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Zhaka, V., Bridges, R., Riska, K. & Cwirzen, A. (2024). Brash ice macroporosity and piece size distribution in ship channels. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 217, Article ID 104047.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brash ice macroporosity and piece size distribution in ship channels
2024 (English)In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 217, article id 104047Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Merchant vessels' performance on brash ice plays an important role in navigation in fast ice conditions in Northern Baltic ports. Among many parameters, the piece size distribution and macroporosity of the brash ice influence the accuracy of the model simulations of ship performance in brash ice. These properties also govern the brash ice accumulation and consolidation in ship channels. The current work presents analyses of macroporosity and piece size distribution from three full-scale brash ice channels investigated during winters 2020–21 and 2021–22. The results provide insights into brash ice macroporosity and piece size distribution. Smaller brash ice pieces exhibited higher porosity. On each measured cross-section, the average macroporosity ranged from 1.4% to 23%, with standard deviations of 3.8% and 16%, respectively. Porosity variations were observed in relation to equivalent brash ice thickness, the number of ship passages, and cumulative freezing air temperatures. Total porosity and the channel's brash ice porosity initially increased with breaking events and then stabilized at approximately 23% and 30%, respectively, after 9 passages. In contrast, side ridge porosity increased initially (up to 23%) and subsequently decreased. The initial total, brash ice and side ridge maximal porosities after the breaking event were estimated equal to 25%, 35% and 30%, respectively. The first two channels, which were navigated a total of 9 and 10 times, had an average degree of brash ice consolidation equal to 0.84 and 0.76, and an average degree of side ridge consolidation equal to 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. The third channel, characterized by frequent navigation, exhibited a consolidation degree of 0.82 for brash ice and 1.35 in the side ridges. The average vertical piece size across all cross-sections ranged from 0.28 m to 0.52 m with standard deviations of 0.16 m and 0.25 m. The average horizontal piece size ranged from 0.33 m to 0.4 m with standard deviations between 0.2 m and 0.34 m. The horizontal piece size distribution of brash ice was best described by the probability density function of a three-parameter lognormal distribution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Ship channels, Brash ice, Macroporosity, Piece size distribution
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101580 (URN)10.1016/j.coldregions.2023.104047 (DOI)2-s2.0-85174328780 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Luleå University of Technology
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-08 (marisr);

Funder: TotalEnergies, SE;

License fulltext: CC BY

Available from: 2023-10-05 Created: 2023-10-05 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved
Buasiri, T., Kothari, A., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K., Krzeminski, L. & Cwirzen, A. (2024). Monitoring temperature and hydration by mortar sensors made of nanomodified Portland cement. Materials and Structures, 57, Article ID 1.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring temperature and hydration by mortar sensors made of nanomodified Portland cement
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2024 (English)In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 57, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mortar beams incorporating carbon nanofibers (CNFs), which were synthesized in situ on Portland cement particles, were used to produce nanomodified Portland cement sensors (SmartCem sensors). SmartCem sensors exhibited an electrical response comparable to a thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistivity of − 0.0152/ °C. The highest temperature sensing was obtained for the SmartCem sensor, which contained ~ 0.271 wt.% of CNFs. The calculated temperature sensitivity was approximately 11.76% higher in comparison with the mortar beam containing only unmodified Portland cement. SmartCem sensors were used to monitor the cement hydration in large-scale self-compacting concrete beams. The measurements were conducted after casting for 7 days. Additionally, commercially available thermocouple and humidity sensors were used as references. The results showed that changes in electrical resistivity measured by the SmartCem sensor were well aligned with the ongoing hydration processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
Keywords
Nanomodified Portland cement, Carbon nanofibers, CNFs, Temperature sensing, Temperature sensitivity, Temperature sensor, Hydration temperature, Hydration monitoring, Cement-based sensor
National Category
Building Technologies Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97278 (URN)10.1617/s11527-023-02275-w (DOI)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Transport AdministrationSvenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-12-04 (joosat);

