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Grafström, J. (2018). Crowding Out or Knowledge Spillovers from the Wind Power Industry: The Effect on Related Energy Machinery. In: : . Paper presented at 41st International IAEE conference, Groningen, 10-13 June 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crowding Out or Knowledge Spillovers from the Wind Power Industry: The Effect on Related Energy Machinery
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is a risk that if a government adopts a R&D spending policy directed towards wind power technology crowding out of other technologies might occur due to fiscal constraints and changes in relative prices. The purpose of this paper is to provide a backward-looking analysis of how the accumulation of wind energy patents and public R&D spending affected the domestic and neighboring country output of granted patents in the “related energy machinery field”. The econometric analysis, a Poisson fixed-effects estimator based on the Hausman, Hall and Griliches (1984) method, relies on a data set consisting of eight countries in Western Europe with the highest rates of patent production in the field of wind power between 1978 and 2008. The results show that an accumulation of a national wind power stock is a statistically significant negative determinant of a country’s related energy machinery patenting outcomes. However, no crowding out effects of public R&D spending were found

Keywords
knowledge spillovers, wind power, R&D, patents, renewable energy, innovation
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69704 (URN)
Conference
41st International IAEE conference, Groningen, 10-13 June 2018
Note

USAEE Working Paper.

Available from: 2018-06-20 Created: 2018-06-20 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Grafström, J. (2018). Divergence of Renewable Energy Invention Efforts in Europe: an econometric analysis based on patent counts. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 20(4), 829-859
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Divergence of Renewable Energy Invention Efforts in Europe: an econometric analysis based on patent counts
2018 (English)In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 829-859Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this paper is to investigate the presence of convergence (or divergence) of invention efforts per capita in the renewable energy field across European Union (EU) countries. Divergence may imply a risk of a lower level of goal fulfilment regarding the share of renewable energy in the EU energy mix. This is due to free-rider issues and sub-optimal investment levels, in turn making it more expensive and cumbersome to expand renewable energy production. Convergence suggests a faster renewable energy goal achievement. The econometric analysis is based on patent application counts per capita for 13 EU Member States over the time period 1990–2012. The methods used draw on the economic convergence literature. First, we rely on a panel data set to test for conditional β-convergence. Moreover, a distributional dynamics approach is employed to test for σ- and γ-convergence, and analyse the intra-distributional dynamics. The results indicate conditional β- and σ-divergence in renewable energy invention capabilities across the 13 countries, thus suggesting that some EU countries tend to free-ride on the development efforts of other Member States.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
convergence, divergence, renewable energy development, patent counts, EU.
National Category
Economics and Business Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68505 (URN)10.1007/s10018-018-0216-y (DOI)000444211500005 ()2-s2.0-85045727486 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-09-28 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-04-25 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2018-10-09Bibliographically approved
Grafström, J. (2018). International Knowledge Spillovers in the Wind Power Industry: evidence from the European Union. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 27(3), 205-224
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International Knowledge Spillovers in the Wind Power Industry: evidence from the European Union
2018 (English)In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 205-224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the presence of international knowledge spillovers in the wind power sector. Specifically, the paper investigates whether successful invention efforts in one country, measured by way of granted wind power patent counts, have had positive effects on the neighboring countries’ abilities to generate patents of the same category. Data on the number of patents granted at the European Patent Office during the period 1978-2008 are used for the eight national technological leaders in the western European wind power sector. The few comprehensive wind power studies that exist have only found limited evidence of international knowledge spillovers. However, in this paper we find that international spillovers are statistically significant determinants of a country’s wind power patenting outcomes. Geographical distance is also taken into consideration, and the knowledge spillover effects are shown to become stronger with decreases in this distance. The results should have important policy implications, e.g., for a national government when it comes to applying an investment strategy in wind power or, alternatively, free-riding on other countries’ invention efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
knowledge spillovers, wind power, knowledge production function, patents, renewable energy, inventions.
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62687 (URN)10.1080/10438599.2017.1328778 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019755035 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-02-12 (svasva)

