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Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Zhu, Z., Buck, D., Guo, X., Ekevad, M. & Cao, P. (2019). Effect of Cutting Speed on Machinability of Stone–Plastic Composite Material. Science of Advanced Materials, 11(6), 884-892
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Cutting Speed on Machinability of Stone–Plastic Composite Material
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2019 (English)In: Science of Advanced Materials, ISSN 1947-2935, E-ISSN 1947-2943, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 884-892Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research examined the orthogonal cutting of stone–plastic composite with diamond cutting tools. The objective was to quantify features relating to machinability, including cutting forces, cutting heat, chip formation, and machining quality with respect to cutting speed. The conclusions are as follows. An increased cutting speed promotes a decrease in the resulting force, causes cutting temperature to increase, makes the cutting processes more stable, and reduces the surface roughness. Chip-breaking length increases with an increase in cutting speed, and chip morphology changes from particle, to curve, to helical, and finally, to flow chips. Overall, a higher cutting speed is more suitable for machining stone–plastic composite materials: it not only increases the stability of cutting process, but also improves the final product of stone–plastic composite by promoting production of a smoother surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Scientific Publishers, 2019
Keywords
cutting process, decorating material, machining property, planing, polycrystalline cemented diamond, thermal imaging
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74810 (URN)10.1166/sam.2019.3538 (DOI)000469948000015 ()
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-24 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Cao, P., Zhu, Z., Buck, D., Xiaolei, G., Ekevad, M. & Wang, X. A. (2019). Effect of rake angle on cutting performance during machining of stone-plastic composite material with polycrystalline diamond cutters. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 33(1), 351-356
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of rake angle on cutting performance during machining of stone-plastic composite material with polycrystalline diamond cutters
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, ISSN 1738-494X, E-ISSN 1976-3824, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 351-356Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the effect of rake angle on cutting performance during machining of stone-plastic composite material with diamond cutters. To that end, an orthogonal cutting experiment was designed, in which stone-plastic composite material was planed by a polycrystalline diamond (PCD) cutter to produce chips. The features studied include cutting forces, cutting heat, chip formation and cutting quality. The conclusions are as follows: Firstly, increased rake angle causes frictional force and resulting force to decrease, promoting an increase in normal force. Secondly, during planing, cutting heat is primarily distributed in the chips, with less retained in the cutting edge, and the least retained in the machined surface. The temperatures of both cutting edge and chip decline with an increase in rake angle. Thirdly, as rake angle increases, chip morphology changes from segmental to curved and then to particle chips, with chip-breaking lengths first increasing and then decreasing. Finally, an increased rake angle leads a more stable cutting process and improved cutting quality. Therefore, with the precondition of blade strength, a diamond cutter with a larger rake angle can be used to machine stone-plastic composite to improve production quality by forming a smoother machined surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Orthogonal cutting, PCD blades, Cutting forces, Cutting heat, Cutting quality, Chip formation
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72688 (URN)10.1007/s12206-018-1237-y (DOI)000455641100035 ()2-s2.0-85060183090 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-01-25 (johcin) 

Available from: 2019-01-25 Created: 2019-01-25 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Zhaolong, Z., Buck, D., Guo, X., Pingxiang, C. & Ekevad, M. (2019). Machinability of stone-plastic materials during diamond planing. Applied Sciences: APPS, 9(7), Article ID 1373.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Machinability of stone-plastic materials during diamond planing
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2019 (English)In: Applied Sciences: APPS, ISSN 1454-5101, E-ISSN 1454-5101, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 1373Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigated the machinability of a stone–plastic composite (SPC) via orthogonal cutting with diamond cutters. The objective was to determine the effect of cutting depth on its machinability, including cutting forces, heat, chip formation, and cutting quality. Increased cutting depth promoted an increase in both frictional and normal forces, and also had a strong influence on the change in normal force. The cutting temperatures of chips and tool edges showed an increasing trend as cutting depth increased. However, the cutting heat was primarily absorbed by chips, with the balance accumulating in the cutting edge. During chip formation, the highest von Mises strain was mainly found in SPC ahead of the cutting edge, and the SPC to be removed partially passed its elastic limit, eventually forming chips with different shapes. Furthermore, the average surface roughness and the mean peak-to-valley height of machined surfaces all positively correlated to an increase in cutting depth. Finally, with an increase in cutting depth, the chip shape changed from tubular, to ribbon, to arc, to segmental, and finally, to helical chips. This evolution in chip shape reduced the fluctuation in cutting force, improving cutting stability and cutting quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
composite material, polycrystalline diamond cutter, orthogonal cutting, digital image correlation, DIC analysis, full-field mechanics, machining properties
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73369 (URN)10.3390/app9071373 (DOI)000466547500108 ()2-s2.0-85064089350 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-04-09 (inah)

Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Zhaolong, Z., Buck, D., Ekevad, M., Marklund, B., Guo, X., Cao, P. & Zhu, N. (2018). Cutting forces and chip formation revisited based on orthogonal cutting of Scots pine. Holzforschung, 73(2), 131-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cutting forces and chip formation revisited based on orthogonal cutting of Scots pine
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2018 (English)In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study was to understandbetter the cutting forces and chip formation of Scots pine(Pinus sylvestris L.) with different moisture contents (MCs)and machined in different cutting directions. To thatend, an orthogonal cutting experiment was designed,in which Scots pine was intermittently machined usinga tungsten carbide tool to produce chips. The cuttingforces were measured and the chip shapes were quantitativelydescribed. Four conclusions can be drawn: (1)with increasing MC, the average cutting forces initiallydecreased and then stabilized, while the angle betweenthe direction of the main and the resultant force continuouslydecreased. (2) The average cutting forces in the 90°–0° cutting direction were lower than the same forces inthe 90°–90° cutting direction. (3) During machining, thedynamic cutting forces fluctuated less in the 90°–0° case.However, the dynamic feeding forces showed a decreasingtrend in both the 90°–0° and the 90°–90° cases. (4) Theprocess applied produced granule chips and flow chips,while less curly flow chips with a higher radius of curvaturewere more easily produced from samples with highMCs in the 90°–0° cutting direction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
De Gruyter Open, 2018
Keywords
chip formation, cutting direction, cutting forces, moisture content, tungsten carbide cutting tools, wood machining
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70662 (URN)10.1515/hf-2018-0037 (DOI)000457473400001 ()2-s2.0-85052992353 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-02-22 (inah)

Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-30 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Zhu, Z., Buck, D., Guo, X., Ekevad, M., Pingxiang, C. & Wu, Z. (2018). Machinability investigation in turning of high density fiberboard. PLoS ONE, 13(9), 1-13, Article ID e0203838.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Machinability investigation in turning of high density fiberboard
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 1-13, article id e0203838Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of experiments were conducted to assess the machinability of high density fiberboardusing cemented carbide cutting tools. The objective of this work was to investigate theinfluence of two cutting parameters, spindle speed and feed per turn, on cutting forces, chipformation and cutting quality. The results are as follows: cutting forces and chip-breakinglength decrease with increasing spindle speed and decreasing feed per turn. In contrast,surface roughness increases with decrease of spindle speed and increase in feed perturn. Chips were divided into four categories based on their shape: dust, particle, splinter,and semicontinuous chips. Chip-breaking length had a similar tendency to the varianceof cutting forces with respect to average roughness and mean peak-to-valley height: anincrease in the variance of cutting forces resulted in increased average roughness andmean peak-to-valley height. Thus, high cutting speed and low feed rate are parameters suitablefor high-quality HDF processing and will improve not only machining quality, but productionefficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library Science, 2018
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70870 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0203838 (DOI)000444545800088 ()30212578 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053234275 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-09-18 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-09-17 Created: 2018-09-17 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Buck, D. (2018). Mechanics of Cross-Laminated Timber. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanics of Cross-Laminated Timber
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increasing awareness of sustainable building materials has led to interest in enhancing the structural performance of engineered wood products. Wood is a sustainable, renewable material, and the increasing use of wood in construction contributes to its sustainability. Multi-layer wooden panels are one type of engineered wood product used in construction.

