and on the quality of human–robot interaction (HRI). Therefore, establishing eye contact should be considered in designing robot behaviors for social HRI. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Eye contact, Social human–robot interaction, Social attention, iCub
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75126 (URN)10.1007/s12369-019-00565-4 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-06-28 Created: 2019-06-28 Last updated: 2019-06-28
Ciardo, F. & Wykowska, A. (2018). Response Coordination Emerges in Cooperative but Not Competitive Joint Task. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 1919.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response Coordination Emerges in Cooperative but Not Competitive Joint Task
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1919Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Effective social interactions rely on humans' ability to attune to others within social contexts. Recently, it has been proposed that the emergence of shared representations, as indexed by the Joint Simon effect (JSE), might result from interpersonal coordination (Malone et al., 2014). The present study aimed at examining interpersonal coordination in cooperative and competitive joint tasks. To this end, in two experiments we investigated response coordination, as reflected in instantaneous cross-correlation, when co-agents cooperate (Experiment 1) or compete against each other (Experiment 2). In both experiments, participants performed a go/no-go Simon task alone and together with another agent in two consecutive sessions. In line with previous studies, we found that social presence differently affected the JSE under cooperative and competitive instructions. Similarly, cooperation and competition were reflected in co-agents response coordination. For the cooperative session (Experiment 1), results showed higher percentage of interpersonal coordination for the joint condition, relative to when participants performed the task alone. No difference in the coordination of responses occurred between the individual and the joint conditions when co-agents were in competition (Experiment 2). Finally, results showed that interpersonal coordination between co-agents implies the emergence of the JSE. Taken together, our results suggest that shared representations seem to be a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for interpersonal coordination. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71270 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01919 (DOI)000446875800001 ()30356763 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054527625 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-10-18 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Özdem, C., Wiese, E., Wykowska, A., Müller, H. J., Brass, M. & Overwalle, F. V. (2017). Believing Androids?: fMRI activation in the right temporo-parietal junction is modulated by ascribing intentions to non-human agents (ed.). Social Neuroscience, 12(5), 582-593
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Believing Androids?: fMRI activation in the right temporo-parietal junction is modulated by ascribing intentions to non-human agents
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2017 (English)In: Social Neuroscience, ISSN 1747-0919, E-ISSN 1747-0927, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 582-593Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Attributing mind to interaction partners has been shown to increase the social relevance we ascribe to others’ actions and to modulate the amount of attention dedicated to them. However, it remains unclear how the relationship between higher-order mind attribution and lower-level attention processes is established in the brain. In this neuroimaging study, participants saw images of an anthropomorphic robot that moved its eyes left- or rightwards to signal the appearance of an upcoming stimulus in the same (valid cue) or opposite location (invalid cue). Independently, participants’ beliefs about the intentionality underlying the observed eye movements were manipulated by describing the eye movements as under human control or preprogrammed. As expected, we observed a validity effect behaviorally and neurologically (increased response times and activation in the invalid vs. valid condition). More importantly, we observed that this effect was more pronounced for the condition in which the robot’s behavior was believed to be controlled by a human, as opposed to be preprogrammed. This interaction effect between cue validity and belief was, however, only found at the neural level and was manifested as a significant increase of activation in bilateral anterior temporoparietal junction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-4518 (URN)10.1080/17470919.2016.1207702 (DOI)000405614900010 ()27391213 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84984889814 (Scopus ID)27510919-93ee-4046-a7f5-8827f4c34aaa (Local ID)27510919-93ee-4046-a7f5-8827f4c34aaa (Archive number)27510919-93ee-4046-a7f5-8827f4c34aaa (OAI)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-08-11 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Perez-Osorio, J., Müller, H. J. & Wykowska, A. (2017). Expectations regarding action sequences modulate electrophysiological correlates of the gaze-cueing effect. Psychophysiology, 54(7), 942-954
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expectations regarding action sequences modulate electrophysiological correlates of the gaze-cueing effect
2017 (English)In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 942-954Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Predictive mechanisms of the brain are important for social cognition, as they enable inferences about others' goals and intentions, thereby allowing for generation of expectations regarding what will happen next in the social environment. Therefore, attentional selection is modulated by expectations regarding behavior of others (Perez-Osorio, Müller, Wiese, & Wykowska, 2015). In this article, we examined—using the ERPs of the EEG signal—which stages of processing are influenced by expectations about others' action steps. We used a paradigm in which a gaze-cueing procedure was embedded in successively presented naturalistic photographs composing an action sequence. Our results showed (a) behavioral gaze-cueing effects modulated by whether the observed agent gazed at an object that was expected to be gazed at, according to the action sequence; (b) the N1 component locked to the onset of a target was modulated both by spatial gaze validity and participants' expectations about where the agent would gaze to perform an action; (c) a more positive amplitude, locked to the shift of gaze direction for action-congruent gaze, relative to incongruent and neutral conditions—over parieto-occipital areas in the time window between 280 and 380 ms. Taken together, these findings revealed that confirmation or violation of expectations concerning others' goal-oriented actions modulate attentional selection processes, as indexed by early ERP components