Full text license: CC BY

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Available from: 2023-05-23 Created: 2023-05-23 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
Zhaka, V., Bridges, R., Riska, K., Nilimaa, J. & Cwirzen, A. (2024). Snow Effects on Brash Ice and Level Ice Growth. Journal of Glaciology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Snow Effects on Brash Ice and Level Ice Growth
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Glaciology, ISSN 0022-1430, E-ISSN 1727-5652Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Brash ice formation and accumulation occur at a faster rate in ship channels, harbours, and turning areas compared to the surrounding level ice. Accurate prediction of brash ice thickness plays an important role in addressing operational challenges and optimization of ice management strategies. This study enhances existing brash ice growth models by considering the effects of snow and accounting for brash ice expulsion towards the sides of ship channels at each passage. To validate the influence of these critical factors on brash ice thickness, three distinct ship channels located in the Bay of Bothnia, Lulea, Sweden, were investigated. For two test channels formed for study purposes, the slower growth rate of brash ice caused by snow insulation was more prominent than the brash ice growth acceleration caused by the snow-slush-snow ice transformation. In the third channel characterized by frequent navigation, the transformation of slush into snow ice played a more substantial role than snow insulation. In both test channels, the brash ice growth model performed optimally, assuming a 10% expulsion of brash ice sideways at each vessel passage. In the third, wider, and more frequently navigated channel, a 1.2% brash ice expelling coefficient predicted well the measured brash ice thicknesses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2024
National Category
Water Engineering Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103998 (URN)10.1017/jog.2024.5 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182884600 (Scopus ID)
Note

Full text license: CC BY-NC-ND

Available from: 2024-01-29 Created: 2024-01-29 Last updated: 2024-01-29
Rajczakowska, M., Tole, I., Hedlund, H., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K. & Cwirzen, A. (2023). Autogenous self-healing of low embodied energy cementitious materials: Effect of multi-component binder and crack geometry. Construction and Building Materials, 376, Article ID 130994.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autogenous self-healing of low embodied energy cementitious materials: Effect of multi-component binder and crack geometry
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2023 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 376, article id 130994Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Concrete's ability to auto-repair the cracks reduces the need for maintenance and repair. Autogenous self-healing is an intrinsic property of concrete highly dependent on the binder composition. The urgent necessity to decrease CO2 emissions of concrete by replacing cement with “greener” materials provides challenges and opportunities for self-healing cementitious materials. This research aims to verify the self-healing behavior of environmentally friendly multi-component binders. An experimental study is conducted to test the effect of binder composition-related parameters (e.g., phase composition, porosity) and crack geometry on the self-healing efficiency of the “green” mortars. Cementitious materials with 50 wt.%cement replacement with limestone powder blended with fly ash, blast furnace slag, and silica fume are investigated. Sorptivity change, compressive strength regains, and crack closure after self-healing are used to quantify the self-healing efficiency. Quantitative analysis and correlations between chemical composition/microstructural features, geometrical crack characteristics, and self-healing measures are investigated. The results indicate that “green” binder composition affects the self-healing mechanism leading to different levels of performance recovery. Some SCMs-limestone binder formulations enable a better self-healing efficiency than pure OPC or OPC/limestone cementitious materials, presumably due to a synergistic effect between the limestone and the mineral additions. Correlation analysis indicated that geometrical complexity characterized by fractal dimension and tortuosity of the crack does not affect the external crack closure, whereas the fractal dimension and maximum crack width are correlated with the internal crack healing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Cracking, Microstructure, Mortar, Autogenous self-healing, Low embodied energy, Fractal dimension
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94753 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.130994 (DOI)2-s2.0-85150247385 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationSvenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-12 (hanlid);

Funder: Skanska AB, Sweden;

