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Falk, J., Hannl, T. K., Öhman, M., Hedayati, A. & Skoglund, N. (2023). Ash Transformation during Fixed-Bed Co-combustion of Sewage Sludge and Agricultural Residues with a Focus on Phosphorus. ACS Omega, 8(14), 13162-13176
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2023 (English)In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 8, no 14, p. 13162-13176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work investigates the ash transformation during fixed-bed co-combustion of sewage sludge mixtures with the agricultural residues wheat straw and sunflower husks, focusing on the fate of phosphorus (P) in the resulting ash fractions. The study aims to determine suitable process parameters for fixed-bed combustion of fuels previously investigated in single-pellet experiments. The pure fuels and fuel mixtures were combusted in a 20 kWth residential pellet burner while monitoring the flue gas composition, temperature, and particulate matter formation. Subsequently, the different ash fractions were collected and characterized by CHN, SEM/EDS, and XRD analysis. The results showed that co-combustion of sewage sludge and agricultural residues reduced the formation of particulate matter as well as the formation of slag. Co-combustion of sewage sludge with either agricultural residue resulted in a change in phosphate speciation, displaying higher shares of Ca and lower shares of Fe and Al in the formed orthophosphates as well as amorphous phases containing higher shares of K. The formation of K-bearing phosphates was hindered by the spatial association of P with Ca and Fe in the sewage sludge, the incorporation of available K in K-Al silicates, and the depletion of K in the P-rich melt phase. Compared to mono-combustion, co-combustion experiments showed the potential for improving the combustion performance and reducing the risk of slag formation. The outcome suggests that co-combustion is a feasible path to integrate waste streams in fixed-bed energy conversion with simultaneous formation of phosphates enabling P recovery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2023
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93429 (URN)10.1021/acsomega.3c00415 (DOI)2-s2.0-85151894910 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00194, 2017-01613Bio4EnergySwedish Research Council, 2017-05331
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-19 (hanlid);