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing, 2017
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62766 (URN)10.1111/psyp.12854 (DOI)000403024400001 ()28370027 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85016484794 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-06-09 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-03-29 Created: 2017-03-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Kompatsiari, K., Tikhanoff, V., Ciardo, F., Metta, G. & Wykowska, A. (2017). The Importance of Mutual Gaze in Human-Robot Interaction. In: Kheddar A. et al. (Ed.), ICSR: International Conference on Social Robotics: International Conference on Social Robotics. Paper presented at 9th International Conference, ICSR 2017, Tsukuba, Japan, November 22-24, 2017 (pp. 443-452). Cham
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Importance of Mutual Gaze in Human-Robot Interaction
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2017 (English)In: ICSR: International Conference on Social Robotics: International Conference on Social Robotics / [ed] Kheddar A. et al., Cham, 2017, p. 443-452Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mutual gaze is a key element of human development, and constitutes an important factor in human interactions. In this study, we examined –through analysis of subjective reports– the influence of an online eye-contact of a humanoid robot on humans’ reception of the robot. To this end, we manipulated the robot gaze, i.e., mutual (social) gaze and neutral (non-social) gaze, throughout an experiment involving letter identification. Our results suggest that people are sensitive to the mutual gaze of an artificial agent, they feel more engaged with the robot when a mutual gaze is established, and eye-contact supports attributing human-like characteristics to the robot. These findings are relevant both to the human-robot interaction (HRI) research - enhancing social behavior of robots, and also for cognitive neuroscience - studying mechanisms of social cognition in relatively realistic social interactive scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: , 2017
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 10652
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66724 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-70022-9_44 (DOI)000449941100044 ()2-s2.0-85035786058 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-70021-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-70022-9 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Conference, ICSR 2017, Tsukuba, Japan, November 22-24, 2017
Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Johansson, J., Abrahamsson, L., Bergvall-Kåreborn, B., Fältholm, Y., Grane, C. & Wykowska, A. (2017). Work and Organization in a Digital Industrial Context. Management Revue, 28(3), 281-297
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work and Organization in a Digital Industrial Context
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2017 (English)In: Management Revue, ISSN 0935-9915, E-ISSN 1861-9908, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 281-297Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are clear signs that digitalization attempts such as Industry 4.0 will becomemore apparent in workplaces. This development requires reflections and considerationsso we do not create more problems than we solve. In our paper, we have raisedseveral questions related to the Industry 4.0 that need answers: Is Industry 4.0 a discourse,an organizational model, or just technology? Does the requirement for flexibilitycall for a new labour market? How will Industry 4.0 affect competence andskill requirements? Will Industry 4.0 encourage a new gender order? Will Industry4.0 take over dangerous routine work or will old work environmental problems appearin new contexts and for other groups of workers? Can we rely on robots aswork mates or will they spy on us and report to management? Based on our analysis,we addressed four knowledge gaps that need more research in relation to thedigitalization of work: The relationship between new technology, working conditions,qualifications, identity, and gender; the future of the workers' collective;crowdsourcing in an industrial context; and human-machine interaction with a focuson integrity issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2017
Keywords
Work, Organization, Labour, Gender, Industry 4.0, Internet of Things
National Category
Work Sciences Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Human Work Sciences; Engineering Psychology; Information systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66497 (URN)10.5771/0935-9915-2017-3-281 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048265221 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 1;2017-11-10 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-11-08 Created: 2017-11-08 Last updated: 2018-06-21Bibliographically approved
Wykowska, A., Chaminade, T. & Cheng, G. (2016). Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition (ed.). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 371(1693), Article ID 20150375.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition
2016 (English)In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 371, no 1693, article id 20150375Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum ‘What is a social agent?’

National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7110 (URN)10.1098/rstb.2015.0375 (DOI)000375333600014 ()27069052 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84963548248 (Scopus ID)56dd5a19-436a-418c-ae02-f5586580db82 (Local ID)56dd5a19-436a-418c-ae02-f5586580db82 (Archive number)56dd5a19-436a-418c-ae02-f5586580db82 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160412 (andbra); Bibliografisk uppgift: One contribution of 15 to a theme issue ‘Attending to and neglecting people’

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Wykowska, A., Kajopoulos, J., Ramirez-Amaro, K. & Cheng, G. (2015). Autistic traits and sensitivity to human-like features of robot behavior (ed.). Paper presented at . Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems, 16(2), 219-248
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autistic traits and sensitivity to human-like features of robot behavior
2015 (English)In: Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems, ISSN 1572-0373, E-ISSN 1572-0381, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 219-248Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined individual differences in sensitivity to human-like features of a robot's behavior. The paradigm comprised a non-verbal Turing test with a humanoid robot. A "programmed" condition differed from a "human-controlled" condition by onset times of the robot's eye movements, which were either fixed across trials or modeled after prerecorded human reaction times, respectively. Participants judged whether the robot behavior was programmed or human-controlled, with no information regarding the differences between respective conditions. Autistic traits were measured with the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) questionnaire in healthy adults. We found that the fewer autistic traits participants had, the more sensitive they were to the difference between the conditions, without explicit awareness of the nature of the difference. We conclude that although sensitivity to fine behavioral characteristics of others varies with social aptitude, humans are in general capable of detecting human-like behavior based on very subtle cues.