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis

Available from: 2022-12-06 Created: 2022-12-06 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Rajczakowska, M., Szeląg, M., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K., Hedlund, H. & Cwirzen, A. (2023). Autogenous self-healing of thermally damaged cement paste with carbon nanomaterials subjected to different environmental stimulators. Journal of Building Engineering, 72, Article ID 106619.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autogenous self-healing of thermally damaged cement paste with carbon nanomaterials subjected to different environmental stimulators
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 72, article id 106619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Autogenous self-healing of post-fire damaged concrete enables structure performance auto-recovery leading to reduced repair costs, less generated waste, and lower CO2 emissions. In this paper, to improve the efficiency of this process and understand the underlying mechanism, the self-healing of 0.1 wt% MWCNT-modified and pure cement paste subjected to novel environmental stimulators was tested. High-temperature damage was induced at 200 °C and 400 °C, followed by a self-healing cyclic treatment with water, a mixture of water with phosphate-based retarding admixture, and limewater. The self-healing efficiency of the proposed solutions were compared based on crack closure, strength regains, porosity, and chemical composition changes. The surface crack closure after 200 °C varied between 33% and 60%, whereas for 400 °C, only retarding admixture exposure obtained over 50% crack closure and the most considerable decrease in average crack width of 33% for MWCNT-modified paste. The highest values of compressive strength recovery, equal to 18% and 14%, exceeding the intact specimen's compressive strength, were observed for the MWCNT-modified paste healed in water and limewater. Water exposure with an extended wetting phase enhanced the compressive strength recovery of the MWCNT-modified materials. Strong (r = 0.87) and moderate (r = 0.52) positive correlations were observed between temperature loading and compressive and flexural strength recovery parameters, respectively. Higher porosity and interconnected crack network, caused by high temperature, facilitated the self-healing process. Porosity changes before and after healing were pronounced in contrast to the amount of unhydrated cement, which did not exhibit noticeable changes. The healing mechanism included three processes: calcite formation, further hydration inside the cracks, and rehydration of the bulk cement paste.Previous article in issue

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Compressive strength, Concrete repair, Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), Post-fire recovery, Re-curing, Sustainable structures
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97064 (URN)10.1016/j.jobe.2023.106619 (DOI)2-s2.0-85154535482 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationSvenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-05-10 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-05-10 Created: 2023-05-10 Last updated: 2023-05-10Bibliographically approved
Kothari, A., Buasiri, T. & Cwirzen, A. (2023). Early Age Performance of OPC-GGBFS-Concretes Containing Belite-CSA Cement Cured at Sub-Zero Temperatures. Buildings, 13(9), Article ID 2374.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early Age Performance of OPC-GGBFS-Concretes Containing Belite-CSA Cement Cured at Sub-Zero Temperatures
2023 (English)In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 2374Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study determined how replacing sodium nitrate-based antifreeze admixture (AF) with belite-calcium sulfoaluminate (belite-CSA) cement affects the early age properties of ecological concretes based on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS). Concrete specimens were cured at −15 °C and treated in various ways before testing, i.e., no treatment, stored at 20 °C for 12 and 24 h. Generally, the addition of belite-CSA cement shortened the setting time due to the rapid formation of ettringite. The incorporation of 25 wt% of antifreeze admixture (AF) to the OPC-GGBFS concrete cured at −15 °C partially inhibited ice formation and enabled the continuation of hydration processes. This trend was observed for all samples, independent of the applied AF after freezing curing. On the contrary, the addition of 20 wt% of CSA failed to inhibit the ice formation and increased the risk of frost damage for concretes despite the treatment after freezing. These concrete specimens had lower hydration, lower strength, and a more porous binder matrix. The microstructure of the binder matrix was significantly affected by the amount of CSA and extreme negative curing, followed by no notable recovery post-curing at room temperature. Therefore, pre-curing at room temperature for at least 6 h has the potential to avoid frost damage. Concrete containing 25 wt% AF combined with 12 h and 24 h of curing at 20 °C after removal from freezing and prior to testing could enhance the compressive strengths of all concretes. The renewed hydration was indicated as the main influencing factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA), ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), hydration, microstructure—SEM, antifreeze admixture (AF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), negative temperature, compressive strength, porosity, UPV
National Category
Building Technologies Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101403 (URN)10.3390/buildings13092374 (DOI)
Funder
Svenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)Rock Engineering Research Foundation (BeFo)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-09-25 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-09-21 Created: 2023-09-21 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Gamil, Y., Nilimaa, J., Cwirzen, A. & Emborg, M. (2023). Experimental based assessment of formwork pressure theoretical design models for self-compacting concrete. Journal of Building Engineering, 68, Article ID 106085.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental based assessment of formwork pressure theoretical design models for self-compacting concrete
2023 (English)In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 68, article id 106085Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) offers favourable properties which help accelerate the casting time, especially in congested reinforced structures but when casting with SCC uncertainty remains a challenge on the behaviour of its formwork pressure. Researchers have introduced several design models to predict pressure and its behaviour. This research aims to assess the design models that have been reported in the literature. The assessment was carried out through a series of rigorous laboratory tests and the results from the tests served as input for the mathematical model evaluation. Twelve concrete columns with 2 m height were cast in the laboratory to study the effect of varying the input parameters in the existing design models. The formwork pressure was documented by a pressure monitoring system, with the capacity to produce instant results for real-time remote monitoring of the pressure development during and after concrete casting. The formwork pressures were calculated according to the current design models and were compared with pressure data acquitted from the laboratory tests. The results showed that the pressure predicted by the design models was typically greater than the pressure observed during the laboratory tests. The DIN18218 design model showed a relatively close approximation of the pressure distribution over the formwork height and casting time. The limitation of the models is observed when the casting rate varies, and models are sensitive to the input parameters. Thus, additional development of the current design models is needed to enable reliable estimations of the pressure, for example, in the case of low and high casting rates. The laboratory tests also showed that high casting rates and high slump flows generate higher pressures whereas higher thixotropy results in faster pressure reduction during construction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Cast in place, Casting rate, Concrete construction, Formwork pressure, Modelling, Self compacting concrete, Slump flow, Thixotropy
National Category
Other Materials Engineering Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95818 (URN)10.1016/j.jobe.2023.106085 (DOI)2-s2.0-85149059320 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Svenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-03-08 (joosat);

