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Hajiyan, E., Couceiro, J., Hansson, L. & Sandberg, D. (2023). Drying Behaviour of Western Hemlock with Schedules Developed for Norway Spruce and Scots Pine. Paper presented at 13th International Conference Wood Science and Technology in the Third Millennium, ICWSE 2023, November 2 – 4, 2023, Brasov, Romania. Applied Sciences, 13(19), Article ID 11083.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drying Behaviour of Western Hemlock with Schedules Developed for Norway Spruce and Scots Pine
2023 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 13, no 19, article id 11083Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Determining moisture content (MC) distribution during the drying of porous materials such as wood is crucial for developing drying schedules and assessing their suitability to achieve optimised processes. This study aimed to determine the causes of the unique drying behaviour and the well-known unusual longer drying time of western hemlock compared to other similar softwoods. In situ X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to study the evolution of MC in timber during the drying process. The drying behaviour of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) was compared with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from green to oven-dried condition with industry-proposed drying schedules used for steering a custom-made experimental kiln combined with a CT scanner. CT scanning was performed at 30 min intervals during the complete drying period of 30 h, and the CT images were processed to calculate the MC evolution within the specimen. Western hemlock showed a considerably slower capillary-phase drying and did not go into the transition and diffusion phases when a schedule adapted to pine and spruce drying was applied for its drying. CT images and MC gradient calculations showed a lower drying rate and severe non-uniformity in MC distribution, which could be due to the effect of higher green MC and the presence of wet pockets. Furthermore, the evaporation front at the first 5 h of drying receded faster into the hemlock specimen, and as drying proceeded, it slowed down compared to other specimens.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
CT scan, experimental research, image processing, moisture content, porous material, timber drying, wet pockets
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101641 (URN)10.3390/app131911083 (DOI)001086948100001 ()2-s2.0-85174184849 (Scopus ID)
Conference
13th International Conference Wood Science and Technology in the Third Millennium, ICWSE 2023, November 2 – 4, 2023, Brasov, Romania
Note

Godkänd;2023;Nivå 0;2023-10-12 (joosat);Konferensartikel i tidskrift;

Part of special Issue: International Conference Wood Science and Engineering in the Third Millennium - ICWSE 2023

