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Müller, A., Österlund, H., Nordqvist, K., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). Building surface materials as sources of micropollutants in building runoff: A pilot study. Science of the Total Environment, 680, 190-197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building surface materials as sources of micropollutants in building runoff: A pilot study
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2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 680, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Control of diffuse pollution is critical for achieving good surface water quality status. In this context, pollutant contributions from building materials have received increased attention in recent decades. This study examined the releases of metals, nonylphenols and phthalates from ten common building surface materials (installed in triplicates) into rainwater runoff from six rain events. The highest releases of metals were from copper and zinc sheets (average concentrations of 3090 μg/L Cu and 7770 μg/L Zn respectively), while other metal materials, e.g., Corten weathering steel, exhibited lower releases. PVC roofing released high concentrations of nonylphenols and phthalates (average concentrations of up to 26 μg/L nonylphenols and 455 μg/L Diisononyl phthalate, DINP) which have not been investigated in the earlier studies. Pollutant releases varied between events, likely because of weather conditions and rainfall characteristics. Study findings should be valuable for environmentally responsible applications of the existing building materials and the development of new ones, as well as the investigations and risk assessment of specific pollutants in stormwater.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Building surface materials, Diffuse pollution sources, Metals, Nonylphenols, Phthalates, Stormwater quality
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73883 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.088 (DOI)000468863400019 ()31108449 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065712456 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 942 – 2016-73Vinnova, 2016-05176
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-05 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-09-18Bibliographically approved
Broekhuizen, I., Leonhardt, G., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). Calibration event selection for green urban drainage modelling. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calibration event selection for green urban drainage modelling
2019 (English)In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, ISSN 1812-2108, E-ISSN 1812-2116Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Calibration of urban drainage models is typically performed based on a limited number of observed rainfall-runoff events, which may be selected from a longer time-series of measurements in different ways. In this study, 14 single- and two-stage strategies for selecting these events were tested for calibration of a SWMM model of a predominantly green urban area. The event selection was considered in relation to other sources of uncertainty such as measurement uncertainties, objective functions, and catchment discretization. Even though all 14 strategies resulted in successful model calibration, the difference between the best and worst strategies reached 0.2 in Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and the calibrated parameter values notably varied. Most, but not all, calibration strategies were robust to changes in objective function, perturbations in calibration data and the use of a low spatial resolution model in the calibration phase. The various calibration strategies satisfactorily predicted 7 to 13 out of 19 validation events. The two-stage strategies performed better than the single-stage strategies when measuring performance using the Root Mean Square Error, flow volume error or peak flow error (but not using NSE); when flow data in the calibration period had been perturbed by ±40 %; and when using a lower model resolution. The two calibration strategies that performed best in the validation period were two-stage strategies. The findings in this paper show that different strategies for selecting calibration events may lead in some cases to different results for the validation period, and that calibrating impermeable and green area parameters in two separate steps may improve model performance in the validation period, while also reducing the computational demand in the calibration phase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus Publications, 2019
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73294 (URN)10.5194/hess-2019-67 (DOI)
Projects
Reliable modeling of green infrastructure in green urban catchments
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2015-121
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-04-16
Viklander, M., Österlund, H., Müller, A., Marsalek, J. & Borris, M. (2019). Kunskapssammanställning: Dagvattenkvalitet. Svensktvatten AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kunskapssammanställning: Dagvattenkvalitet
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2019 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Alternative title[en]
State of knowledge : Stormwater quality
Abstract [sv]

Rapporten sammanställer internationella forskningsresultat om källor till dagvattenföroreningar samt föroreningarnas koncentration, mängd och variation mellan platser och årstider. Den beskriver vad man bör tänka på vid utformning av provtagningsprogram och vid val av modellverktyg, och den diskuterar effekter på hälsa, miljö och samhälle samt vilka regelverk och riktlinjer som finns.