Funder: NCC AB

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-03-08 Created: 2023-03-08 Last updated: 2023-04-21Bibliographically approved
Gamil, Y., Nilimaa, J., Najeh, T. & Cwirzen, A. (2023). Formwork pressure prediction in cast-in-place self-compacting concrete using deep learning. Automation in Construction, 151, Article ID 104869.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formwork pressure prediction in cast-in-place self-compacting concrete using deep learning
2023 (English)In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 151, article id 104869Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The prediction of formwork pressure exerted by self-compacting concrete (SCC) remains a challenge not only to researchers but also to engineers and contractors on the construction site. This article aims to utilize shallow neural networks (SNN) and deep neural networks (DNN) using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) approach to develop a prediction model based on real-time data acquitted from controllable laboratory testing series. A test setup consisting of a two-meter-high column, ø160 mm, was prepared and tested in the laboratory. A digital pressure monitoring system was used to collect and transfer the data to the cloud on a real-time basis. The pressure was monitored during- and after casting, following the pressure build-up and reduction, respectively. The two main parameters affecting the form pressure, i.e., casting rate and slump flow, were varied to collect a wide range of input data for the analysis. The proposed model by DNN was able to accurately predict the pressure behavior based on the input data from the laboratory tests with high-performance indicators and multiple hidden layers. The results showed that the pressure is significantly affected by the casting rate, while the slump flow had rather lower impact. The proposed model can be a useful and reliable tool at the construction site to closely predict the pressure development and the effects of variations in casting rate and slump flow. The model provides the opportunity to increase safety and speeding up construction while avoiding costly and time-consuming effects of oversized formwork.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
Keywords
Artificial neural networks, Casting in place, Deep learning, Formwork pressure, Self-compacting concrete
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials; Operation and Maintenance Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97045 (URN)10.1016/j.autcon.2023.104869 (DOI)2-s2.0-85152943941 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-05-09 (joosat);

Funder: Swedish Construction Industry SBUF; NCC;

