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Strandberg, C. (2023). Let's stay together – The mediating role of self-congruity and place attachment on residents' likelihood to stay. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 87, Article ID 101989.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Let's stay together – The mediating role of self-congruity and place attachment on residents' likelihood to stay
2023 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 87, article id 101989Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Residents are integral to the place image. They are a component of the place, and ambassadors of its brand, yet their perspectives have generally been overlooked when it comes to the role of person-place bonds in place branding. This study evaluates the mediating role of self-congruity and place attachment on the relationship between residents' positive place image and likelihood to stay among 350 Swedish residents. A conceptual model building on identity, congruity and attachment theories is tested using structural equation modelling. Findings, applicable across two cities of different size, show a positive relationship between place image and residents' likelihood to stay, mediated by place attachment. The relationship between place image and place attachment is mediated by resident self-congruity. Implications include that resident image may not offer a direct psychological bond influencing residents' likelihood to stay but is important to instill place attachment which in turn impacts resident retention. Implications highlight the multifaceted nature of place self-congruity, the importance of careful consideration of constructs when operationalizing identification with a place, and that place attachment should not be used to measure residents' likelihood to stay. Future research is encouraged to include images of both place and place users when studying residents' place self-congruity. Implications highlight the capacity for place branding policies supporting inclusive community practices to unify and retain residents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Place image, Self-congruity, Self-congruence, Place attachment, Resident retention, Likelihood to stay
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96318 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvp.2023.101989 (DOI)000951049000001 ()2-s2.0-85149460682 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The R&D Fund of the Swedish Tourism & Hospitality Industry (BFUF), 2015–163
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-05 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-04-05 Created: 2023-04-05 Last updated: 2023-04-17Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, C. (2023). Through the Looking Glass: An Identity-Based View of Place Branding. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Through the Looking Glass: An Identity-Based View of Place Branding
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Places of today face intense global competition for crucial resources. Attracting visitors and retaining residents is vital especially for post-industrial cities and rural places facing a loss of traditional industrial jobs, and urbanization and centralization of the population and economy. To attract resources and target groups like tourists and residents, place managers and authorities are increasingly turning to place branding. 

A recent stream of literature has adopted an identity-based view of place branding building on an understanding that like the formation of the place itself is an open-ended process, constantly renegotiated and socially constructed so is that of place branding. It depicts place branding as an identity construction process, an ongoing process of multilogue between different place stakeholders involved as active participants in the co-creation of the place brand experience, expression, and communication. In this light, effective place branding strategies must be based on a brand identity that reflects the perceptions of its stakeholders, communicated to and with key stakeholders. This highlights the need for place managers to understand place stakeholders’ perceptions to be able to mirror, articulate and reinforce them in the brand identity and place brand communication. There is however a lack of focus in extant research on the perspective of residents, a primary stakeholder group. Furthermore, questions remain regarding the drivers behind this process, especially regarding the role of person–place bonds in relation to place-related behavioral outcomes.

Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was: To investigate place-related identity concepts within an identity-based view of place branding. The current research sought to deepen the understanding of the identity-based view by 1) developing the understanding of how place-related identity aspects can be leveraged to influence the place-related behavioral intentions of key place stakeholders, focusing specifically on residents as a primary stakeholder group, and 2) to contribute to further conceptual and operational clarity regarding the elusive concept of place identity and related concepts underlying this process. Drawing on identity-based place branding literature in combination with identity, congruity, and attachment theory four research questions (RQs) were formulated: 

RQ1: How can the identity perspectives expressed in residents’ place image be characterized? RQ2: What is the relationship between place image, place attachment, self-congruity, and positive place word-of-mouth (WOM) across different stakeholder groups? RQ3: What is the relationship between place image, place attachment, self-congruity, and likelihood to stay in a place across cities of different sizes? RQ4: How can the concept of place identity be measured? 

