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Alvarez Perez, M. A., Rönnberg, S., Bermúdez, J., Zhong, J. & Bollen, M. (2019). A Generic Storage Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise-Linear Approximation. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 10(1), 878-888
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Generic Storage Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise-Linear Approximation
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 878-888Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work presents a generic storage model (GSM) inspired by the scheduling of hydraulic reservoirs. The model for steady state short-term (ST) operational studies interlaces with the long-term (LT) energy scheduling through a piecewise-linear Future Cost Function (FCF). Under the assumption that a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach has been used to solve the energy schedule for the LT, the FCF output from that study will be processed to obtain an equivalent marginal opportunity cost for the storage unit. The linear characteristic of a segment of the future cost function (FCF) will allow a linear modeling of the storage unit production cost. This formulation will help to coordinate the renewable resource along with storage facilities in order to find the optimal operation cost while meeting end-point conditions for the long-term plan of the energy storage. The generic model will be implemented to represent a battery storage and a pumped-hydro storage. A stochastic unit commitment (SUC) with the GSM will be formulated and tested to assess the day-ahead scheduling strategy of a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) facing uncertainties from production, consumption, and market prices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
Keywords
Schedules, Uncertainty, Load modeling, Production, Energy storage, GSM, Stochastic processes
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60774 (URN)10.1109/TSG.2017.2754288 (DOI)000455180900080 ()2-s2.0-85030639335 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-01-25 (inah)

Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
Alvarez, M., Jabr, R., Cossent, R., Frías, P. & Zhong, J. (2019). Capacity Mechanisms for Distribution Network Expansion Planning. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capacity Mechanisms for Distribution Network Expansion Planning
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Keywords
Power distribution, power system planning, capacity planning.
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72723 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-01-29
Alvarez, M. (2019). Distribution Network Planning Considering Capacity Mechanisms and Flexibility. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution Network Planning Considering Capacity Mechanisms and Flexibility
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) has posed challenges to the distribution system operator (DSO) from the operation and regulatory point of view. High penetration of DERs could have negative impacts on the performance of the distribution grid, and depending on the regulatory framework, the DSO's remuneration as well. In liberalized electrical systems, the focus on promoting eciency has led to the implementation of an incentive-based regulation that exerts additional pressure on the DSOs to reduce costs. Additionally, the European Parliament Directive 2009/72/EC establishes a regulatory unbundling among the distribution, production, and retailing activities within the same vertically integrated electric utility.

A way of helping the DSO to cope with the posed challenges is by providing it with exibility. This exibility can be acquired from the planning stage, and later be used during the system operation. This exibility can stem from the DSO's ability to exert control on the demand and the supply side to balance the system and correct its operational state.

Based on the European DSOs' current situation at facing the increasing penetration of DERs, this thesis investigates in non-wired exible grid tools to solve the distribution network expansion problem. The investigation focuses on exibility providers, in particular on energy storage systems and hydropower, and also on capacity mechanisms to translate the capacity from DERs into the grid's capacity for planning purposes.

Given that the share of renewable sources among the DERs is increasing, and considering the importance of energy storage systems in providing exibility to balance renewable energy production, the eort has been turned on to developing a hydropower model and a generic storage model that t both planning and operational studies.

Given the need for gearing the DERs' behavior into the DSO's decision making process during the planning and operational timescales, the design and implementation of a distribution capacity mechanism have been developed. The design of the capacity mechanism has been conceived considering its integration within the distribution network expansion problem.

The outcomes of this thesis can be synthesized as follows: 1) A generic hydraulic/storage model provided with an equivalent marginal cost that aids in considering the impact of present decisions in the future costs. 2) A market oriented distribution capacity mechanism that gears DERs and the DSOs to benefit mutually. 3) A distribution network expansion planning formulation that integrates the capacity resource from DERs through the distribution capacity mechanism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72726 (URN)978-91-7790-308-6 (ISBN)978-91-7790-309-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-04-16, Hörsal A, Forskargatan 1, Building A, Campus Skellefteå, Skellefteå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Alvarez, M., Rönnberg, S., Bollen, M., Frías, P., Cossent, R., Jabr, R. & Zhong, J. (2018). A Capacity Mechanism Design for Distribution Network Expansion Planning. In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe): . Paper presented at 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe), 12-15 June, Palermo, Italy. , Article ID 8493874.
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2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe), 2018, article id 8493874Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Capacity remuneration mechanisms have been originally oriented to ensure availability and continuity of supply on the power generation pool. Equivalent generation-based capacity mechanisms could be implemented to enhance and prolong the usability of the distribution grid. In particular, such capacity mechanisms would provide an alternative to traditional expansion options leading to investment deferral. In this work, a distribution capacity mechanism to fit within a distribution network planning methodology will be proposed and discussed. The capacity mechanism will be outlined following similar guidelines as for the design of capacity mechanisms used in the energy only market. The result of the design is a volume based capacity auction for a capacity-constrained system, oriented to both the active and the reactive power provision.

