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Zhang, S., Li, Z., Luo, K., He, J., Gao, Y., Soldatov, A. V., . . . Tian, Y. (2022). Discovery of carbon-based strongest and hardest amorphous material. National Science Review, 9(1), Article ID nwab140.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discovery of carbon-based strongest and hardest amorphous material
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2022 (English)In: National Science Review, ISSN 2095-5138, Vol. 9, no 1, article id nwab140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon is one of the most fascinating elements due to its structurally diverse allotropic forms stemming from its bonding varieties (sp, sp2, and sp3). Exploring new forms of carbon has always been the eternal theme of scientific research. Herein, we report the amorphous (AM) carbon materials with high fraction of sp3 bonding recovered from compression of fullerene C60 under high pressure and high temperature previously unexplored. Analysis of photoluminescence and absorption spectra demonstrates that they are semiconducting with a bandgap range of 1.5–2.2 eV, comparable to that of widely used amorphous silicon. Comprehensive mechanical tests demonstrate that the synthesized AM-III carbon is the hardest and strongest amorphous material known so far, which can scratch diamond crystal and approach its strength. The produced AM carbon materials combine outstanding mechanical and electronic properties, and may potentially be used in photovoltaic applications that require ultrahigh strength and wear resistance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2022
Keywords
amorphous carbon, ultrahard, ultrastrong, semiconductor, phase transition
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Experimental Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88295 (URN)10.1093/nsr/nwab140 (DOI)000754318600009 ()35070330 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85128804424 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-01-24 (johcin)