To answer the research questions four studies were conducted, one qualitative, two quantitative and one conceptual, the results from each study presented in a research paper. In response to RQ1 the qualitative study highlights the different identity perspectives manifested by residents when describing their place perceptions. The place identity perspectives expressed in residents’ place image descriptions evidence both subject identity perspectives - through personal and social identity perspectives, and object identity perspectives – in terms of person, people/social (in-/out) group, and place object identity perspectives. These perspectives influence the content of place image descriptions both in terms of what residents describe – in terms of object identity, and how they describe it – depending on which identity lens is applied and from whose point of view. The results highlight the need for priming to activate a specific stakeholder identity when gathering place image perceptions and designing place branding campaigns.

Quantitative findings in response to RQ2 applicable across two cities of different size indicate that affective place image influences positive WOM and that this relationship is mediated by place attachment for both residents and visitors. Interestingly, while the connection between affective place image and place attachment is stronger for residents, the connection between place attachment and positive WOM is significant also for visitors. Contrary to previous studies, the findings suggest that self-congruity with residents’ image may not offer sufficient symbolic value to inspire WOM behavior. Results however support that self-congruity plays a mediating role between affective place image and place attachment which is stronger for visitors than for residents. The findings highlight the need to successfully reflect the self-concept of key stakeholders in communication messages to strengthen emotional brand connections and consequently WOM behavior. When targeting residents, communication is best centered around aspects reflecting the place’s identity while, additionally, communication reflecting residents’ image may be targeted towards visitors to increase the probability of positive WOM.

Findings concerning RQ3 show a positive relationship between place image and residents’ likelihood to stay, mediated by place attachment. The relationship between place image and place attachment is mediated by resident self-congruity. Implications include that perceived resident image fit may not offer any direct influence on residents’ likelihood to stay but is important to instill place attachment which impacts resident retention. Implications highlight the multifaceted nature of place self-congruity, the importance of careful consideration of constructs when operationalizing identification with a place, and that place attachment should not be used to measure residents’ likelihood to stay. Future research is encouraged to include images of both place and place consumers when studying residents’ place self-congruity. Implications highlight the capacity for place branding policies supporting inclusive community practices to unify and retain residents. 

Results from the conceptual study related to RQ4 show a range of elements and sub-dimensions relevant to measure the place identity/identification construct. Findings show how different labels have been applied to identify what appears to be conceptually equivalent constructs and vice-versa. A framework is presented of the cognitive, affective, and conative and evaluative elements of place identity/identification including their sub-dimensions. Results highlight the need to exert stringency when applying the terms in research and to carefully define and delineate concepts when gathering data and reporting results.

Further theoretical and managerial contributions and suggestions for future research are discussed in the final chapter of the thesis. The four papers are presented as Appendices, three of which have been published and the fourth is being revised to be submitted for review in a scholarly journal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2023
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Place branding, identity-based place branding, place identity, place’s identity, places' identity, places' identities, place brand identity, place image, place brand image, self-congruity, self-congruence, place attachment, positive word-of-mouth, word-of-mouth, place advocacy, place ambassadorship, likelihood to stay, intention to stay, resident retention, stakeholders, residents, citizens, inhabitants, visitors, co-creators, co-creation, place brand
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96627 (URN)978-91-8048-309-4 (ISBN)978-91-8048-310-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-06-12, A109, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-04-17 Created: 2023-04-17 Last updated: 2023-09-12Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, C. & Styvén, M. (2021). An image worth a thousand words? Expressions of stakeholder identity perspectives in place image descriptions. Journal of Place Management and Development, 14(3), 315-330
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An image worth a thousand words? Expressions of stakeholder identity perspectives in place image descriptions
2021 (English)In: Journal of Place Management and Development, ISSN 1753-8335, E-ISSN 1753-8343, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 315-330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how place identity can be expressed in residents’ place imagedescriptions, addressing differences and similarities in place identity expressions between residents’descriptions of the image of their place and the image of the place as described to others.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth interviews were conducted with residents of a Swedish city.Place image descriptions were analyzed through thematic analysis.