Keywords
Power system planning, capacity planning, power distribution
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72033 (URN)10.1109/EEEIC.2018.8493874 (DOI)000450163701017 ()2-s2.0-85056522960 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-5186-5 (ISBN)978-1-5386-5187-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe), 12-15 June, Palermo, Italy
Available from: 2018-12-13 Created: 2018-12-13 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Alvarez Perez, M. A., Rönnberg, S., Bermúdez, J., Zhong, J. & Bollen, M. (2018). Reservoir-Type Hydropower Equivalent Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise Approximation. Electric power systems research, 155, 184-195
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reservoir-Type Hydropower Equivalent Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise Approximation
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2018 (English)In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 155, p. 184-195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The long-term (LT) scheduling of reservoir-type hydropower plants is a multistage stochastic dynamic problem that has been traditionally solved using the stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) approach. This LT schedule of releases should be met through short-term (ST) scheduling decisions obtained from a hydro-thermal scheduling that considers uncertainties. Both time scales can be linked if the ST problem considers as input the future cost function (FCF) obtained from LT studies. Known the piecewise-linear FCF, the hydro-scheduling can be solved as a one-stage problem. Under certain considerations a single segment of the FCF can be used to solve the schedule. From this formulation an equivalent model for the hydropower plant can be derived and used in ST studies. This model behaves accordingly to LT conditions to be met, and provides a marginal cost for dispatching the plant. A generation company (GENCO) owning a mix of hydro, wind, and thermal power will be the subject of study where the model will be implemented. The GENCO faces the problem of scheduling the hydraulic resource under uncertainties from e.g. wind and load while determining the market bids that maximize its profit under uncertainties from market prices. A two-stage stochastic unit commitment (SUC) for the ST scheduling implementing the equivalent hydro model will be solved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60771 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2017.09.028 (DOI)000419410300018 ()2-s2.0-85032274995 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-11-06 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Alvarez Perez, M. A., Rönnberg, S., Bermúdez, J., Zhong, J. & Bollen, M. (2017). A Hydro-Reservoir Generic Storage Model for Short-Term Hydrothermal Coordination. In: IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017: towards and beyond sustainable energy systems, 2017: . Paper presented at 12th IEEE PES PowerTech Conference, Manchester, June 18-22 2017. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Article ID 7980882.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Hydro-Reservoir Generic Storage Model for Short-Term Hydrothermal Coordination
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2017 (English)In: IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017: towards and beyond sustainable energy systems, 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7980882Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This work presents a linear solution for the short-term hydro-thermal scheduling problem linked to long-term conditions through a piecewise-linear Future Cost Function (FCF). Given end-point conditions to conform long-term water releases, and given actual reservoir conditions, a segment of a pre-built piecewise future cost function will be chosen. The linear characteristic of the FCF segment will allow a linear modeling of the hydro-power plant, in a similar fashion as a thermal unit with an equivalent marginal opportunity cost. A short-term hydro thermal coordination problem will be formulated considering parallel and cascaded hydro-reservoirs. Three study cases involving different reservoir configurations and scenarios will be computed to test the model. The results of this model mimics coherently the future-cost hydro-thermal coordination problem for the different configurations tested. Given similarities with other forms of energy storage, a new theoretical model for generic storage will be proposed and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60777 (URN)10.1109/PTC.2017.7980882 (DOI)000411142500095 ()2-s2.0-85034783533 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-4237-1 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE PES PowerTech Conference, Manchester, June 18-22 2017
Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Alvarez Perez, M. A., Rönnberg, S., Cossent, R., Zhong, J. & Bollen, M. (2017). Regulatory Matters Affecting Distribution Planning With Distributed Generation. Paper presented at CIRED 2017, Glasgow 12-15 June 2017. CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, 2017(1), 2869-2873
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regulatory Matters Affecting Distribution Planning With Distributed Generation
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2017 (English)In: CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, E-ISSN 2515-0855, Vol. 2017, no 1, p. 2869-2873Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Under the present European directive concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, distribution companies are not allowed to own distributed generation (DG) but encouraged to include it as a planning option to defer investment in traditional grid reinforcements. Distribution system operators (DSOs) have used the provision of capacity contracted to DG as a viable alternative under current regulatory arrangements. Here, the topics bonding DSOs and DG owners under the present regulation will be explored and a planning structure that considers distribution capacity contracts as a planning option will be proposed. This will serve as a road map for DSOs to implement its preferred planning tools in an optimisation context, considering costs of investment, reliability, operation, and capacity provision while complying with current regulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60775 (URN)10.1049/oap-cired.2017.0358 (DOI)
Conference
CIRED 2017, Glasgow 12-15 June 2017
Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Alvarez Perez, M. A., Rönnberg, S., Cossent, R., Zhong, J. & Bollen, M. (2017). Remuneration Assessment of a VPP Providing Distribution Capacity Services. In: IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017: towards and beyond sustainable energy systems. Paper presented at 12th IEEE PES PowerTech Conference, Manchester, June 18-22 2017. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Article ID 7980881.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remuneration Assessment of a VPP Providing Distribution Capacity Services
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2017 (English)In: IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017: towards and beyond sustainable energy systems, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7980881Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A Distribution System Operator (DSO) might consider a capacity contract as a planning alternative to defer grid investments. A Virtual Power Plant (VPP) might be able to provide such capacity and change its production as requested by the DSO. This article presents an assessment of the impact of this type of distribution capacity contract (DCC) on VPP's remuneration. This assessment is done by comparing the optimal production / bidding strategy which maximize its profit, under presence or absence of these contracts. The impact of intermittent generation and storage while evaluating these scenarios will be investigated as well. A stochastic unit commitment will be used to determine the VPP's strategy under uncertainties from wind power, load, market prices, and the requested power by the DSO. The model showed that the VPP involvement in distribution capacity contracts can improve its remuneration when certain types of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are used to provide the service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60776 (URN)10.1109/PTC.2017.7980881 (DOI)000411142500094 ()2-s2.0-85034752863 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-4237-1 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE PES PowerTech Conference, Manchester, June 18-22 2017
Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Alvarez Perez, M. A. (2017). Stochastic Planning of Smart Electricity Distribution Networks. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stochastic Planning of Smart Electricity Distribution Networks
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The penetration of intermittent Distributed Generation (DG) brought additional uncertainty to the system operation and planning. To cope with uncertainties the Distribution System Operator (DSO) could implement several strategies. These strategies range from the inclusion of smart technologies which will increment system’s flexibility and resiliency, to improvements in forecasting, modeling, and regulatory pledge that will facilitate the planning activity. Regardless of the nature of the solutions, they could be collected in a sort of toolbox. The planner will access the toolbox to conform cost effective plans, better able to deal with any uncertainty. The present work will address the problem of distribution system planning under uncertainties, considering smart solutions along with traditional reinforcements, in the short-term lead time up to 3 years ahead. The work will be focused on three aspects that are the cornerstones of this work:

 • A planning facilitating strategy: Distribution Capacity Contracts (DCCs).

 • A flexibility enabler technology: Energy Storage.

 • A binding methodology: Multistage Stochastic Programming. Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP). 

Under the present directive of the European Parliament concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, distribution companies are not allowed to own DG but entitled to include it as a planning option to differ investment in traditional grid reinforcements. An evaluation of the regulatory context will lead this work to consider DCCs as a planning alternative available in the toolbox. The impact of this type of contract on the remuneration of the DG owner will be assessed in order to provide insight on its willingness to participate. The DCCs might aid the DSO to defer grid i ii investments during planning stages and to control the network flows during operation. 

Given that storage solutions help to match in time production from intermittent sources with load consumption, they will play a major role in dealing with uncertainties. A generic storage model (GSM) based on a future cost piecewise approximation will be developed. This model inspired by hydro-reservoirs will help assessing the impact of storage in planning decisions. This model will be tested by implementing it in short-term hydro scheduling and unit commitment studies. 

To trace a path towards the future of this research work, a discussion on the planning problem formulation, under consideration of the lead time, the expansion options, the smart strategies, and the regulatory framework will be presented. Special focus will be given to multistage stochastic programming methods and in particular to the SDDP approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2017
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60778 (URN)978-91-7583-775-8 (ISBN)978-91-7583-776-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-02-10, Hörsal A, Campus Skellefteå, Skellefteå, 10:00
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-12-05 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Alvarez, M., Bollen, M., Rönnberg, S., Zhong, J. & Gil-de-Castro, A. (2015). A Smart Distribution Toolbox for Distribution System Planning (ed.). Paper presented at International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution : 15/06/2015 - 18/06/2015. Paper presented at International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution : 15/06/2015 - 18/06/2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Smart Distribution Toolbox for Distribution System Planning
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The distribution system planner should be able to coordinate smart grid solutions in order to find cost effective expansions plans. These plans should be able to deal with new added system uncertainties from renewable production and consumers while guaranteeing power quality and availability of supply. This paper proposes a structure for distribution systems planning oriented to help the planner in deciding how to make use of smart solutions for achieving the described task. Here, the concept of a system planning toolbox is introduced and supported with a review of relevant works implementing smart solutions. These are colligated in a way that the system planner can foresee what to expect with their combined implementation. Future developments in this subject should attempt to theorize a practical algorithm in an optimization and decision making context.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-31486 (URN)5ab96432-eb8d-4e2e-a156-74ee1aa39629 (Local ID)5ab96432-eb8d-4e2e-a156-74ee1aa39629 (Archive number)5ab96432-eb8d-4e2e-a156-74ee1aa39629 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution : 15/06/2015 - 18/06/2015
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20150626 (manalv)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4443-7653

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