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Available from: 2022-10-04 Created: 2022-10-04 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Forouzan, F., Surki Aliabad, R., Hedayati, A., Hosseini, N., Maawad, E., Blasco, N. & Vuorinen, E. (2023). Kinetics of Carbon Enrichment in Austenite during Partitioning Stage Studied via In-Situ Synchrotron XRD. Materials, 16(4), Article ID 1557.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinetics of Carbon Enrichment in Austenite during Partitioning Stage Studied via In-Situ Synchrotron XRD
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2023 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 4, article id 1557Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study reveals the microstructural evolution and corresponding mechanisms occurring during different stages of quenching and partitioning (Q&P) conducted on 0.6C-1.5Si steel using in-situ High Energy X-Ray Diffraction (HEXRD) and high-resolution dilatometry methods. The results support that the symmetry of ferrite is not cubic when first formed since it is fully supersaturated with carbon at the early stages of partitioning. Moreover, by increasing partitioning temperature, the dominant carbon source for austenite enrichment changes from ongoing bainitic ferrite transformation during the partitioning stage to initial martensite formed in the quenching stage. At low partitioning temperatures, a bimodal distribution of low- and high-carbon austenite, 0.6 and 1.9 wt.% carbon, is detected. At higher temperatures, a better distribution of carbon occurs, approaching full homogenization. An initial martensite content of around 11.5 wt.% after partitioning at 280 °C via bainitic ferrite transformation results in higher carbon enrichment of austenite and increased retained austenite amount by approximately 4% in comparison with partitioning at 500 °C. In comparison with austempering heat treatment with no prior martensite, the presence of initial martensite in the Q&P microstructure accelerates the subsequent low-temperature bainitic transformation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
advanced high strength steels, high-carbon steel, high-resolution dilatometry, in-situ synchrotron XRD, martensitic/bainitic phase transformation, quenching and partitioning (Q&P)
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Materials; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95858 (URN)10.3390/ma16041557 (DOI)2-s2.0-85149208737 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kempe Foundations
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-03-14 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-03-14 Created: 2023-03-14 Last updated: 2023-03-14Bibliographically approved
Hedayati, A., Falk, J., Borén, E., Lindgren, R., Skoglund, N., Boman, C. & Öhman, M. (2022). Ash Transformation during Fixed-Bed Combustion of Agricultural Biomass with a Focus on Potassium and Phosphorus. Energy & Fuels, 36(7), 3640-3653
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2022 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 3640-3653Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, ash transformation during fixed-bed combustion of different agricultural opportunity fuels was investigated with a special focus on potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). The fuel pellets were combusted in an underfed fixed-bed pellet burner. Residual ashes (bottom ash and slag) and particulate matter were collected and characterized by scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma, and ion chromatography. The interpretation of the results was supported by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. For all fuels, almost all P (>97%) was found in residual-/coarse ash fractions, while K showed different degrees of volatilization, depending on fuel composition. During combustion of poplar, which represents Ca–K-rich fuels, a carbonate melt rich in K and Ca decomposed into CaO, CO2, and gaseous K species at sufficiently high temperatures. Ca5(PO4)3OH was the main P-containing crystalline phase in the bottom ash. For wheat straw and grass, representing Si–K-rich fuels, a lower degree of K volatilization was observed than for poplar. P was found here in amorphous phosphosilicates and CaKPO4. For wheat grain residues, representing P–K-rich fuels, a high degree of both K and P retention was observed due to the interaction of K and P with the fuel-bed constituents, i.e., char, ash, and slag. The residual ash was almost completely melted and rich in P, K, and Mg. P was found in amorphous phosphates and different crystalline phases such as KMgPO4, K2CaP2O7, K2MgP2O7, and K4Mg4(P2O7)3. In general, the results therefore imply that an interaction between ash-forming elements in a single burning fuel particle and the surrounding bed ash or slag is important for the overall retention of P and K during fuel conversion in fixed-bed combustion of agricultural biomass fuels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2022
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-89949 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.1c04355 (DOI)000797939400020 ()2-s2.0-85127329835 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 41875-1Swedish Research Council, 2016-04380Swedish Research Council, 2017-05331Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01613
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-04-20 (hanlid)

Available from: 2022-03-29 Created: 2022-03-29 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Hannl, T. K., Häggström, G., Hedayati, A., Skoglund, N., Kuba, M. & Öhman, M. (2022). Ash transformation during single-pellet gasification of sewage sludge and mixtures with agricultural residues with a focus on phosphorus. Fuel processing technology, 227, Article ID 107102.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ash transformation during single-pellet gasification of sewage sludge and mixtures with agricultural residues with a focus on phosphorus
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2022 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 227, article id 107102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The recovery of phosphorus (P) from sewage sludge ashes has been the focus of recent research due to the initiatives for the use of biogenic resources and resource recovery. This study investigates the ash transformation chemistry of P in sewage sludge ash during the co-gasification with the K-Si- and K-rich agricultural residues wheat straw and sunflower husks, respectively, at temperatures relevant for fluidized bed technology, namely 800 °C and 950 °C. The residual ash was analyzed by ICP­AES, SEM/EDS, and XRD, and the results were compared to results of thermochemical equilibrium calculations. More than 90% of P and K in the fuels were retained in the residual ash fraction, and significant interaction phenomena occurred between the P-rich sewage sludge and the K-rich ash fractions. Around 45–65% of P was incorporated in crystalline K-bearing phosphates, i.e., K-whitlockite and CaKPO4, in the residual ashes with 85–90 wt% agricultural residue in the fuel mixture. In residual ashes of sewage sludge and mixtures with 60–70 wt% agricultural residue, P was mainly found in Ca(Mg,Fe)-whitlockites and AlPO4. Up to about 40% of P was in amorphous or unidentified phases. The results show that gasification provides a potential for the formation of K-bearing phosphates similar to combustion processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Phosphate, Sewage sludge, Wheat straw, Sunflower husk, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Nutrient recovery
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87965 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2021.107102 (DOI)000750027100003 ()2-s2.0-85119415738 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2015-619Swedish Research Council, 2016-04380Swedish Research Council, 2017-05331Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01613
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-03-02 (hanlid)