Findings

Different types of identity perspectives manifest in the place image descriptions of residents. Respondents’ associations reflect place, person and social group identity perspectives, including their ownperspective as residents, but also as visitors, or a combination of both. Priming is needed when gatheringplace image perceptions, to establish which underlying identity perspective is expressed.

Research limitations/implications

This study offers a Nordic perspective on the organiccommunication of place image. The scope and qualitative nature of this study is a limitation to itsgeneralizability but also suggests a rich ground for future cross-cultural studies on the topic.

Practical implications

Results point to the importance of accurately formulating questions to catchstakeholders’ place image. Insights are offered into how stakeholders communicate Nordic place imageperceptions when engaging in communication about a place and into the effects of identity on organic placebrand communication.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is among the first to explore how key stakeholders’ lenses to interpret a place brand are activated in the communication of place image, andhow this influences their descriptions of the place.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2021
Keywords
Place branding, Place identity, Stakeholders, Residents, Identity theory, Social identity theory
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86478 (URN)10.1108/JPMD-07-2019-0059 (DOI)000674412400001 ()2-s2.0-85111153183 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Attraktiva varumärken i besöksnäringen
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-09-01 (johcin);

Forskningsfinansiär: R&D Fund of the Swedish Tourism and Hospitality Industry (48314)

Available from: 2021-07-28 Created: 2021-07-28 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, C., Ek Styvén, M. & Hultman, M. (2020). Places in good graces: The role of emotional connections to a place on word-of-mouth. Paper presented at 4th International Colloquium on Corporate Branding, Identity, Image and Reputation (COBIIR 2018), 3-4 September, 2018, Calabria, Italy. Journal of Business Research, 119, 444-452
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Places in good graces: The role of emotional connections to a place on word-of-mouth
2020 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 119, p. 444-452Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The role of emotional connections to places has largely been studied with a focus on place visitors. However, while residents are considered integral to the place brand, their perspectives generally have been overlooked. This study aims to increase the understanding of the relationships between place image, self-congruity, place attachment, and positive word-of-mouth among residents and visitors of a place. A conceptual model is advanced from identity and attachment theories. Responses from 654 residents and visitors in two Swedish cities were collected through an online survey, and the conceptual model was tested across the two city samples using structural equation modelling. Findings indicate that affective place image is positively related to positive word-of-mouth and that this relationship is mediated by place attachment for both residents and visitors. The results further show that self-congruity acts as a mediator between affective place image and place attachment for visitors but not for residents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Place image, self-congruity, place attachment, positive word-of-mouth
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76759 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.11.044 (DOI)000600367400016 ()2-s2.0-85076238439 (Scopus ID)
Conference
4th International Colloquium on Corporate Branding, Identity, Image and Reputation (COBIIR 2018), 3-4 September, 2018, Calabria, Italy
Projects
Attraktiva varumärken i besöksnäringen
Funder
The R&D Fund of the Swedish Tourism & Hospitality Industry (BFUF), 48314
Note