Abstract [en]

This report summarizes stormwater pollutants, their sources, concentrations, and variations in concentrations. Practical guidance for field data collection, adoption of standard data from the literature and computer modelling are given. Furthermore, the effects on health, the environment and society, and associated regulations are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svensktvatten AB, 2019. p. 82
Keywords
Micropollutants, sampling, stormwater quality models, urban drainage, Dagvatten, dagvattenkvalitetsmodeller, föroreningar, provtagning
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72952 (URN)
Projects
Kunskapssammanställning: från regn till recipient – dagvattnets innehåll och dess variationer
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Vijayan, A., Österlund, H., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). Laboratory Melting of Late-Winter Urban Snow Samples: The Magnitude and Dynamics of Releases of Heavy Metals and PAHs. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 230(8), Article ID 182.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory Melting of Late-Winter Urban Snow Samples: The Magnitude and Dynamics of Releases of Heavy Metals and PAHs
2019 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 230, no 8, article id 182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Laboratory snow melting experiments were conducted with actual late-winter snow samples, collected just before the final snowmelt, in two similar northern Swedish cities, Luleå and Umeå, to investigate releases of the selected heavy metals (HM) (Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd) and 16 USEPA PAHs from melting snow. Metal concentrations were determined in three fractions: total, dissolved, and truly dissolved (defined as the fraction passing through a 3-kMWCO ultrafilter). Total HM concentrations in snowmelt were rather high at both sites and reflected the accumulation of pollutants in the roadside snowbanks over a period of about 5 months: Cd = 0.43, Cu = 303, Pb = 41.9, Zn = 817 (μg/l), and TSS = 2000 (mg/l) in Luleå samples and Cd = 1.87, Cu = 905, Pb = 165, Zn = 3150 (μg/l), and TSS = 4800 (mg/l) in Umeå samples. The difference between metal and TSS concentrations at the two sites of similar characteristics was attributed to a smaller volume snowbank in Umeå. The dissolved HM concentrations represented relatively small fractions of the total concentrations (0.3–6.9% in Luleå and 0.01–3.1% in Umeå). The truly dissolved fraction represented 71–90% of the dissolved fraction in Luleå and 74–98% in Umeå. At both sites, the dissolved fractions exhibited preferential elution from the laboratory snow piles. The PAHs studied (16 US EPA PAHs) were mostly particulate bound, with only 5–12% of the total burden contributed by the meltwater, and most dissolved concentrations below the reporting limits. PAH concentrations in the Luleå samples were about one-third to one-fourth of those in Umeå. In general, the releases of PAHs from the snowbank were delayed, compared with releases of meltwater, and showed similar release patterns as TSS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
PAHs, Road salt, Sediment, Snowmelt, Truly dissolved metals, Urban late-winter snow
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75595 (URN)10.1007/s11270-019-4201-2 (DOI)000477606600002 ()2-s2.0-85069681181 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-08-20 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Gavric, S., Larm, T., Österlund, H., Marsalek, J., Wahlsten, A. & Viklander, M. (2019). Measurement and conceptual modelling of retention of metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in soils of three grass swales. Journal of Hydrology, 574, 1053-1061
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement and conceptual modelling of retention of metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in soils of three grass swales
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 574, p. 1053-1061Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Grass swales are important elements of the urban green infrastructure that convey and attenuate urban runoff and improve its quality mostly through stormwater infiltration into, and retention of conveyed pollutants by, swale soils. The retention of metals by grass swales was addressed in this study investigating the enrichment of swale soils by three common traffic-related metals: Cu, Pb and Zn. Three swales of various characteristics (L1, L2, L3) were selected for study and their soils were sampled by coring the top 30 cm and dividing the cores into 5 cm thick layers. Cumulative metal burdens were compared to those modelled by the proprietary StormTac Web model, which estimates annual loads of specific constituents for the given land uses and stormwater treatment. The comparisons of measured (MBm) and simulated (MBs) metal burdens retained by swales showed that the measured values exceed the simulated ones, as described by average ratios MBs/MBm = 0.64, 0.50 and 0.59, for swales L1, L2 and L3, respectively. The measured burdens were calculated after subtracting the native soil metal concentrations, assumed equal to those found in the deepest sampled layer, 25–30 cm below the surface. The results suggest the feasibility of assessing performance of grass swales by modelling metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) retention by swales, however for older facilities considered for rehabilitation, the simulated results should be supplemented by soil chemistry sampling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
grass swale, heavy metals, roadside soils, planning–level modelling, metal transport
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73936 (URN)10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.05.002 (DOI)000476962800083 ()2-s2.0-85066065396 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-11 (oliekm)

Available from: 2019-05-14 Created: 2019-05-14 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
Gavric, S., Larm, T., Österlund, H., Marsalek, J., Wahlsten, A. & Viklander, M. (2019). Measurement and Planning–Level Modelling of Retention of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in Soils of Three Urban Drainage Grass Swales. In: Giorgio Mannina (Ed.), New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018. Paper presented at International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, UDM 2018, Palermo, Italy, 23-26 September 2018 (pp. 85-90). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement and Planning–Level Modelling of Retention of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in Soils of Three Urban Drainage Grass Swales