Available from: 2021-11-22 Created: 2021-11-22 Last updated: 2023-10-14Bibliographically approved
Hedayati, A. (2022). Ash transformation in thermochemical conversion of different biomass resources with special focus on phosphorus. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ash transformation in thermochemical conversion of different biomass resources with special focus on phosphorus
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A great potential exists for increasing the use of bioenergy in thermochemical processes by utilizing agricultural biomass, forest residues, and sewage sludge that have high availability. Many of these biomass assortments have high ash contents with relatively high concentrations of ash-forming elements such as potassium (K), calcium (Ca), silicon (Si), and phosphorus (P). These elements can, during thermal conversion, cause several ash-related problems, such as deposit formation, slagging, and particle emissions. In particular, P has been found to play a vital role in such ash-related problems even at relatively low concentrations. In addition, ashes obtained from these biomass assortments could be an important source of valuable elements such as P and K. Therefore, detailed knowledge about the ash transformation and fate of P during thermal conversion of these opportunity biomass resources is of immense importance to mitigate ash-related problems and to recover valuable nutrient elements from the ash. 

The overall objective of this work was to determine the ash transformation and fate of P during single-pellet and fixed-bed combustion/gasification of different opportunity biomass fuels in the process temperature range of 600-1250°C. Different agricultural biomasses (poplar, wheat straw, grass, and wheat grain residues), forest residues (bark and twigs), and sewage sludge (pure and in mixtures with agricultural residues) were used. These fuels cover a wide range of overall ash compositions and different chemical associations of P in the fuel. The bark and poplar represent fuels rich in K and Ca with minor P content. The wheat straw, grass, and twigs represent typical Si- and K-rich fuels with minor to moderate P contents. The wheat grain residues (WGR) represent typical K- and P-rich fuels with a significant amount of Mg. The produced residual materials, i.e., char, different ash fractions and fine flue gas particles, were morphologically and chemically characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma, and ion chromatography. The interpretation of the results was supported by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations.  

For all fuels, a major part of the P (> 80%) was found in coarse ash fractions because the studied process conditions favored the formation of stable condensed phosphates. The thermal conversion atmosphere (i.e., gasification/combustion) only caused small effects on the P release and the speciation of the P-compounds formed. Ash transformation pathways generally lead to the formation of orthophosphates (PO43-) such as Ca5(PO₄)3(OH), CaKPO4, and Ca3(PO4)2 with the partial substitution of Ca by some cation forming elements (Fe, Mg, and/or K), as the main P containing crystalline phases. Crystalline pyrophosphate (P2O74-) compounds were also found in the residual ashes from the seed-based fuel (WGR), where P originates from phytate in the biomass. For the fuels containing a certain (sufficient) amount of Si, orthophosphates interact with silicate phases to form both amorphous and crystalline phosphosilicates. For the sewage sludge mixtures, a surplus of available K was needed to form K-bearing phosphates due to side reactions of K with Si and Al.  

The chemical form of P in the formed ash residues is thus strongly dependent on both the type of P association in the fuel and the relative concentrations of other major ash-forming elements, such as K, Ca, Si, and Al. For the fuels with a high (Ca+Mg)/P molar ratio (AER), i.e., for the typical wood-derived fuels bark and poplar, hydroxyapatite was the main P-containing crystalline phase found in the ash. For the studied fuels/fuel mixtures with moderate AER and a high (K+Na)/(Si+Al) molar ratio (AR), e.g., twigs, grass, wheat straw, and sewage sludge with high mixtures of agricultural residues, there was also a possibility to form alkali-bearing phosphates such CaKPO4 and K-Mg whitlockite, besides hydroxyapatite. Since these fuels contain a high amount of Si, the P can be found in both amorphous phases, i.e. phosphosilicate, and Si substituted crystalline phases, i.e. Ca10(SiO4)x(PO4)6-XOH2-x and Ca15(PO4)2(SiO4)6. For fuels with moderate AER and low AR, e.g., pure sewage sludge and sewage sludge with low mixtures of agricultural residues, K-bearing phosphates were not formed. Instead, P was found in phases such as whitlockite and phosphosilicates. For the WGR fuel with relatively low AER and high AR, K-bearing phosphates were formed in the ashes, where the P was found in crystalline K-Mg/Ca pyrophosphates and K-Mg orthophosphate, as well as amorphous K-Mg-Ca phosphates. 