Godkänd;2020;Nivå 0;2020-12-03 (alebob);Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2019-11-19 Created: 2019-11-19 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Ek Styvén, M., Mariani, M. M. & Strandberg, C. (2020). This Is My Hometown! The Role of Place Attachment, Congruity, and Self-Expressiveness on Residents’ Intention to Share a Place Brand Message Online. Journal of Advertising, 49(5), 540-556
Open this publication in new window or tab >>This Is My Hometown! The Role of Place Attachment, Congruity, and Self-Expressiveness on Residents’ Intention to Share a Place Brand Message Online
2020 (English)In: Journal of Advertising, ISSN 0091-3367, E-ISSN 1557-7805, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 540-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a gradually more hypercompetitive global tourism arena, destination marketers are increasingly seeking effective ways to promote places through appealing place brand messages. Local residents can be valuable ambassadors for the place, as well as co-creators of place-related brand communication. However, research focusing on place advertising from the residents’ perspective is scant. To address this gap, this work identifies three main antecedents of residents’ intention to share a place brand message online: place attachment, place ad–brand congruity, and self-expressiveness. A model is developed and tested on a sample of current and former residents of a Swedish city. Structural equation model results support that these antecedents have a positive influence on current as well as former residents’ intention to share a place brand ad online. Place attachment also has a significant indirect influence on intention to share, with place ad–brand congruity and self-expressiveness as partial mediators. Furthermore, place ad–brand congruity partially mediates the relationship between place attachment and self-expressiveness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2020
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80782 (URN)10.1080/00913367.2020.1810594 (DOI)000568905900001 ()2-s2.0-85090965684 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Attraktiva varumärken i besöksnäringen
Funder
The R&D Fund of the Swedish Tourism & Hospitality Industry (BFUF), 48314
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-02-09 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-09-14 Created: 2020-09-14 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, C. & Styvén, M. (2020). What’s love got to do with it?: Place brand love and viral videos. Paper presented at 13th Global Brand Conference, 2-4 May, 2018, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Internet Research, 30(1), 23-43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What’s love got to do with it?: Place brand love and viral videos
2020 (English)In: Internet Research, ISSN 1066-2243, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of brand love in place brand communication by incorporating potential antecedents and behavioral outcomes of place brand love in a social media setting.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from 281 residents and visitors of a place through an online survey focusing on a place brand video. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the research model.

Findings

Results show that place brand love has a strong direct relationship with positive word of mouth (WOM), and an indirect effect on intention to share the place brand message. Self-expressiveness of the place brand message also seems to influence place brand love as well as intention to share the message.

Research limitations/implications

The role of self-related concepts and brand love to a place has theoretical implications for research in place branding and electronic word of mouth. The study has limitations to its generalizability in terms of cultural aspects and sample representativeness.

Practical implications

Place marketers need to successfully reflect the self-concept of key stakeholders in communication messages in order to increase the probability that recipients will engage in positive WOM and share the message.

Originality/value

Research on place brand love is scarce and previous studies have focused solely on brand love in connection to tourists. The main contribution of the current study is the exploration of the role of brand love in connection to residents, who are vital co-creators of the place brand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2020
Keywords
word of mouth, social media, social identity theory, self-expressiveness, identity theory, message sharing, place brand love, self-brand congruity, intention to forward, viral marketing
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76259 (URN)10.1108/INTR-07-2018-0311 (DOI)000528886100003 ()2-s2.0-85074022449 (Scopus ID)
Conference
13th Global Brand Conference, 2-4 May, 2018, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Projects
Attraktiva varumärken i besöksnäringen
Funder
The R&D Fund of the Swedish Tourism & Hospitality Industry (BFUF), 48314
Note

Godkänd;2020;Nivå 0;2020-05-14 (alebob);Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2019-10-06 Created: 2019-10-06 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Chipp, K., Wocke, A., Strandberg, C. & Chiba, M. (2019). Overcoming African institutional voids: Market entry with networks. European Business Review, 31(3), 304-316
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overcoming African institutional voids: Market entry with networks
2019 (English)In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 304-316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

Literature on modes of entry has focussed on firm-level strategies. The predominant theories used are Institutional Theory and the resource based view. Using an alternate approach, network theory, the paper demonstrates an additional mode of entry: multiple firms entering together as an extension of an existing loose network, known as a bridging network. The extension of an external network across borders is an appropriate mode of entry in emerging markets with no pre-existing networks or existing networks within a market that are weak, immature or missing.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual review, which develops four propositions, demonstrating that market entry with bridging networks may be the preferred mode of entry in the presence of institutional voids. Alternative modes may not be viable due to costs and risks associated with overcoming such voids

Findings

Existing theory and case examples supports the contention that market conditions facilitate firms to enter as networks rather than as singular entities. These conditions are found in markets with institutional voids and explain the dominant form of business groups in many countries and the operation of loose strategic alliances in emerging markets. Network entry facilitates market access speed may allow for local ties to remain undeveloped or be a first step in building in-country networks.