CC BY 4.0 License

Available from: 2023-10-12 Created: 2023-10-12 Last updated: 2024-03-11Bibliographically approved
Poupet, B., Couceiro, J., Florisson, S., Hansson, L. & Sandberg, D. (2023). Estimation of moisture distribution in sawn timber using computed tomography. In: Anders Q. Nyrud, Kjell Arne Malo, Kristine Nore (Ed.), World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023 (WCTE 2023): . Paper presented at World Conference on Timber Engineering, WCTE, June 19-22, 2023, Oslo, Norway (pp. 759-765). Curran Associates, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimation of moisture distribution in sawn timber using computed tomography
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2023 (English)In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023 (WCTE 2023) / [ed] Anders Q. Nyrud, Kjell Arne Malo, Kristine Nore, Curran Associates, Inc. , 2023, p. 759-765Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Most of the physical, mechanical, and esthetic properties of wood products are affected by the drying of sawn timber. A better understanding of moisture transport in wood during kiln drying is necessary to obtain better quality products, shorter drying schedules, lower energy consumption, and a more sustainable process. Four-dimensional X-ray computed tomography (4DCT) (three-dimensional in space and one in time) with image processing techniques can be used to study the moisture content (MC) of sawn timber during kiln drying. The development of the technique is however made difficult by computational complexity and a lack of accurate experimental validation. In this study, a method relying on 4DCT has been developed using state-of-the-art image processing techniques. The method was validated by a regression analysis of the predicted MC against gravimetric measurements for different timber cross sections and different initial MC distributions on a significantly smaller scale than has previously been investigated. It is concluded that the MC can be estimated with an average uncertainty of ±4.8 percentage points on a 10 mm scale. Sawmills could ultimately benefit from a better understanding of wood-water interactions and dry sawn timber more efficiently.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Curran Associates, Inc., 2023
Keywords
four-dimensional, drying, moisture content, elastic-image registration, Norway spruce
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98373 (URN)10.52202/069179-0104 (DOI)2-s2.0-85171618067 (Scopus ID)9781713873273 (ISBN)9781713873297 (ISBN)
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering, WCTE, June 19-22, 2023, Oslo, Norway
Available from: 2023-06-14 Created: 2023-06-14 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Poupet, B., Florisson, S., Couceiro, J. & Sandberg, D. (2023). Moisture gradients in sawn timber during aggressive kiln drying investigated with X-ray computed tomography. Wood Material Science & Engineering, 18(6), 2140-2149
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moisture gradients in sawn timber during aggressive kiln drying investigated with X-ray computed tomography
2023 (English)In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 2140-2149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reducing the time for drying sawn timber to a certain moisture level without deteriorating its quality is increasingly important for an economic and energy-efficient industrial timber-drying process and to support the transition to a sustainable society. It is, however, crucial to ensure that the quality of the timber, i.e. the degree of distortion, cracking, discolouration, and moisture variation within and between the pieces in a drying batch, is not compromised. Drying-simulation software tend to be too conservative in drying-rate recommendations, which has been observed in practise particularly for large cross-section timber of Norway spruce. This study investigated the drying rate and checking occurrence of centre-yielded Norway spruce planks when dried with more aggressive schedules than normally used in practise, i.e. using higher dry-bulb temperatures and/or lower relative humidities than recommended in the conventional optimisation programmes used in the sawmill industry in Sweden. The objective was to investigate the possibility to considerably reduce the total drying time without compromising the quality of the dried timber. The quality of the planks was indirectly assessed by estimating their moisture-content distributions, calculating the moisture gradients and monitoring checking. This was achieved with 4D (3D + time) X-ray computed tomography and a recently developed image processing algorithm based on elastic image registration. The key findings in this study suggest that Norway spruce timber can be dried with significantly higher temperatures and lower relative humidities than suggested by simulations, leading to reduced total drying time without inducing checking. This methodology can help to improve the design of drying schedules to reduce drying time and energy consumption while maintaining timber quality at a level accepted by the customers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
CT scanning, elastic image registration, moisture transport, sawn-timber quality, wood
National Category
Wood Science Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98374 (URN)10.1080/17480272.2023.2269390 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175583817 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-03-25 (hanlid);

Full text license: CC BY 4.0

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Available from: 2023-06-15 Created: 2023-06-15 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
Couceiro, J., Lin, C.-f., Hansson, L., Schleicher, F., Svensson, M., Jones, D., . . . Sandberg, D. (2023). Use of X-ray computed tomography for real-time studies of the fire progress in wood. Wood Material Science & Engineering, 18(6), 2150-2152
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of X-ray computed tomography for real-time studies of the fire progress in wood
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2023 (English)In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 2150-2152Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
National Category
Building Technologies Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-102323 (URN)10.1080/17480272.2023.2269539 (DOI)2-s2.0-85176144315 (Scopus ID)
Projects
CT WOOD
Funder
Luleå University of Technology
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-03-22 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2024-03-22Bibliographically approved
Mogensen, L., Couceiro, J., Oja, J. & Sandberg, D. (2023). X-Ray Computed Tomography (Ct) Study of the Transition Regime in Timber Drying Along the Blow Depth.. Paper presented at 13th International Conference Wood Science and Engineering (ICWSE 2023), Brasov, Romania, November 2-4, 2023. Pro Ligno, 19(4), 60-69
Open this publication in new window or tab >>X-Ray Computed Tomography (Ct) Study of the Transition Regime in Timber Drying Along the Blow Depth.
2023 (English)In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 60-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Drying green sawn timber to a specific moisture content is needed for further processing. Large batch kilns of approx. 100 cubic meters of timber loads are commonly used with heated air blowing across the packages. When the air reaches the end of the blow depth, it has considerably increased its relative humidity by the evaporation from the wet timber. To even out the climate at the beginning and end of the blow depth, the direction of air circulation is reversed periodically. This exposes timber at those locations to fluctuations in climate while the middle packages are exposed to a more even climate. This study aimed to find the influence of the location of timber along the blow depth in liquid-water-flow behavior during the initial stages of drying. A research drying kiln combined with a CT-scanner was used to mimic this environment across the load and obtain CT images simultaneously, which were used to study the moisture content evolution. The results found that the transition between the capillary and the diffusion regimes can be identified with this method. Additionally, the transition regime was entered earlier for specimens drying in the more even climate which modeled the middle of a drying kiln, but with larger water pockets nearer to the surface of the specimens.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Transilvania University Press Brasov, 2023
Keywords
Transition Regime, Wood Drying, Timber drying, Computed Tomography, CT-Scanning
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103454 (URN)
Conference
13th International Conference Wood Science and Engineering (ICWSE 2023), Brasov, Romania, November 2-4, 2023
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 1;2024-05-02 (hanlid);

