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Chen, Tingjie
Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Wu, Z., Huang, D., Wang, W., Chen, T., Lin, M., Xie, Y., . . . Wang, A. (2017). Optimization for fire performance of ultra-low density fiberboards using response surface methodology. BioResources, 12(2), 3790-3800
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization for fire performance of ultra-low density fiberboards using response surface methodology
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2017 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 3790-3800Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The optimization of the process conditions for fire retardant ultra-low density fiberboards (ULDFs) was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Three parameters, namely those of Borax-Zinc-Silicate-Aluminum (B-Zn-Si-Al), chlorinated paraffin (CP), and chloride-vinyl chloride emulsions (PVDC) were chosen as variables. The considerably high R2 value (99.98%) indicated the statistical significance of the model. The optimal process conditions for the limiting oxygen index (LOI) were determined by analyzing the response surface's three-dimensional surface plot and contour plot, and by solving the regression model equation with Design Expert software. The Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the process conditions, which showed that the most favorable dosages of B-Zn-Si-Al, CP, and PVDC were 800 mL, 46.47 mL, and 35.64 g, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum LOI was 48.4.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
North Carolina State University, 2017
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63593 (URN)10.15376/biores.12.2.3790-3800 (DOI)000402883700114 ()2-s2.0-85018937821 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-05-30 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-05-30 Created: 2017-05-30 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Chen, T., Wu, Z., Wei, W., Xie, Y., Wei, Q., Wang, A., . . . Karlsson, O. (2017). Optimizing Refining Conditions of Pinus massoniana Cellulose Fibers for Improving the Mechanical Properties of Ultra-Low Density Plant Fiber  Composite (ULD_UFC). BioResources, 12(1), 8-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimizing Refining Conditions of Pinus massoniana Cellulose Fibers for Improving the Mechanical Properties of Ultra-Low Density Plant Fiber  Composite (ULD_UFC)
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2017 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 8-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Response surface methodology was used to optimize the refining conditions of Pinus massoniana cellulose fiber and to improve the mechanical properties of ultra-low density plant fiber composite (ULD_PFC). The effects and interactions of the pulp consistency (X1), the number of passes (X2), and the beating gap (X3) on the internal bond strength of ULD_PFC were investigated. The results showed that the optimum internal bond strength (91.72 ± 2.28 kPa) was obtained under the conditions of 8.0% pulp consistency, two passes through the refiner, and a 30.0 μm beating gap. Analysis of the physical properties of the fibers and handsheets showed that the fibrillation of fibers with optimum refining conditions was improved. Also, the tear index of the optimal specimen was 13.9% and 24.5% higher than specimen-1 with a lowest beating degree of 24 oSR and specimen-6 with a highest beating degree of 73 oSR, respectively. Consequently, the optimal refining conditions of the fibers are valid for preparing ULD_PFCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
North Carolina State University, 2017
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60825 (URN)10.15376/biores.12.1.8-18 (DOI)000397065200003 ()
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-03-16 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-11-30 Created: 2016-11-30 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
Wu, Z., Chen, T., Niu, M., Cai, L., Xie, Y. & Wang, A. (2016). Effect of Boron-Zinc-Aluminum-Silicium Compounds on the Fire Performance of Ultra-Low Density Fiberboards (ed.). BioResources, 11(2), 5050-5063
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Boron-Zinc-Aluminum-Silicium Compounds on the Fire Performance of Ultra-Low Density Fiberboards
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2016 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 5050-5063Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