The produced knowledge can potentially be used to, e.g., i) suggest efficient measures to mitigate ash-related problems associated with P during thermochemical conversion of opportunity biomass fuels, ii) suggest potential pathways to form plant-available phosphates directly in the thermal conversion process to enable recovery of P and K from the obtained ashes, and iii) find optimal thermal conversion process conditions to obtain bio charcoals that are suitable as alternative fuels and reducing agents in the metallurgical industry. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2022
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
agricultural biomass, forest residues, sewage sludge, ash transformation, release, potassium, phosphorus, combustion, gasification, bio charcoal, phosphorus recovery
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90271 (URN)978-91-8048-075-8 (ISBN)978-91-8048-076-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-06-15, E632, Luleå university of technology, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-04-21 Created: 2022-04-20 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Hedayati, A., Lindgren, R., Skoglund, N., Boman, C., Kienzl, N. & Öhman, M. (2021). Ash Transformation during Single-Pellet Combustion of Agricultural Biomass with a Focus on Potassium and Phosphorus. Energy & Fuels, 35(2), 1449-1464
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ash Transformation during Single-Pellet Combustion of Agricultural Biomass with a Focus on Potassium and Phosphorus
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2021 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 1449-1464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, ash transformation and release of critical ash-forming elements during single-pellet combustion of different types of agricultural opportunity fuels were investigated. The work focused on potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). Single pellets of poplar, wheat straw, grass, and wheat grain residues were combusted in a macro-thermogravimetric analysis reactor at three different furnace temperatures (600, 800, and 950 °C). In order to study the transformation of inorganic matters at different stages of the thermal conversion process, the residues were collected before and after full devolatilization, as well as after complete char conversion. The residual char/ash was characterized by scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma, and ion chromatography, and the interpretation of results was supported by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. During combustion of poplar, representing a Ca–K-rich woody energy crop, the main fraction of K remained in the residual ash primarily in the form of K2Ca(CO3)2 at lower temperatures and in a K–Ca-rich carbonate melt at higher temperatures. Almost all P retained in the ash and was mainly present in the form of hydroxyapatite. For the Si–K-rich agricultural biomass fuels with a minor (wheat straw) or moderate (grass) P content, the main fraction of K remained in the residual ash mostly in K–Ca-rich silicates. In general, almost all P was retained in the residual ash both in K–Ca–P–Si-rich amorphous structures, possibly in phosphosilicate-rich melts, and in crystalline forms as hydroxyapatite, CaKPO4, and calcium phosphate silicate. For the wheat grain, representing a K–P-rich fuel, the main fraction of K and P remained in the residual ash in the form of K–Mg-rich phosphates. The results showed that in general for all studied fuels, the main release of P occurred during the devolatilization stage, while the main release of K occurred during char combustion. Furthermore, less than 20% of P and 35% of K was released at the highest furnace temperature for all fuels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2021
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-82225 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.0c03324 (DOI)000613197300044 ()2-s2.0-85100036140 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 41877-1Swedish Research Council, 2016-04380Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01613
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-02-09 (alebob)