Full text license: "All content is freely available without charge to any user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author."

Available from: 2024-01-02 Created: 2024-01-02 Last updated: 2024-04-25Bibliographically approved
Han, L., Kutnar, A., Couceiro, J. & Sandberg, D. (2022). Creep Properties of Densified Wood in Bending. Forests, 13(5), Article ID 757.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creep Properties of Densified Wood in Bending
2022 (English)In: Forests, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 13, no 5, article id 757Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM)-densified timber is rarely used in construction, although its mechanical properties are in many cases excellent. The main reason for its rare use is set-recovery, which reduces the degree of densification over time so that the mechanical properties deteriorate. Our knowledge of the long-term creep of densified timber is insufficient and a full understanding of its long-term behaviour is still lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the behaviour under long-term loading of Scots pine sapwood densified in an open system at 170–200 °C. The influence of the THM densification process on the creep properties was studied on (1) unmodified specimens, (2) THM-densified specimens, (3) THM-densified specimens that had been further thermally treated, and (4) low-molecular-weight phenol-formaldehyde resin-impregnated and THM-densified specimens. All specimens were loaded at 20 ± 2 °C and 65 ± 5% relative humidity for 14 days under 3-point bending at 35% of the short-term ultimate load, and the bending deformation was registered. The THM densification doubled the density, causing a significant increase in the modulus of rupture but no change in the modulus of elasticity, and reduced the equilibrium moisture content and creep compliance. Post-thermal modification and resin impregnation improved the dimensional stability and further reduced the creep compliance in bending. The results demonstrate that THM densification combined with resin-impregnation or thermal modification reduces the creep of Scots pine timber under a long-term bending load in a constant climate. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Swizterland: MDPI, 2022
Keywords
thermo-hydro-mechanical densification, Scots pine, creep compliance, thermal modification, resin impregnation
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90644 (URN)10.3390/f13050757 (DOI)000801253800001 ()2-s2.0-85130645239 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 739574
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-05-16 (joosat);

Funder: Republic of Slovenia, European Regional Development Fund, Slovenian Research Agency ARRS (J4-3087); CT WOOD, Luleå University of Technology