Available from: 2021-12-13 Created: 2021-12-13 Last updated: 2022-08-02Bibliographically approved
Ji, C., Li, B., Liu, W., Smith, J. S., Björling, A., Majumdar, A., . . . Mao, H.-K. (2020). Crystallography of low Z material at ultrahigh pressure: Case study on solid hydrogen. Matter and Radiation at Extremes, 5(3), Article ID 038401.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crystallography of low Z material at ultrahigh pressure: Case study on solid hydrogen
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2020 (English)In: Matter and Radiation at Extremes, ISSN 2468-2047, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 038401Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Diamond anvil cell techniques have been improved to allow access to the multimegabar ultrahigh-pressure region for exploring novel phenomena in condensed matter. However, the only way to determine crystal structures of materials above 100 GPa, namely, X-ray diffraction (XRD), especially for low Z materials, remains nontrivial in the ultrahigh-pressure region, even with the availability of brilliant synchrotron X-ray sources. In this work, we perform a systematic study, choosing hydrogen (the lowest X-ray scatterer) as the subject, to understand how to better perform XRD measurements of low Z materials at multimegabar pressures. The techniques that we have developed have been proved to be effective in measuring the crystal structure of solid hydrogen up to 254 GPa at room temperature [C. Ji et al., Nature 573, 558–562 (2019)]. We present our discoveries and experiences with regard to several aspects of this work, namely, diamond anvil selection, sample configuration for ultrahigh-pressure XRD studies, XRD diagnostics for low Z materials, and related issues in data interpretation and pressure calibration. We believe that these methods can be readily extended to other low Z materials and can pave the way for studying the crystal structure of hydrogen at higher pressures, eventually testing structural models of metallic hydrogen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2020
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Experimental Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-79043 (URN)10.1063/5.0003288 (DOI)000531438500001 ()2-s2.0-85083724763 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-05-28 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-05-28 Created: 2020-05-28 Last updated: 2021-03-31Bibliographically approved
Lukina, I. N., Chernogrova, O. P., Drozdova, E. I., Ekimov, E. A., Apostolova, M. O., Prokopenko, D. A., . . . Benavides, V. (2020). Effect of synthesis parameters on the structure and properties of carbon particles formed from amorphous fullerites. In: : . Paper presented at Fifth interdisciplinary scientific forum with international participation "New materials and promising technologies", 30 October - 1 November, 2019, Moscow, Russia. Institute of Physics (IOP), Article ID 012050.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of synthesis parameters on the structure and properties of carbon particles formed from amorphous fullerites
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2020 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The effect of high-pressure synthesis temperature on the structure and indentation characteristics of the superelastic hard carbon formed from amorphous fullerites and on the tribological properties of the Co-based composite materials (CM) reinforced by the particles of such carbon has been studied by Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), indentation measurements, and tribological tests. It is shown that ball milling (for 48 h) of C60 fullerite crystals results in the amorphization of the product of fullerite transformation upon their high-pressure treatment at temperatures above the stability limit of fullerene molecule (~800°C). An increase in synthesis temperature at 8 GPa from 800°C to 1200°C leads to a gradual graphitization of the structure of amorphous fullerite derived carbon. This decreases its hardness and indentation modulus from 32 to 18 GPa and from 256 to 95 GPa, respectively, and increases the elastic recovery (from 80% to 86%). The best tribological characteristics of the CM are attained at the maximum particle hardness, which is realized in the CM synthesized at 800°C. When the synthesis temperature is elevated to 1200°C, the friction coefficient and wear rate of the CM increase, but they remain substantially lower than those of the matrix cobalt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2020
Series
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X ; 848
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Experimental Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80267 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/848/1/012050 (DOI)2-s2.0-85087566038 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Fifth interdisciplinary scientific forum with international participation "New materials and promising technologies", 30 October - 1 November, 2019, Moscow, Russia
Available from: 2020-07-24 Created: 2020-07-24 Last updated: 2020-08-26Bibliographically approved
Lukina, I. N., Chernogorova, O. P., Drozdova, E. I., Stupnikov, V. A. & Soldatov, A. V. (2019). Effect of high-pressure treatment temperature on the structure of carbon phases formed from C60 fullerites under pressure. In: Fourth interdisciplinary scientific forum with international participation "New materials and promising technologies" 27–30 November 2018, Moscow, Russian Federation: . Paper presented at 4th interdisciplinary scientific forum with international participation "New materials and promising technologies", Moscow, Russian Federation, November 27-30, 2018. Institute of Physics (IOP), Article ID 012034.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of high-pressure treatment temperature on the structure of carbon phases formed from C60 fullerites under pressure
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2019 (English)In: Fourth interdisciplinary scientific forum with international participation "New materials and promising technologies" 27–30 November 2018, Moscow, Russian Federation, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, article id 012034Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The synthesis of metal-matrix composite materials reinforced with superelastic hard carbon particles formed from C60 fullerites includes heating of the metal-fullerite powder mixture to temperatures above 800C under pressure. The structure evolution of the carbon particles upon heating from 700 to 800 C at a pressure of 5 GPa has been studied in detail by Raman spectroscopy and indentation hardness measurements. It is shown that the structure of the carbon particle passes the stage of a nanoscale mixture of one- and two-dimensional polymers with the resulting atomic superelastic solid phase. The determining properties of the carbon particles such as superplasticity and high hardness are attained before the complete disappearance of polymerized fullerites, the remnants of which are responsible for the disintegration of the material upon scratching.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019
Series
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 1757-899X ; 525
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Experimental Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86195 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/525/1/012034 (DOI)000490925000034 ()2-s2.0-85067832250 (Scopus ID)
Conference
4th interdisciplinary scientific forum with international participation "New materials and promising technologies", Moscow, Russian Federation, November 27-30, 2018
Available from: 2021-06-30 Created: 2021-06-30 Last updated: 2021-06-30Bibliographically approved
Landström, A., Soldatov, A., Vomiero, A. & Concina, I. (2019). Thermal Defect Modulation and Functional Performance: A Case Study on ZnO–rGO Nanocomposites. Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, 256(12), Article ID 1900239.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal Defect Modulation and Functional Performance: A Case Study on ZnO–rGO Nanocomposites
2019 (English)In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 256, no 12, article id 1900239Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Herein, a reduced graphene oxide–zinc oxide (rGO–ZnO) hybrid nanocomposite (1 wt% rGO) is synthesized and heat treated at different temperatures, aimed at modulating the intrinsic bulk/surface defects naturally present in nano‐ZnO. The correlation of both the dispersion of rGO within the metal oxide scaffold and the defects present on the semiconductor crystalline lattice with the photocatalytic performance toward the degradation of a molecular dye in water is investigated and discussed. It is shown that several processes compete to determine the catalytic skill of the nanocomposite, which can be enhanced by a simple thermal treatment at moderate temperatures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
crystalline defects, hybrid nanocomposites, photocatalysis, photoluminescence, reduced graphene oxide, thermal treatment, zinc oxide
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Experimental Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76877 (URN)10.1002/pssb.201900239 (DOI)000495784800001 ()2-s2.0-85075015324 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2019-12-16 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-11-27 Created: 2019-11-27 Last updated: 2023-09-04Bibliographically approved
Allali, N., Urbanova, V., Etienne, M., Devaux, X., Mallet, M., Vigolo, B., . . . Mamane, V. (2018). Accurate control of the covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes for the electro-enzymatically controlled oxidation of biomolecules. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 9, 2750-2762
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accurate control of the covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes for the electro-enzymatically controlled oxidation of biomolecules
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2018 (English)In: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, ISSN 2190-4286, Vol. 9, p. 2750-2762Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were functionalized by ferrocene through ethyleneglycol chains of different lengths (FcETGn) and the functionalized SWCNTs (f-SWCNTs) were characterized by different complementary analytical techniques. In particular, high-resolution scanning electron transmission microscopy (HRSTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses support that the outer tubes of the carbon-nanotube bundles were covalently grafted with FcETGn groups. This result confirms that the electrocatalytic effect observed during the oxidation of the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) co-factor by the f-SWCNTs is due to the presence of grafted ferrocene derivatives playing the role of a mediator. This work clearly proves that residual impurities present in our SWCNT sample (below 5 wt. %) play no role in the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH. Moreover, molecular dynamic simulations confirm the essential role of the PEG linker in the efficiency of the bioelectrochemical device in water, due to the favorable interaction between the ETG units and water molecules that prevents π-stacking of the ferrocene unit on the surface of the CNTs. This system can be applied to biosensing, as exemplified for glucose detection. The well-controlled and well-characterized functionalization of essentially clean SWCNTs enabled us to establish the maximum level of impurity content, below which the f-SWCNT intrinsic electrochemical activity is not jeopardized.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Beilstein-Institut, 2018
Keywords
biosensing, carbon nanotubes, covalent functionalization, electrocatalysis, ferrocene
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Experimental Physics; Applied Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71587 (URN)10.3762/bjnano.9.257 (DOI)000448782500001 ()30416926 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056284634 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-11-15 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-11-15 Created: 2018-11-15 Last updated: 2023-10-28Bibliographically approved
Zhu, C., Soldatov, A. & Mathew, A. (2017). Advanced microscopy and spectroscopy reveal the adsorption and clustering of Cu(II) onto TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers. Nanoscale, 9(22), 7419-7428
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced microscopy and spectroscopy reveal the adsorption and clustering of Cu(II) onto TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers
2017 (English)In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, no 22, p. 7419-7428Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxylradical)-mediated oxidation nanofibers (TOCNF), as a biocompatible and bioactive material, have opened up a new application of nanocellulose for the removal of water contaminants. This development demands extremely sensitive and accurate methods to understand the surface interactions between water pollutants and TOCNF. In this report, we investigated the adsorption of metal ions on TOCNF surfaces using experimental techniques atthe nano and molecular scales with Cu(II) as the target pollutant in both aqueous and dry forms. Imaging with in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), together with a study of the physiochemical properties of TOCNF caused by adsorption with Cu(II) in liquid, were conducted using the PeakForce Quantitative NanoMechanics (PF-QNM) mode at the nano scale. The average adhesion force between the tip and the target single TOCNF almost tripled after adsorption with Cu(II) from 50 pN to 140 pN. The stiffness of the TOCNF was also enhanced because the Cu(II) bound to the carboxylate groups and hardened the fiber. AFM topography, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) mapping and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the TOCNF were covered by copper nanolayers and/or nanoparticles after adsorption. The changes in the molecular structure caused by the adsorption were demonstrated by Raman and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). This methodology will be of great assistance to gain qualitative and quantitative information on the adsorption process and interaction between charged entities in aqueous medium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017
National Category
Other Physics Topics Bio Materials
Research subject
Experimental Physics; Wood and Bionanocomposites
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63514 (URN)10.1039/c7nr01566f (DOI)000402881600009 ()28530277 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85021169078 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-06-14 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-05-24 Created: 2017-05-24 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Botella, P., Devaux, X., Dossot, M., Garashchenko, V., Beltzung, J. C., Soldatov, A. & Ananev, S. (2017). Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Shock-Compressed to 0.5 Mbar. Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, 254(11), Article ID 1700315.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Shock-Compressed to 0.5 Mbar
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2017 (English)In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 254, no 11, article id 1700315Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been dynamically (shock) compressed to 0.5 Mbar, above the limit of their structural integrity. Two distinct types of material are identified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy in the sample recovered after shock: multi-layer graphene (MLG) and a two-phase material composed of nano-clustered graphene and amorphous carbon whereas no diamond-like carbon or carbon nano-onions are found. Peak decomposition of the Raman spectra was used to estimate the coherent scatterers (clusters) size in MLG at 36 nm from the D- to G-band intensity ratio dependence on the photon excitation energy. Botella et al. (article no. 1700315) propose the peak fitting model for decomposition of the Raman spectra of highly disordered carbon material containing graphene nano-clusters and stress the importance of accounting for heptagonal- and pentagonal-ring defects in graphene layers for the analysis of such spectra. The cover image shows HRTEM images and the correspondent Raman spectra of the two types of material along with peak decomposition of the two-phase material with the peaks assigned to heptagons (a) and pentagons (b). Particulars of the SWCNTs transformation to other structural forms of carbon at high pressure/temperature are discussed