Available from: 2021-01-10 Created: 2021-01-10 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Hedayati, A., Sefidari, H., Boman, C., Skoglund, N., Kienzl, N. & Öhman, M. (2021). Ash transformation during single-pellet gasification of agricultural biomass with focus on potassium and phosphorus. Fuel processing technology, 217, Article ID 106805.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ash transformation during single-pellet gasification of agricultural biomass with focus on potassium and phosphorus
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2021 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 217, article id 106805Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agricultural biomasses and residues can play an important role in the global bioenergy system but their potential is limited by the risk of several ash-related problems such as deposit formation, slagging, and particle emissions during their thermal conversion. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the ash transformation reactions is required for this type of fuels. The present work investigates ash transformation reactions and the release of critical ash-forming elements with a special focus on K and P during the single-pellet gasification of different types of agricultural biomass fuels, namely, poplar, grass, and wheat grain residues. Each fuel was gasified as a single pellet at three different temperatures (600, 800, and 950 °C) in a Macro-TGA reactor. The residues from different stages of fuel conversion were collected to study the gradual ash transformation. Characterization of the residual char and ash was performed employing SEM-EDS, XRD, and ICP with the support of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations (TECs). The results showed that the K and P present in the fuels were primarily found in the residual char and ash in all cases for all studied fuels. While the main part of the K release occurred during the char conversion stage, the main part of the P release occurred during the devolatilization stage. The highest releases – less than 18% of P and 35% of K – were observed at the highest studied temperature for all fuels. These elements were present in the residual ashes as K2Ca(CO3)2 and Ca5(PO4)3OH for poplar; K-Ca-rich silicates and phosphosilicates in mainly amorphous ash for grass; and an amorphous phase rich in K-Mg-phosphates for wheat grain residues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Agricultural biomass fuels, Ash transformation, Release, Potassium, Phosphorus, Gasification
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83228 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2021.106805 (DOI)000647475600010 ()2-s2.0-85102537881 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 41877-1Swedish Research Council, 2016-04380Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01613
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-03-12 (alebob)

Available from: 2021-03-10 Created: 2021-03-10 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Phounglamcheik, A., Vila, R., Kienzl, N., Wang, L., Hedayati, A., Broström, M., . . . Umeki, K. (2021). CO2 Gasification Reactivity of Char from High-Ash Biomass. ACS Omega, 6(49), 34115-34128
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CO2 Gasification Reactivity of Char from High-Ash Biomass
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2021 (English)In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 6, no 49, p. 34115-34128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biomass char produced from pyrolysis processes is of great interest to be utilized as renewable solid fuels or materials. Forest byproducts and agricultural wastes are low-cost and sustainable biomass feedstocks. These biomasses generally contain high amounts of ash-forming elements, generally leading to high char reactivity. This study elaborates in detail how chemical and physical properties affect CO2 gasification rates of high-ash biomass char, and it also targets the interactions between these properties. Char produced from pine bark, forest residue, and corncobs (particle size 4–30 mm) were included, and all contained different relative compositions of ash-forming elements. Acid leaching was applied to further investigate the influence of inorganic elements in these biomasses. The char properties relevant to the gasification rate were analyzed, that is, elemental composition, specific surface area, and carbon structure. Gasification rates were measured at an isothermal condition of 800 °C with 20% (vol.) of CO2 in N2. The results showed that the inorganic content, particularly K, had a stronger effect on gasification reactivity than specific surface area and aromatic cluster size of the char. At the gasification condition utilized in this study, K could volatilize and mobilize through the char surface, resulting in high gasification reactivity. Meanwhile, the mobilization of Ca did not occur at the low temperature applied, thus resulting in its low catalytic effect. This implies that the dispersion of these inorganic elements through char particles is an important reason behind their catalytic activity. Upon leaching by diluted acetic acid, the K content of these biomasses substantially decreased, while most of the Ca remained in the biomasses. With a low K content in leached biomass char, char reactivity was determined by the active carbon surface area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2021
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering; Experimental Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88540 (URN)10.1021/acsomega.1c05728 (DOI)000757388000083 ()34926959 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85120655810 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-01-01 (johcin)