B-Zn-Si-Al compounds are modified Si-Al compounds made of sodium silicate, zinc sulfate, borax, and aluminum sulfate. They act as a fire retardant during the preparation of ultra-low density fiberboards (ULDFs). An orthogonal experiment was used to optimize the contents of the four compounds according to the limiting oxygen index. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to preliminarily analyze the chemical structure of the compounds. Additionally, a cone calorimeter was used to assess the fire performance of the ULDFs. The results suggested that the optimized solution was made of 27.0 mL of sodium silicate solution, 27.0 mL of aluminum sulfate solution, 3.0 g of zinc sulfate, and 6.5 g of borax, resulting in an oxygen index of 29.5%. The bond Al-O-B was detected at 1397 and 796 cm-1. The Si-O-Zn bonds were detected at 867 cm-1. The heat release rate, total heat release, and total smoke release decreased and the mass residual ratio increased in the sample using the optimal conditions from the orthogonal array design. It was concluded that B-Zn- Si-Al compounds effectively protect fibers from fire.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14132 (URN)d77d266b-bc7d-4bb2-9887-ef590faf1ff3 (Local ID)d77d266b-bc7d-4bb2-9887-ef590faf1ff3 (Archive number)d77d266b-bc7d-4bb2-9887-ef590faf1ff3 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160331 (aliwan)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Chen, T., Wu, Z., Niu, M., Wang, A., Wei, Q., Rao, J. & Xie, Y. (2016). Effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Si-Al hybrid composites on the mechanical properties of ultra-low density fiberboard (ULDF) (ed.). Wood Science and Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Si-Al hybrid composites on the mechanical properties of ultra-low density fiberboard (ULDF)
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2016 (English)In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The microstructure and properties of ultra-low density fiberboard (ULDF) were affected by the different contents of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). They were tested by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and microcomputer control electronic universal testing machine, respectively. The SEM result showed that the microstructure of ULDFs was affected by the PVA. The FTIR and XRD results showed that there were two forms between PVA and Si-Al sol. They were combining with chemical bond and physical cross linking. The TGA results revealed that the thermostability of ULDF was decreased with the increasing content of PVA. Combined with the TGA and mechanical properties results, the reasonable content of PVA which was 30% was obtained. Under this condition, the modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and the internal bond strength of ULDF were significantly improved from 0.13, 16.09, and 0.021 MPa to 0.35, 24.86, and 0.038 MPa, respectively.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-4062 (URN)1ed34ee6-0aea-4bbb-8e9e-8104c93592f0 (Local ID)1ed34ee6-0aea-4bbb-8e9e-8104c93592f0 (Archive number)1ed34ee6-0aea-4bbb-8e9e-8104c93592f0 (OAI)
Note

Upprättat; 2015; 20151105 (aliwan)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-05-02
Wu, Z., Chen, T., Huang, D., Wang, W., Xie, Y., Wan, H. & Wang, X. (. (2016). Effect of PVDC on the Fire Performance of Ultra-Low Density Fiberboards (ULDFs). BioResources, 11(4), 8653-8663
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of PVDC on the Fire Performance of Ultra-Low Density Fiberboards (ULDFs)
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2016 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 8653-8663Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Poly vinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride emulsions (PVDC) were added as a substitute for chlorinated paraffin (CP) in the preparation of ultra-low density fiberboards (ULDFs). The micromorphology and fire performance of ULDFs were investigated using a scanning electron microscope, limiting oxygen index instrument, and cone calorimeter. The results showed that PVDC specimens were coated with a regularly smooth film, while the distribution of CP inside CP specimens was uneven. The limiting oxygen index increased with the dosage of PVDC, then reached a plateau at 50 mL and 28%, slightly higher than CP specimens (27.3%). The peak of heat release rate, mean heat release rate, mean CO, and total smoke release of PVDC specimens was reduced 43.3%, 13.5%, 38.5%, and 51.5% lower than respective CP specimens, and with nearly the same total heat release (only 0.04 MJ/m2 higher). Thus, PVDC exhibited excellent heat-reducing and smoke-suppressing properties and could replace CP in ULDFs. 