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Experimental Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68344 (URN)10.1002/pssb.201700315 (DOI)000417609800010 ()2-s2.0-85034081575 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-11-21 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-04-13 Created: 2018-04-13 Last updated: 2020-08-26Bibliographically approved
Botella, P., Devaux, X., Dossot, M., Garashchenko, V., Beltzung, J. C., Soldatov, A. & Ananev, S. (2017). Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Shock-Compressed to 0.5 Mbar. Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, 254(11), Article ID 1770259.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Shock-Compressed to 0.5 Mbar
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2017 (English)In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 254, no 11, article id 1770259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been dynamically (shock) compressed to 0.5 Mbar, above the limit of their structural integrity. Two distinct types of material are identified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy in the sample recovered after shock: multi-layer graphene (MLG) and a two-phase material composed of nano-clustered graphene and amorphous carbon whereas no diamond-like carbon or carbon nano-onions are found. Peak decomposition of the Raman spectra was used to estimate the coherent scatterers (clusters) size in MLG at 36 nm from the D- to G-band intensity ratio dependence on the photon excitation energy. Botella et al. (article no. 1700315) propose the peak fitting model for decomposition of the Raman spectra of highly disordered carbon material containing graphene nano-clusters and stress the importance of accounting for heptagonal- and pentagonal-ring defects in graphene layers for the analysis of such spectra. The cover image shows HRTEM images and the correspondent Raman spectra of the two types of material along with peak decomposition of the two-phase material with the peaks assigned to heptagons (a) and pentagons (b). Particulars of the SWCNTs transformation to other structural forms of carbon at high pressure/temperature are discussed