Available from: 2021-12-20 Created: 2021-12-20 Last updated: 2022-03-17Bibliographically approved
Hedayati, A., Lestander, T. A., Rudolfsson, M., Thyrel, M. & Öhman, M. (2021). Fate of phosphorus and potassium in single-pellet thermal conversion of forest residues with a focus on the char composition. Biomass and Bioenergy, 150, Article ID 106124.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fate of phosphorus and potassium in single-pellet thermal conversion of forest residues with a focus on the char composition
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2021 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 150, article id 106124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The phosphorus and potassium contents of the char obtained from thermal conversion of forest residues can limit its utilization as an alternative fuel and reducing agent to substitute coal/coke in the steelmaking industry. In this study, ash transformation and release of K and P during single-pellet thermal conversion of different types of forest residues (i.e., bark, twigs, and bark+twigs) were investigated with the aid of a vertical tube furnace (Macro-TGA) at different temperatures (i.e., 600, 800, and 950 °C) and within and after different fuel conversion stages, i.e., devolatilization and char gasification. The residual char before and after full devolatilization, and ash after char gasification were characterized by SEM-EDS, XRD, and ICP-OES with the support of thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The concentrations of K (7970–19500 mg/kg) and P (1440–4925 mg/kg) in the char produced after devolatilization were more than four times higher than in coke and pulverized coal frequently used in metallurgical processes. A low amount of P and K (≤15%) were released from all fuels. K and P were evenly distributed within the char residues, and no crystalline compounds containing K and P were found. In ash residues of bark, K was found in K2Ca2(CO3)3, and K2Ca(CO3)2. K in ash residues from twigs and bark+twigs was mainly found in the amorphous part of ash, most likely in the form of K-Ca rich silicates. Apatite was found as the main P crystalline compound in all ashes at all temperatures. Estimations show that a release of more than 80% is needed for the studied forest residual assortments to reach K and P concentrations typical of blast furnace coals and cokes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Char, Forest residues, Ash transformation, Potassium, Phosphorus, Thermal conversion, Macro-TGA, Single pellets
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-84633 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2021.106124 (DOI)000663554100008 ()2-s2.0-85106909779 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Nord, 20200224Swedish Research Council, 2016–04380Bio4Energy
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-05-25 (beamah)

Available from: 2021-05-25 Created: 2021-05-25 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Häggström, G., Hannl, T. K., Hedayati, A., Kuba, M., Skoglund, N. & Öhman, M. (2021). Single Pellet Combustion of Sewage Sludge and Agricultural Residues with a Focus on Phosphorus. Energy & Fuels, 35(12), 10009-10022
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single Pellet Combustion of Sewage Sludge and Agricultural Residues with a Focus on Phosphorus
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2021 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 10009-10022Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recycling of phosphorus in combination with increased utilization of bioenergy can mitigate material and global warming challenges. In addition, co-combustion of different fuels can alleviate ash-related problems in thermal conversion of biomass. The aim of this study is to investigate the ash transformation reactions of mainly P in co-combustion of P-rich sewage sludge (SS) with K-rich sunflower husks (SH) and K-And Si-rich wheat straw (WS). Single pellets of 4 mixtures (10 and 30 wt % SS in WS and 15 and 40 wt % SS in SH) and pure SS were combusted in an electrically heated furnace at process temperatures relevant for fluidized bed combustion (800 and 950 °C). Collected ash fractions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma techniques, ion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed to interpret the results. Over 90% of K and P was found to be captured within the residual ash with 30-70% P in crystalline K-bearing phosphates for mixtures with low amounts of SS (WSS10 and SHS15). The significant share of K and P in the amorphous material could be important for P recovery. For the lower percentage mixtures of SS (WSS10 and SHS15), P in crystalline phases was mainly found in K-whitlockite and CaKPO4. For the higher percentage SS mixtures, most of P was found in whitlockites associated with Fe and Mg, and no crystalline phosphates containing K were detected. For P recovery, co-combustion of the lower SS mixtures is favorable, and they are suggested to be further studied concerning the suitability for plant growth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2021
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86298 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.1c00882 (DOI)000664295600019 ()2-s2.0-85108647447 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 942-2015-619; 2017-01613Swedish Research Council, 2016-04380; 2017-05331
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-07-07 (beamah)

Available from: 2021-07-07 Created: 2021-07-07 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
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