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2019 (English)In: New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018 / [ed] Giorgio Mannina, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 85-90Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Grass swales are important elements of urban green infrastructure that convey, attenuate and improve the quality of urban runoff mostly through stormwater infiltration into and retention of conveyed pollutants by swale soils. Such processes were addressed in this study, investigating the enrichment of swale soils by ubiquitous urban trace metals, Cu, Pb and Zn. Three swales were selected for study in the City of Lulea (Northern Sweden) and their soils were sampled by coring. Sample cores covered soil depths up to 30 cm, but only the results from the top 5 cm layer characterized by 9–15 samples in each swale are discussed here. After estimating metal mass in this layer in individual swales, such burdens were compared to those modelled by the proprietary StormTac Web model, which estimates annual loads of specific constituents for given land uses and is supported by an extensive database referenced to Swedish environmental conditions. The annual loads modelled for individual swales were multiplied by the swale age to obtain long–term inputs of the trace metals. A good agreement between the measured and modelled loads in soils was obtained and characterized by the ratio Lmod/Lmeas, with an average value of 0.96 and standard deviation of 0.55. Such results suggest the feasibility of assessing the long–term performance of grass swales by modelling trace metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) inputs into swales, estimating the metal loads retained in soils by sampling and analyses, and taking the difference (Lin − Lret) as the exported load.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019
Series
Green Energy and Technology
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70718 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99867-1_15 (DOI)978-3-319-99866-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-99867-1 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, UDM 2018, Palermo, Italy, 23-26 September 2018
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
Gavric, S., Leonhardt, G., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). Processes improving urban stormwater quality in grass swales and filter strips: A review of research findings. Science of the Total Environment, 669, 431-447
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Processes improving urban stormwater quality in grass swales and filter strips: A review of research findings
2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 669, p. 431-447Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing interest in urban drainage green infrastructure brings attention to grass swales and filter strips (GS&GFS) and their role in stormwater management. While the understanding of the hydrology and hydraulics of these stormwater control measures is adequate for current needs, there are knowledge gaps in understanding the water quality processes in GS&GFS and such a finding motivated preparation of the review paper that follows. The review revealed that most of the empirical studies of GS&GFS flow quality focused on the removal of pollutants associated with road runoff, and particularly solids, with relatively few studies addressing nutrients, traffic associated hydrocarbons, oxygen demanding substances, chloride, and faecal indicator bacteria. The reported results suffer from limitations caused by experimental conditions often representing a steady flow used to irrigate GS&GFS and generate runoff, non-submerged flows, no lateral inflows along swale side slopes, constant dosing of solids, emphasis on larger-than-typical solids, incomplete descriptions of experimental conditions, and limited attention to experimental uncertainties. Besides settling, other treatment processes, like adsorption/desorption, plant uptake, chemical precipitation and microbial degradation are often acknowledged, but without attempting to quantify their effects on flow quality. The modelling of GS&GFS flow quality would be beneficial for an improved understanding of green urban drainage infrastructure, but currently it is infeasible without a better knowledge of stormwater quality processes in GS&GFS facilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Green infrastructure, Pollutant transport, Runoff treatment, Stormwater management, SolidsTrace metals
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73262 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.072 (DOI)30889442 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85063001613 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-03-21 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
Broekhuizen, I., Leonhardt, G., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). Selection of Calibration Events for Modelling Green Urban Drainage. In: Giorgio Mannina (Ed.), New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018. Paper presented at International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, UDM 2018, Palermo, Italy, 23-26 September 2018 (pp. 608-613). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selection of Calibration Events for Modelling Green Urban Drainage
2019 (English)In: New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018 / [ed] Giorgio Mannina, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 608-613Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Urban drainage models are often calibrated using a limited number of rainfall-runoff events, which may be selected in different ways from a longer observation series. This paper compares 13 different single- and two-stage strategies for selecting events used to calibrate a SWMM model of a predominantly green urban area. Most led to successful calibration, but performance varied for various validation events. Most selection strategies were insensitive to the choice of Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency or Root Mean Squared Error as the objective function. Calibrating impervious and green area parameters separately in two-stage strategies can help improve prediction of low-flow events in validation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019
Series
Green Energy and Technology
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70715 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99867-1_105 (DOI)978-3-319-99866-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-99867-1 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, UDM 2018, Palermo, Italy, 23-26 September 2018