Keywords
Forming material, Plant fiber, Chlorinated paraffin, Vinylidene chloride, Vinyl chloride, Cone calorimeter, ULDFs
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60841 (URN)10.15376/biores.11.4.8653-8663 (DOI)000391801300042 ()
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-12-01 (inah)

Available from: 2016-11-30 Created: 2016-11-30 Last updated: 2019-09-11Bibliographically approved
Chen, T., Xie, Y., Wei, Q., Wang, A., Hagman, O., Karlsson, O. & Liu, J. (2016). Effect of Refining on Physical Properties and Paper Strength of Pinus massoniana and China Fir Cellulose Fibers. BioResources, 11(3), 7839-7848
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Refining on Physical Properties and Paper Strength of Pinus massoniana and China Fir Cellulose Fibers
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2016 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 7839-7848Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To obtain a suitable refining process for Pinus massoniana cellulose fibers (PMCF) and China fir cellulose fibers (CFCF), the effects of the beating gap and the pulp consistency on the physical properties and the morphology of the two cellulose fibers were investigated. The results showed that the physical properties of the PMCF and the CFCF were well affected by the beating gap and the pulp consistency. The CFCF showed a smaller weight-average length and width than that of the PMCF. The CFCF exhibited smaller weight-average length, width, and kink index than the PMCF. It is easy to get the high beating degree, indicating it is more easily to be refined. Additionally, the tensile index and burst index of PMCFP and CFCFP increased with increasing beating degree, while the tear index decreased. Compared to the CFCF, the paper made from PMCF had superior strength properties. Consequently, the PMCF was suitable for refining with a high pulp consistency and a medium beating gap, whereas the CFCF had a medium pulp consistency and a big beating gap.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60012 (URN)10.15376/biores.11.3.7839-7848 (DOI)000384922400167 ()2-s2.0-84988650833 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-10-28 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-10-28 Created: 2016-10-28 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Chen, T., Wu, Z., Niu, M., Xie, Y. & Wang, A. (2016). Effect of Si-Al Molar Ratio on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ultra-low Density Fiberboard (ed.). European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 74(2), 151-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Si-Al Molar Ratio on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ultra-low Density Fiberboard
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2016 (English)In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To clarify how the mechanical properties of ultra-low density fiberboards (ULDFs) affected by Si-Al molar ratios, they were prepared with different Si-Al molar ratios. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the ULDFs were tested using scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer, and microcomputer control electronic universal testing machine. The results showed that Si and Al component were uniformly distributed on the fibers’ surface and the bond of Si-O-C was formed. The different microstructures and relative densities were presented with different Si-Al molar ratios. The results of the modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR) and internal bond strength (IB) were also significantly affected by different Si-Al molar ratios; and their maximum values of 20.78, 0.17, and 0.025MPa were obtained while Si-Al compounds with Si-Al molar ratio of 2:1 was added.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-2808 (URN)10.1007/s00107-015-0986-x (DOI)000370815700003 ()2-s2.0-84958760696 (Scopus ID)081469ac-c680-416e-b080-e12399c1ff3a (Local ID)081469ac-c680-416e-b080-e12399c1ff3a (Archive number)081469ac-c680-416e-b080-e12399c1ff3a (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20151105 (aliwan)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Chen, T., Liu, J., Wu, Z., Wang, W., Niu, M., Wang, A. & Xie, Y. (2016). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Complex Fire-Retardants on the Fire Properties of Ultra-low Density Fiberboard (ULDF) (ed.). BioResources, 11(1), 1796-1807
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the Effectiveness of Complex Fire-Retardants on the Fire Properties of Ultra-low Density Fiberboard (ULDF)