National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-8867 (URN)10.1075/is.16.2.09wyk (DOI)76abb838-f08c-4281-8c68-cfb70f9d2058 (Local ID)76abb838-f08c-4281-8c68-cfb70f9d2058 (Archive number)76abb838-f08c-4281-8c68-cfb70f9d2058 (OAI)
Note
Upprättat; 2015; 20160613 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Perez-Osorio, J., Müller, H. J., Wiese, E. & Wykowska, A. (2015). Gaze following is modulated by expectations regarding others' action goals (ed.). Paper presented at . PLoS ONE, 10(11), Article ID e0143614.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gaze following is modulated by expectations regarding others' action goals
2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 11, article id e0143614Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Humans attend to social cues in order to understand and predict others' behavior. Facial expressions and gaze direction provide valuable information to infer others' mental states and intentions. The present study examined the mechanism of gaze following in the context of participants' expectations about successive action steps of an observed actor. We embedded a gaze-cueing manipulation within an action scenario consisting of a sequence of naturalistic photographs. Gaze-induced orienting of attention (gaze following) was analyzed with respect to whether the gaze behavior of the observed actor was in line or not with the action-related expectations of participants (i.e., whether the actor gazed at an object that was congruent or incongruent with an overarching action goal). In Experiment 1, participants followed the gaze of the observed agent, though the gaze-cueing effect was larger when the actor looked at an action-congruent object relative to an incongruent object. Experiment 2 examined whether the pattern of effects observed in Experiment 1 was due to covert, rather than overt, attentional orienting, by requiring participants to maintain eye fixation throughout the sequence of critical photographs (corroborated by monitoring eye movements). The essential pattern of results of Experiment 1 was replicated, with the gazecueing effect being completely eliminated when the observed agent gazed at an actionincongruent object. Thus, our findings show that covert gaze following can be modulated by expectations that humans hold regarding successive steps of the action performed by an observed agent. © 2015 Perez-Osorio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-8285 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0143614 (DOI)6c650bf4-488b-4bd6-a4d9-e957e53fde1d (Local ID)6c650bf4-488b-4bd6-a4d9-e957e53fde1d (Archive number)6c650bf4-488b-4bd6-a4d9-e957e53fde1d (OAI)
Note
Upprättat; 2015; 20160601 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Wykowska, A., Kajopoulos, J., Obando-Leitón, M., Chauhan, S. S., Cabibihan, J.-J. & Cheng, G. (2015). Humans are Well Tuned to Detecting Agents Among Non-agents: Examining the Sensitivity of Human Perception to Behavioral Characteristics of Intentional Systems (ed.). Paper presented at . International Journal of Social Robotics, 7(5), 767-781
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Humans are Well Tuned to Detecting Agents Among Non-agents: Examining the Sensitivity of Human Perception to Behavioral Characteristics of Intentional Systems
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2015 (English)In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 767-781Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For efficient social interactions, humans have developed means to predict and understand others’ behavior often with reference to intentions and desires. To infer others’ intentions, however, one must assume that the other is an agent with a mind and mental states. With two experiments, this study examined if the human perceptual system is sensitive to detecting human agents, based on only subtle behavioral cues. Participants observed robots, which performed pointing gestures interchangeably to the left or right with one of their two arms. Onset times of the pointing movements could have been pre-programmed, human-controlled (Experiment 1), or modeled after a human behavior (Experiment 2). The task was to determine if the observed behavior was controlled by a human or by a computer program, without any information about what parameters of behavior this judgment should be based on. Results showed that participants were able to detect human behavior above chance in both experiments. Moreover, participants were asked to discriminate a letter (F/T) presented on the left or the right side of a screen. The letter could have been either validly cued by the robot (location that the robot pointed to coincided with the location of the letter) or invalidly cued (the robot pointed to the opposite location than the letter was presented). In this cueing task, target discrimination was better for the valid versus invalid conditions in Experiment 1 where a human face was presented centrally on a screen throughout the experiment. This effect was not significant in Experiment 2 where participants were exposed only to a robotic face. In sum, present results show that the human perceptual system is sensitive to subtleties of human behavior. Attending to where others attend, however, is modulated not only by adopting the Intentional Stance but also by the way participants interpret the observed stimuli

National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7493 (URN)10.1007/s12369-015-0299-6 (DOI)5e4ed092-cd94-49f3-9a50-9b54c043aa3c (Local ID)5e4ed092-cd94-49f3-9a50-9b54c043aa3c (Archive number)5e4ed092-cd94-49f3-9a50-9b54c043aa3c (OAI)
Note
Upprättat; 2015; 20160601 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3323-7357

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