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Experimental Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66624 (URN)10.1002/pssb.201770259 (DOI)
Note

This record describes the abstract published on the back cover of the journal. For the full article, please see: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68344

Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2020-08-28Bibliographically approved
Öberg, S., Adjizian, J.-J., Erbahar, D., Rio, J., Humbert, B., Dossot, M., . . . Ewels, C. P. (2016). Effect of functionalization and charging on resonance energy and radial breathing modes of metallic carbon nanotubes (ed.). Physical Review B, 93(4), Article ID 45408.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of functionalization and charging on resonance energy and radial breathing modes of metallic carbon nanotubes
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2016 (English)In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 93, no 4, article id 45408Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While changes in resonant Raman scattering measurements are commonly used to measure the effect of chemical functionalization on single-walled carbon nanotubes, the precise effects of functionalization on these spectra have yet to be clearly identified. In this density functional theory study, we explore the effects of functionalization on both the nanotube resonance energy and frequency shifts in radial breathing mode. Charge transfer effects cause a shift in the first Van Hove singularity spacings, and hence resonance excitation energy, and lead to a decrease in the radial breathing mode frequency, notably when the Fermi level decreases. By varying stochastically the effective mass of carbon atoms in the tube, we simulate the mass effect of functionalization on breathing mode frequency. Finally, full density functional calculations are performed for different nanotubes with varying functional group distribution and concentration using fluorination and hydrogenation, allowing us to determine overall effect on radial breathing mode and charge transfer. The results concur well with experiment, and we discuss the importance when using Raman spectroscopy to interpret experimental functionalization treatments

National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Applied Physics; Experimental Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-11347 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.93.045408 (DOI)000367894400008 ()2-s2.0-84955455581 (Scopus ID)a4afae03-a703-44c1-aba6-e770cff97d90 (Local ID)a4afae03-a703-44c1-aba6-e770cff97d90 (Archive number)a4afae03-a703-44c1-aba6-e770cff97d90 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160129 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2020-02-18Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5145-1560

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