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2023-05-09 Created: 2023-05-09 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Zhaka, V., Bridges, R., Riska, K., Hagermann, A. & Cwirzen, A. (2023). Initial snow-ice formation on a laboratory scale. Annals of Glaciology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Initial snow-ice formation on a laboratory scale
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2023 (English)In: Annals of Glaciology, ISSN 0260-3055, E-ISSN 1727-5644Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Snow ice (SI) forms from freezing wet snow, known as slush, and contributes to the thickness of level and brash ice. However, the mechanism of snow-slush-snow ice transformation has not been extensively investigated to date, despite the difference in the freezing rate of slush in comparison with water is important for estimating the ice thickness. In this study, we examined the growth of initial congelation ice (CI) and snow ice (SI) in a fresh water tank exposed to outdoor weather conditions in Luleå, northern Sweden. The tank of size 1.8 × 0.65 × 1.2 m in length, width and height was divided into two compartments to facilitate the simultaneous growth of CI and SI. A total of 12 experiments were conducted in the years 2021 and 2022. The transformation from slush to snow ice was achieved by submerging various amounts of snow in the compartments. It was observed that approximately 35% of the initial snow transformed into SI. Snow ice grew 4 mm°C-0.5 d-0.5 faster than congelation ice. The CI growth under SI was 1 mm°C-0.5 d-0.5 slower than the CI growth under CI. This study provides valuable insights for modelling snow-slush-snow ice transformation and designing future laboratory-scale experiments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2023
Keywords
Ice thickness measurements, ice/atmosphere interactions, sea-ice growth and decay, snow physics, snow/ice surface processes
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials; Atmospheric Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101211 (URN)10.1017/aog.2023.58 (DOI)2-s2.0-85168999353 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funder: TotalEnergies

Available from: 2023-09-05 Created: 2023-09-05 Last updated: 2023-10-05
Telhaj, K. & Cwirzen, A. (2023). Interfacial Transition Zone Formed on Wet-On-Wet Cast Between Ultra–High–Performance Fiber Reinforcement Concrete – Blast Furnace Slag Concrete. In: Agnieszka Jędrzejewska, Fragkoulis Kanavaris, Miguel Azenha, Farid Benboudjema, Dirk Schlicke (Ed.), International RILEM Conference on Synergising Expertise towards Sustainability and Robustness of Cement-based Materials and Concrete Structures, SynerCrete’23: . Paper presented at International RILEM Conference on Synergising Expertise towards Sustainability and Robustness of Cement-based Materials and Concrete Structures, June 15-16, 2023, Milos Island, Greece (pp. 271-279). Springer, 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interfacial Transition Zone Formed on Wet-On-Wet Cast Between Ultra–High–Performance Fiber Reinforcement Concrete – Blast Furnace Slag Concrete
2023 (English)In: International RILEM Conference on Synergising Expertise towards Sustainability and Robustness of Cement-based Materials and Concrete Structures, SynerCrete’23 / [ed] Agnieszka Jędrzejewska, Fragkoulis Kanavaris, Miguel Azenha, Farid Benboudjema, Dirk Schlicke, Springer, 2023, Vol. 2, p. 271-279Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The concrete, which is the most common material used after water, is associated with emissions of large amounts of CO2 related to the Portland cement which is responsible for a total 5–8% of the global CO2. The manufacture of hybrid concrete elements allows the use of the cement to be optimized and minimized by replacing it with secondary cementitious materials. Replacing the cement with secondary cementitious materials can help in reduction of CO2 footprint but unfortunately it may result in slower strength development and low durability of the produced concrete. This study investigates the potential of casting simultaneously vertically layered prismatic elements composed of an external durability layer and an internal ecological concrete layer to minimize the cement usage. Interfacial transition zone (ITZ) formed between the two casted concrete is the key factor that determines the bond strength and durability of the structure. In this study bond behavior and micro – properties of the wet-on-wet casting interface of ultra–high–performance fiber reinforcement concrete (UHPFRC) – blast furnace slag concrete (BFSC) is investigated. The investigation includes flexural bond strength test and backscattered electron microscope (BSE) for analyses of micro – properties. The flexural strength test showed a good bond formed between UHPFRC and BFSC casted on wet-on-wet. The microstructural investigation confirmed a dense zone in the interface where the porosity and phase composition change gradually from the inner layer to the outer layer of the hybrid concrete.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Series
RILEM Bookseries, ISSN 2211-0844, E-ISSN 2211-0852 ; 44
Keywords
Hybrid concrete, wet-on-wet casting method, bond strength, porosity
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99028 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-33187-9_26 (DOI)978-3-031-33186-2 (ISBN)978-3-031-33187-9 (ISBN)
Conference
International RILEM Conference on Synergising Expertise towards Sustainability and Robustness of Cement-based Materials and Concrete Structures, June 15-16, 2023, Milos Island, Greece
Available from: 2023-06-28 Created: 2023-06-28 Last updated: 2023-06-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6287-2240

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