Available from: 2017-03-27 Created: 2017-03-27 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
Grafström, J. (2017). Technological Change and Wage Polarization: The IlliberalPopulist Response. In: : . Paper presented at Mont Pelerin Society - Special meeting, The Populist Threat to the Free Society and the Reconstruction of the Liberal Project, Stockholm, and the Reconstruction of the Liberal Project Stockholm, November 2–5 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technological Change and Wage Polarization: The IlliberalPopulist Response
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is discuss how technological change affect the labor marketand what populist actions that are expected follow. The causes and consequences of possibletechnological unemployment will be addressed and to what extent it could be expected thatthe rapid technological change leads to unemployment (or that the labor market adapts in asimilar way to previous technological changes as has been seen in history so far). A changinglabor market will constitute challenges for the future of liberalism - possible wage polarizationand heterogeneous distribution of unemployment in the labor force might create a demand forpolicy solutions that have an illiberal direction. In the paper it will be argued that the threatof populism will come from a disgruntled middle class rather than as commonly believed thepoorer stratas of the wage distribution.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66392 (URN)
Conference
Mont Pelerin Society - Special meeting, The Populist Threat to the Free Society and the Reconstruction of the Liberal Project, Stockholm, and the Reconstruction of the Liberal Project Stockholm, November 2–5 2017
Available from: 2017-11-06 Created: 2017-11-06 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Grafström, J. (2017). Technological Change in the Renewable Energy Sector: Essays on Knowledge Spillovers and Convergence. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technological Change in the Renewable Energy Sector: Essays on Knowledge Spillovers and Convergence
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate the determinants of technological change in the renewable energy sector, with a special emphasis on the role of knowledge spillovers and convergence across countries. The thesis consists of a preface and five self-contained papers. In Paper I technological change is broken down into the three major development stages laid out by Joseph Schumpeter: invention, innovation and diffusion. Econometric models of each of these stages are specified in the empirical context of wind power. The models are estimated employing a panel dataset consisting of eight western European countries over the time period 1991-2008. The results display evidence of national and international knowledge spillovers in the invention (i.e., patenting) model. The results from the technology learning models indicate evidence of global learning-by-doing, and that the prices of input factors have been important determinants of wind power costs. In line with previous research, the diffusion model results show that investment costs have influenced the development of installed wind power capacity. Paper II investigates how wind power inventions in European countries have affected the technological development achievements in neighboring countries. Data on the number of patents granted at the European Patent Office (EPO) during the period 1978-2008 in the eight technologically leading wind power countries in Europe are employed in a patent production function framework. The presence of international knowledge spillovers is found to constitute a statistically significant determinant of a country’s patent production. Geographical distance is also taken into consideration, and the results suggest that knowledge spillovers are subject to spatial transaction costs: with longer distances the role of international spillovers becomes weaker. Paper III investigates the convergence of inventive capabilities in the EU. Data on total patents per capita in 13 EU countries over the period 1990-2011 are analyzed using both parametric and non-parametric techniques. Converging inventive abilities may be important for the future of the EU given that rapid technological change has resulted in major structural changes in the Member States’ economies during the last decades. The β-convergence and σ-convergence tests suggest convergence in inventive capabilities, and this finding gains some support when analyzing the intra-distributional dynamics of the invention capabilities. Paper IV specifically investigates whether the generation of renewable energy patents per capita has converged or diverged across 13 EU countries over the period 1990-2012. The results indicate the presence of conditional β- and σ-divergence in renewable energy invention abilities. This could be critical for assessing the future prospects of EU policy in the renewable energy field; divergence in terms of invention outcomes could imply a less rapid and yet more expensive goal fulfillment due to free-rider behavior and sub-optimal investment levels. Finally, Paper V tests for convergence/divergence based on countries’ public spending to renewable energy R&D. The empirical analysis focuses on the presence of conditional β-convergence across 13 EU countries over the period 1990-2012. The results suggest divergence in public R&D-based knowledge accumulation, and this is consistent with free-riding behavior on the part of some EU Member States. Energy import dependence and electricity deregulation also affect this divergence pattern. For instance, the higher the energy import dependence, the lower is the speed of divergence across the EU countries in terms of public R&D support. Overall, the diverging pathways in terms of both public R&D and private patenting efforts may raise concerns about an unfair burden-sharing in terms of renewable energy development efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62695 (URN)978-91-7583-864-9 (ISBN)978-91-7583-865-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-05-24, A1545, Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-04-05 Created: 2017-03-27 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Grafström, J. & Lindman, Å. (2016). Invention, innovation and diffusion in the European wind power sector (ed.). Technological forecasting & social change, 114, 179-191
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Invention, innovation and diffusion in the European wind power sector
2016 (English)In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 114, p. 179-191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to provide an economic analysis of the technology development patterns in the European wind power sector. The three classic Schumpeterian steps of technological development, invention, innovation and diffusion, are brought together to assess the relationship between these. Three econometric approaches are used, a negative binomial regression model for inventions approximated by patent counts, different learning curve model specifications that have been derived from a Cobb-Douglas cost function to address innovation, and a panel data fixed effect regression for the diffusion model. We suggest an integrated perspective of the technological development process where possible interaction effects between the different models are tested. The dataset covers the time period 1991–2008 in the eight core wind power countries in Western Europe. We find evidence of national and international knowledge spillovers in the invention model. The technology learning model results indicate that there exists global learning but also that the world market price of steel has been an important determinant of the development of wind power costs. In line with previous research, the diffusion model results indicate that investment costs have been an important determinant of the development of installed wind power capacity. The results also point towards the importance of natural gas prices and feed-in tariffs as vital factors for wind power diffusion.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-5975 (URN)10.1016/j.techfore.2016.08.008 (DOI)000390743900016 ()2-s2.0-84997173095 (Scopus ID)42c15956-17a6-4cb8-be3e-dc4d685b8110 (Local ID)42c15956-17a6-4cb8-be3e-dc4d685b8110 (Archive number)42c15956-17a6-4cb8-be3e-dc4d685b8110 (OAI)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-01-20 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Grafström, J. (2016). The creation of renewable energy technology in Europe: are patents per capita converging?. In: Energy: Expectationsand Uncertainty: Challenges for Analysis, Decisions and Policy. Paper presented at 39th IAEE International Conference, Bergen, Norway, June 19 - 22, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The creation of renewable energy technology in Europe: are patents per capita converging?
2016 (English)In: Energy: Expectationsand Uncertainty: Challenges for Analysis, Decisions and Policy, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates whether a convergence or divergence of national innovation capabilities regarding renewable energy patents of the 13 EU countries occurs in the course of the time period 1990-2010. An answer to the research question permits immediate conclusions with regard to the success prospects of the EU's Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC), which sets climate and energy targets for both 2020. The empirical analysis is focused on whether renewable energy patents have converged or diverged between the countries. The data is based on patents granted at the European patent office. The methodologies applied draws from the economic convergence literature. The initial results have showed signs of conditional beta and sigma divergence in renewable energy invention abilities.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59794 (URN)
Conference
39th IAEE International Conference, Bergen, Norway, June 19 - 22, 2016
Available from: 2016-10-17 Created: 2016-10-17 Last updated: 2018-02-19Bibliographically approved
Grafström, J. (2016). The strengths and weaknesses in the Swedish renewable energy sector: an assessment report. In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016: . Paper presented at Swedish Association for Energy Economics (SAEE) conference 2016, Luleå, August 23-24 2016. Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The strengths and weaknesses in the Swedish renewable energy sector: an assessment report
2016 (English)In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There are both weaknesses and opportunities of the Swedish renewable energy sector. This papers aim at increasing the awareness of how the state of the sector is right now, if there are any obvious difficulties facing firms in Sweden and provide knowledge about what issues that has to be addressed in order for firms to be able to succeed. The aim is addressed by looking at data and connecting the data to growth theory. Three issues stand out. Business angels do not understand the industry: As angel investors not only contribute capital to the company, but also its expertise, commitment and contacts, it is important for most business angels that they understand the industry to invest in. Lack of capital -access to capital is insufficient. Small critical mass-absorbing technology: In order to absorb technology human capital is needed, not only in general but specific technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59795 (URN)
Conference
Swedish Association for Energy Economics (SAEE) conference 2016, Luleå, August 23-24 2016
Available from: 2016-10-17 Created: 2016-10-17 Last updated: 2018-02-19Bibliographically approved
Grafström, J. (2014). International knowledge spillovers in the wind power industry: Evidence from Europe (ed.). Paper presented at IAEE International Conference : Energy & the Economy 15/06/2014 - 18/06/2014. Paper presented at IAEE International Conference : Energy & the Economy 15/06/2014 - 18/06/2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International knowledge spillovers in the wind power industry: Evidence from Europe
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