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2016 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1796-1807Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The preparation conditions of complex fire-retardant (FR) agents containing boron compounds (BF, X1), nitrogen-phosphorus compounds (NPF, X2), silicon compounds (SF, X3), and halogen compounds (HF, X4) for ultra-low density fiberboard (ULDF) were optimized using a response surface methodology. The effects and interactions of X1, X2, X3, and X4 on the fire properties of ULDF were investigated. An optimum char yield of 61.4% was obtained when the complex fire-retardant agents contained 33.9% boron, 27.2% nitrogen-phosphorus, 15.0% silicon, and 28.6% halogen. Compared with control fiberboard (CF), the heat release rate (HRR) profiles of all fiberboards with FRs were reduced. The peak HRR reduction in BF and NPF was more pronounced than for SF and HF at this stage. And the mixed fiberboard (MF) had the lowest pkHRR of 75.02 kW m−2. In total heat release (THR) profiles, all fiberboards with FRs were lower than the CF. Unlike the HRR profiles, HF had the lowest THR profile of 15.33 MJ/m−2. Additionally, Si compounds showed greater effectiveness in preventing ULDF mass loss than BF, NPF, and HF. MF showed the highest residual mass (40.94%). Furthermore, the synergistic effect between four FR agents showed more significant results in ULDFs.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-3810 (URN)1a5a2a60-63b9-427b-ad71-0ed29bc48c49 (Local ID)1a5a2a60-63b9-427b-ad71-0ed29bc48c49 (Archive number)1a5a2a60-63b9-427b-ad71-0ed29bc48c49 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20151022 (aliwan)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Liu, J., Chen, T., Xie, Y., Wei, Q., Chen, Y., Rao, J., . . . Wang, X. (. (2016). Fire Performance of Ultra-Low Density Fiberboard (ULDF) with Complex Fire-Retardants. BioResources, 11(4), 10261-10272
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire Performance of Ultra-Low Density Fiberboard (ULDF) with Complex Fire-Retardants
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2016 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 10261-10272Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To clarify how the fire performance of ultra-low density fiberboard (ULDF) can be improved by complex fire-retardants, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) and microstructure of ULDFs with different additive amounts of complex fire-retardants was analyzed. The char yield, chemical bonding, and thermostability of ULDFs treated by different temperatures were also tested. Results showed that the LOI values and compactness of ULDFs were increased with increased amounts of fire-retardants. Three steps of char yield curves in control fiberboard (CF) and mixed fiberboard (MF) were apparent. The preliminary degradation in lignin and cellulose of CF occurred at 300 °C. The cellulose had completely decomposed at 400 °C, but in the case of MF, the lignin and cellulose were not completely decomposed at 400 °C. It was shown that there are different ways to improve the fire resistance of ULDF using boron, nitrogen-phosphorus, silica, and halogen-based fire-retardants. The fiberboard with silicium compounds had the lowest mass loss in three stages and total mass loss. Compared with CF, MF had a lower mass loss. Furthermore, the exothermic peak for MF at around 400.0 °C was decreased, indicating that the fire resistance of ULDF was improved by the complex fire-retardants. 

Keywords
Char yield, Chemical bonding, Fire-retardant, Thermostability, Ultra-low density fiberboard
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60839 (URN)10.15376/biores.11.4.10261-10272 (DOI)000391801300158 ()
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-12-01 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2016-11-30 Created: 2016-11-30 Last updated: 2019-09-11Bibliographically approved
Chen, T., Wu, Z., Wei, W., Xie, Y., Wang, A., Niu, M., . . . Rao, J. (2016). Hybrid composites of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Si-Al for improving the properties of ultra-low density fiberboard (ULDF) (ed.). RSC Advances, 6(25), 20706-20712
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid composites of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Si-Al for improving the properties of ultra-low density fiberboard (ULDF)
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2016 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, no 25, p. 20706-20712Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The hybrid composites of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Si-Al were synthesized to improve the thermostability and mechanical properties of ultra-low density fiberboard (ULDF). Their physical and chemical properties were tested by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and a microcomputer control electronic universal testing machine. Microstructure results indicated that the distribution of inorganic fillers on the surface of ULDF was improved by the PVA. Analysis of chemical bonds and crystallinity of materials showed that part of the PVA reacted with Si-Al sol, and the other was physically crosslinked in the composite. The thermostability of ULDF decreased with the increasing content of PVA, but the mechanical properties increased. Combined with the TGA and mechanical properties results, a reasonable content of PVA (30%) was obtained. Under this condition, the modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and the internal bond strength of ULDF were 0.35, 24.86, and 0.038 MPa, respectively

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15382 (URN)10.1039/c5ra26868k (DOI)000371019000033 ()2-s2.0-84959163742 (Scopus ID)ee3b0556-2795-4acd-a953-fc5df56e565a (Local ID)ee3b0556-2795-4acd-a953-fc5df56e565a (Archive number)ee3b0556-2795-4acd-a953-fc5df56e565a (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160318 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
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