There are various techniques to assemble multi-layer wooden panels into prefabricated, load-bearing construction elements. Assembly techniques considered in the earliest stages of this research work were laminating, nailing, stapling, screwing, stress laminating, doweling, dovetailing, and wood welding. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) was found to offer some advantages over these other techniques. It is cost-effective, not patented, offers freedom of choice regarding the visibility of surfaces, provides the possibility of using different timber quality in the same panel at different points of its thickness, and is the most well-established assembly technique currently used in the industrial market.

Building upon that foundational work, the operational capabilities of CLT were further evaluated by creating panels with different layer orientations. The mechanical properties of CLT panels constructed with layers angled in an alternative configuration produced on a modified industrial CLT production line were evaluated. Timber lamellae were adhesively bonded in a single-step press procedure to form CLT panels. Transverse layers were laid at a 45° angle instead of the conventional 90° angle with respect to the longitudinal layers’ 0° angle.

Tests were carried out on 40 five-layered CLT panels, each with either a ±45° or a 90° configuration. Half of these panels were evaluated under bending: out-of-plane loading was applied in the principal orientation of the panels via four-point bending. The other twenty were evaluated under compression: an in-plane uniaxial compressive loading was applied in the principal orientation of the panels. Quasi-static loading conditions were used for both in- and out-of-plane testing to determine the extent to which the load-bearing capacity of such panels could be enhanced under the current load case. Modified CLT showed higher stiffness, strength, and fifth-percentile characteristics, values that indicate the load-bearing capacity of these panels as a construction material. Failure modes under in- and out-of-plane loading for each panel type were also assessed.

Data from out-of-plane loading were further analysed. A non-contact full-field measurement and analysis technique based on digital image correlation (DIC) was utilised for analysis at global and local scales. DIC evaluation of 100 CLT layers showed that a considerable part of the stiffness of conventional CLT is reduced by the shear resistance of its transverse layers. The presence of heterogeneous features, such as knots, has the desirable effect of reducing the propagation of shear fraction along the layers. These results call into question the current grading criteria in the CLT standard. It is suggested that the lower timber grading limit be adjusted for increased value-yield.

The overall experimental results suggest the use of CLT panels with a ±45°-layered configuration for construction. They also motivate the use of alternatively angled layered panels for more construction design freedom, especially in areas that demand shear resistance. In addition, the design possibility that such 45°-configured CLT can carry a given load while using less material than conventional CLT suggests the potential to use such panels in a wider range of structural applications. The results of test production revealed that 45°-configured CLT can be industrially produced without using more material than is required for construction of conventional 90°-configured panels. Based on these results, CLT should be further explored as a suitable product for use in more wooden-panel construction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Keywords
CLT assembly, CLT manufacture, Crosslam, DIC analysis, Digital speckle photography, Full-field mechanics, Laminated wood product, Mass timber engineering, Non-contact measurement, Non-destructive, Optical measurement, Panel configuration, Strain localization, X-lam, Alternativ byggmetod, Bildkorrelation, Hållbart byggande, KL- trä, Korslimmat trä, Skjuvtöjning, Massivträ, Träkonstruktion
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68729 (URN)978-91-7790-150-1 (ISBN)978-91-7790-151-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-06-20, Hörsal A, Luleå tekniska universitet, Skellefteå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

External cooperation: Martinson Group AB and Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE)

Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Buck, D. & Hagman, O. (2018). Mechanics of diagonally layered cross-laminated timber. In: : . Paper presented at 2018 World Conference on Timber Engineering, WCTE 2018; COEX Convention and Exhibition CenterSeoul; South Korea; 20-23 August 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanics of diagonally layered cross-laminated timber
2018 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72853 (URN)2-s2.0-85058158349 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2018 World Conference on Timber Engineering, WCTE 2018; COEX Convention and Exhibition CenterSeoul; South Korea; 20-23 August 2018
Available from: 2019-02-12 Created: 2019-02-12 Last updated: 2019-02-12
Buck, D. & Hagman, O. (2018). Production and In-Plane Compression Mechanics of Alternatively Angled Layered Cross-Laminated Timber. BioResources, 13(2), 4029-4045
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production and In-Plane Compression Mechanics of Alternatively Angled Layered Cross-Laminated Timber
2018 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 4029-4045Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing awareness of sustainable building materials has led to interest in enhancing the structural performance of engineered wood products. This paper reports mechanical properties of cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels constructed with layers angled in an alternative configuration on a modified industrial CLT production line. Timber lamellae were adhesively bonded together in a single-step press procedure to form CLT panels. Transverse layers were laid at an angle of 45°, instead of the conventional 90° angle with respect to the longitudinal layers’ 0° angle. Tests were carried out on 20 five-layered CLT panels divided into two matched groups with either a 45° or a 90° configuration; an in-plane uniaxial compressive loading was applied in the principal orientation of the panels. These tests showed that the 45°-configured panels had a 30% higher compression stiffness and a 15% higher compression strength than the 90° configuration. The results also revealed that the 45°-configured CLT can be industrially produced without using more material than is required for conventional CLT 90° panels. In addition, the design possibility that the 45°-configured CLT can carry a given load while using less material also suggests that it is possible to use CLT in a wider range of structural applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of North Carolina Press, 2018
Keywords
CLT manufacturing, Crosslam, Cross-ply, Diagonal-laminated lumber, Impact of laminate orientation, In-plane rotation, Grain inclination angle, Mass timber engineering, Solid wood panel, X-lam
National Category
Building Technologies Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68424 (URN)10.15376/biores.13.2.4029-4045 (DOI)000440518000021 ()
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-04-26 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
Buck, D., Wang, A., Hagman, O. & Gustafsson, A. (2016). Bending Properties of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) with a 45° Alternating Layer Configuration (ed.). BioResources, 11(2), 4633-4644
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bending Properties of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) with a 45° Alternating Layer Configuration
2016 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 4633-4644Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bending tests were conducted with cross laminated timber (CLT) panels made using an alternating layer arrangement. Boards of Norway spruce were used to manufacture five-layer panels on an industrial CLT production line. In total, 20 samples were tested, consisting of two CLT configurations with 10 samples of each type: transverse layers at 45° and the conventional 90° arrangement. Sample dimensions were 95 mm × 590 mm × 2000 mm. The CLT panels were tested by four point bending in the main load-carrying direction in a flatwise panel layup. The results indicated that bending strength increased by 35% for elements assembled with 45° layers in comparison with 90° layers. Improved mechanical load bearing panel properties could lead to a larger span length with less material.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-11156 (URN)10.15376/biores.11.2.4633-4644 (DOI)2-s2.0-84965159370 (Scopus ID)a1093b71-f2f8-4b06-9af1-b46a7c406aa8 (Local ID)a1093b71-f2f8-4b06-9af1-b46a7c406aa8 (Archive number)a1093b71-f2f8-4b06-9af1-b46a7c406aa8 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160331 (aliwan)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Buck, D., Hagman, O., Wang, A. & Gustafsson, A. (2016). Further Development of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT): Mechanical Tests on 45° Alternating Layers. In: WCTE 2016 : Proceedings: . Paper presented at World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2016), Vienna, August 22-25 2016. Vienna: Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Further Development of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT): Mechanical Tests on 45° Alternating Layers
2016 (English)In: WCTE 2016 : Proceedings, Vienna: Vienna University of Technology, Austria , 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 

In this paper, a series of experimental bending and compression tests were performed on cross-laminated timber (CLT) products with ±45° alternating layers, to evaluate their performance against conventional panels of 90° orientation. Engineered wood products, such as CLT with ±45° alternating layers can provide opportunities for greater use in larger and more sustainable timber constructions. A total of 40 panels, manufactured in an industrial CLT production line with either of these two configurations, were tested and compared. Panels were evaluated in bending tests n=20 and the remaining ones in compression tests. Results showed that 35% increased the strength in the four-point bending tests for panels containing ±45° alternating layers compared with the 90° alternating layers. Compression strength was increased by 15%. Stiffness increased by 15% in the four-point bending and 30% in the compression. The results indicate that CLT containing ±45° alternating layers has increased strength and stiffness compared to 90° alternating layers. These findings suggest that further developments in CLT are feasible in advanced building applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vienna: Vienna University of Technology, Austria, 2016
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60093 (URN)978-3-903039-00-1 (ISBN)
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2016), Vienna, August 22-25 2016
Available from: 2016-11-02 Created: 2016-11-01 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7091-6696

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