During the last 30 years, there has been a remarkable change in the wind power industry with declining costs and increasing electricity output. A factor that might speed up the innovative process and development of wind power is knowledge spillover, something that has been found and is considered important for other industries. However, when it comes to wind power, there is a shortage of comprehensive studies and previous research has found only limited evidence of knowledge spillovers in the industry. The paper studies the patents granted during the time period 1978-2008 as an innovative measure and focuses on core wind power countries in Western Europe in order to examine those countries that as a matter of fact invest and are engaged in the wind power industry. Domestic knowledge spillovers are found to have a positive effect on patent production while the results of international more are more ambiguous.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-27753 (URN)14a5ee90-3e6b-4c3b-bb5a-bf63fcd4814c (Local ID)14a5ee90-3e6b-4c3b-bb5a-bf63fcd4814c (Archive number)14a5ee90-3e6b-4c3b-bb5a-bf63fcd4814c (OAI)
Conference
IAEE International Conference : Energy & the Economy 15/06/2014 - 18/06/2014
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20140624 (jongar)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-02-19Bibliographically approved
Grafström, J. & Jaunky, V.Convergence of Inventive Capabilities within the European Union: A Parametric and Non-Parametric Analysis.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Convergence of Inventive Capabilities within the European Union: A Parametric and Non-Parametric Analysis
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The development of a single economic market and rapid technological advances in the European Union (EU) have resulted in its Member States undergoing major structural changes over the past few decades. The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether or not there is convergence in the inventive capabilities across the EU. This is done by econometrically investigating, by means of parametric and non-parametric techniques, the development of patents granted per capita in 13 Member States per capita during the period 1990–2011. The findings of the β-convergence and σ-convergence tests show convergence in inventive capabilities. Moreover, a similar result is obtained when analysing the distributional dynamics of the invention capabilities. The speed of convergence is slow, however; this suggests that policy efforts implemented by the EU to reduce technological gaps among its Member States have been insufficient, and predicts negative long-term consequences for EU cohesion.

Keywords
convergence, patent, panel data, EU.
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62689 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-27 Created: 2017-03-27 Last updated: 2017-11-24
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5952-6379

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