Originality/value

This paper heeds to the call for a network ecosystem approach to market entry, arguing that firms may enter as a collective in subsistence and emerging markets which would explain the preponderance of business groups and loose alliances found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
Keywords
market entry, network theory, institutional voids
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73455 (URN)10.1108/EBR-01-2018-0029 (DOI)000484273300003 ()2-s2.0-85067071268 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-27 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, C. & Ek Styvén, M. (2018). Places in good graces: The mediating role of emotional connections to a place on word-of-mouth. In: : . Paper presented at 4th International Colloquium on Corporate Branding, Identity, Image and Reputation, 3-4 september, Calabria, Italien.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Places in good graces: The mediating role of emotional connections to a place on word-of-mouth
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
Place image, self-brand congruity, place attachment, positive word-of-mouth
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70315 (URN)
Conference
4th International Colloquium on Corporate Branding, Identity, Image and Reputation, 3-4 september, Calabria, Italien
Projects
Attraktiva varumärken i besöksnäringen
Funder
The R&D Fund of the Swedish Tourism & Hospitality Industry (BFUF), 48314
Available from: 2018-08-09 Created: 2018-08-09 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, C., Nath, A., Hemmatdar, H. & Jahwash, M. (2018). Tourism research in the new millennium: A bibliometric review of literature in Tourism and Hospitality Research (ed.). Tourism and Hospitality Research, 18(3), 269-285
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourism research in the new millennium: A bibliometric review of literature in Tourism and Hospitality Research
2018 (English)In: Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1467-3584, E-ISSN 1742-9692, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 269-285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents a bibliometric review analyzing 15 years of research published between 2000 and 2014 in the journal Tourism and Hospitality Research. Raw citations metrics were gathered using ‘‘Publish or Perish,’’a data-miner software from Harzing, using Google Scholar as a base. The analysis focuses on six key metrics of the journal’s publications: (a) the nature of authorship, (b) the most influential articles, (c) the most influentialauthors, (d) the most prolific authors, (e) the themes covered, and (f) the manuscript characteristics of the articles published during the period. Notes for contributors, book reviews, conference reports/proceedings, practice papers, and editorials were excluded from the scope of this research, and 292 researcharticles appearing in the journal during this time were included in the investigation. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Excel. The article provides an overview of the evolution of the journal and presents some key trendsin ongoing research within the industry. The study finds a clear trend toward coauthorship with a substantial increase in triple-authored articles. The majority of the articles have gone from being single authored in2000–2004 to being dual authored in 2010–2014. Articles on marketing and consumer behavior, HR management, and environmental aspects have experienced a steady increase while strategic implications, hospitalityand tourism operations, impact assessment and mitigation, and education have received a decreased attention. There has been a significant drop in theory development articles, in favor of quantitative research designs, in particular survey studies. Qualitative research designs rest relatively constant; however, case studies and interviews have lost ground to content analysis manuscripts. Contributions further include insights that can aid editors in determining future directions of the journal, guidance for potential authors in their quest to get published, and identification of new opportunities in research areas for the journal and researchers alike.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
Tourism research trends, bibliometric review, bibliometric analysis, journal review, citation analysis, longitudinal analysis, prolific authors
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-12141 (URN)10.1177/1467358416642010 (DOI)000436074400001 ()2-s2.0-85049054271 (Scopus ID)b37f5e89-2e09-4f69-bc45-48576cf34699 (Local ID)b37f5e89-2e09-4f69-bc45-48576cf34699 (Archive number)b37f5e89-2e09-4f69-bc45-48576cf34699 (OAI)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-27 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2022-05-09Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, C., Näppä, A. & Ek Styvén, M. (2017). An image worth a thousand words: Dual perspectives of Swedish city brand images. In: : . Paper presented at 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Falun, October 4-6, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An image worth a thousand words: Dual perspectives of Swedish city brand images
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66110 (URN)
Conference
26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Falun, October 4-6, 2017
Projects
Attraktiva varumärken i besöksnäringen
Funder
The R&D Fund of the Swedish Tourism & Hospitality Industry (BFUF), 48314
Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9628-3599

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