Available from: 2022-05-14 Created: 2022-05-14 Last updated: 2024-04-16Bibliographically approved
Couceiro, J., Hansson, L., Mannes, D., Niemz, P. & Sandberg, D. (2022). Estimation of the moisture content in wood by combination of Neutron and X-ray imaging. In: Wang, X., Ross, R.J. (Ed.), Proceedings: 22nd International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium: . Paper presented at 22nd International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, May 24-27, 2022 (pp. 40-47). Madison (WI), USA: United States Department of Agriculture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimation of the moisture content in wood by combination of Neutron and X-ray imaging
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2022 (English)In: Proceedings: 22nd International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium / [ed] Wang, X., Ross, R.J., Madison (WI), USA: United States Department of Agriculture , 2022, p. 40-47Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Madison (WI), USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 2022
Series
United States Department of Agriculture General Technical Report FPL-GTR-290
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-91091 (URN)
Conference
22nd International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, May 24-27, 2022
Available from: 2022-06-08 Created: 2022-06-08 Last updated: 2022-10-28Bibliographically approved
Couceiro, J., Hansson, L., Sandberg, D. & Ursella, E. (2022). Industrial CT scanning in wood research. In: Wang, X., Ross, R.J. (Ed.), Proceedings: 22nd International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium: . Paper presented at 22nd International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, May 24-27, 2022 (pp. 17-17). Madison (WI), USA: United States Department of Agriculture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial CT scanning in wood research
2022 (English)In: Proceedings: 22nd International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium / [ed] Wang, X., Ross, R.J., Madison (WI), USA: United States Department of Agriculture , 2022, p. 17-17Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Madison (WI), USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 2022
Series
United States Department of Agriculture General Technical Report FPL-GTR-290
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-91089 (URN)
Conference
22nd International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, May 24-27, 2022
Available from: 2022-06-08 Created: 2022-06-08 Last updated: 2022-06-13Bibliographically approved
Florisson, S., Hansson, L., Couceiro, J. & Sandberg, D. (2022). Macroscopic X-ray computed tomography aided numerical modelling of moisture flow in sawn timber. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 80(6), 1351-1365
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Macroscopic X-ray computed tomography aided numerical modelling of moisture flow in sawn timber
2022 (English)In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 80, no 6, p. 1351-1365Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mathematical models are essential for the development of schedules for the air-circulation drying of timber in Swedish sawmills, but earlier models have been shown to be conservative leading to longer drying times than necessary. In the current study, macroscopic (macro) X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been used in both the development and validation of a finite element (FE) model, to enable the macro-CT aided FE modelling of the nonlinear transient moisture flow in wood. The model uses more advanced theory than has previously been used in Swedish sawmills, by incorporating a surface emission coefficient to simulate the surface resistance to moisture flow. A single piece of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] timber was subjected to that part of a traditional kiln-drying schedule, which is associated with diffusion-driven moisture transport. The incorporation of macro-CT data into the FE model resulted in a more realistic representation of the board’s geometry, the initial moisture state, and the definition of material parameters. It also led to a better simulation of flow speed and moisture gradient, especially the asymmetric MC development within the cross section throughout the drying process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92595 (URN)10.1007/s00107-022-01867-7 (DOI)000842578600001 ()2-s2.0-85136214417 (Scopus ID)
Projects
CT-WOOD
Funder
The Kempe FoundationsLuleå University of Technology
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-11-29 (hanlid);

Funder: Swedish wood industry; Gabrielssons foundation

Available from: 2022-08-21 Created: 2022-08-21 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Poupet, B., Couceiro, J., Florisson, S. & Sandberg, D. (2022). Moisture gradient analysis during sawn-timber drying. In: Brischke, C. & Buschalsky, A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): . Paper presented at 18th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE 2022), September 21-22, 2022, Goettingen, Germany (pp. 171-173). Goettingen: Georg-August-University of Goettingen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moisture gradient analysis during sawn-timber drying
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE) / [ed] Brischke, C. & Buschalsky, A., Goettingen: Georg-August-University of Goettingen , 2022, p. 171-173Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Goettingen: Georg-August-University of Goettingen, 2022
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93282 (URN)
Conference
18th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE 2022), September 21-22, 2022, Goettingen, Germany
Available from: 2022-09-27 Created: 2022-09-27 Last updated: 2023-06-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7270-1920

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