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
Panasiuk, O., Hedström, A., Ashley, R., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2019). The feasibility of using flap gates as constriction flow meters for estimating sanitary sewer overflows (SSO). Desalination and Water Treatment, 155, 113-119
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The feasibility of using flap gates as constriction flow meters for estimating sanitary sewer overflows (SSO)
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2019 (English)In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 155, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increased awareness of the negative effects of sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) events on human health and aquatic life led to the development of various control measures, of which implementation is impeded by the lack of information on SSO occurrences, flows and volumes. The collection of such information requires data acquisition systems, which can be costly and are fully utilized just during limited time periods of the year. In search for inexpensive approaches to SSO monitoring, the feasibility of using existing flap gate installations, serving for prevention of back-up flows into sewers, as constriction flow meters was investigated, with promising results. An experimental pilotscale setup was designed to allow steady water flow through a flap gate built into a partition wall between two chambers. The stabilized water heads in the chambers and the flow rate through the flap gate were measured, for both dry and submerged flap gate conditions, and five flap gate sizes (200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm), with relatively heavy covers (6–102 kg). The measured data were used to develop flow rating curves, by non-linear regression, in the form Q = f (ΔH), where Q is the discharge through the flap gate and ΔH is the pressure differential upstream and downstream of the gate. The regression curves fitted the experimental data with high precision (R2 >0.99). The use of flow rating curves for estimation of the SSO volume was discussed. This study demonstrated that the water head measurements upstream and downstream of the flap gate can provide a reliable, accurate and inexpensive method for quantification of the SSO discharges and volumes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Desalination Publications, 2019
Keywords
Flap gates, Sanitary sewer overflows (SSO), SSO volumes
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74804 (URN)10.5004/dwt.2019.24011 (DOI)000470121900011 ()2-s2.0-85067931662 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-20 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
Rujner, H., Leonhardt, G., Marsalek, J. & Viklander, M. (2018). High-resolution modelling of the grass swale response to runoff inflows with Mike SHE. Journal of Hydrology, 562, 411-422
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-resolution modelling of the grass swale response to runoff inflows with Mike SHE
2018 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 562, p. 411-422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The feasibility of simulating the hydrological response of a grass swale to runoff inflows was examined using the hydrological model Mike SHE and the available input data from 12 irrigation events mimicking runoff from block rainfalls. The test swale channel had a trapezoidal cross-section, bottom slope of 1.5%, length of 30 m, and was built in loamy fine sand. The irrigation events consisted in releasing two equal constant inflows to the swale: a concentrated longitudinal flow at the upstream end and a distributed lateral inflow along the swale side slope adjacent to the contributing drainage area. The total inflows approximated runoff from two events with return periods of 2 months and 3 years, respectively, for durations of 30 min. Irrigation experiments were done for two states of the initial soil moisture, dry or wet antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). Mike SHE has been extensively used on catchments of various sizes, but rarely for small stormwater management facilities and their detailed topography investigated in this study. The latter application required high spatial and temporal resolutions, with computational cells of 0.2 × 0.2 m and time steps as short as 0.6 s to avoid computational instabilities. For dominant hydrological processes, the following computational options in Mike SHE were chosen: Soil infiltration – the van Genuchten equation, unsaturated zone flow – the one-dimensional Richards equation, and overland flow – the diffusive wave approximation of the St. Venant equations. For study purposes, the model was calibrated for single events representing one of four combinations of low and high inflows, and dry and wet AMC, and then applied to the remaining 11 events. This was complemented by calibration for two events, representing high inflow on wet AMC and low inflow in dry AMC. The goodness of fit was statistically assessed for observed and simulated peak flows, hydrograph volumes, Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiencies (NSE), and soil water content (SWC) in swale soil layers. The best fit (NSE > 0.8) was obtained for high inflows and wet AMC (i.e., when the primary swale function is flow conveyance); the least fit was noted for low inflows and dry AMC, when the primary swale function is flow attenuation. Furthermore, this observation indicates the overall importance of correct modelling of the soil infiltration. The effects of spatial variation of SWC on the swale discharge hydrograph could not be confirmed from simulation results, but high topographical accuracy was beneficial for reproducing well the locations of the observed water ponding. No significant increases in simulated SWC at 0.3 m or greater depths were noted, which agreed with field observations. Overall, the results indicated that Mike SHE was effective in process-oriented small-scale modelling of grass swale flow hydrographs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Grass swale, Distributed modelling, Mike SHE, Soil water content, Stormwater management
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68751 (URN)10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.05.024 (DOI)000438003000031 ()2-s2.0-85046868673 (Scopus ID)
Projects
GrönNano
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2015-778
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-05-16 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9938-8217

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