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Publications (10 of 21) Show all publications
Raj, A., Larsson, I. A., Ljung, A.-L., Forslund, T., Andersson, R., Sundström, J. & Lundström, T. (2024). Evaluating hydrogen gas transport in pipelines: Current state of numerical and experimental methodologies. International journal of hydrogen energy, 67, 136-149
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating hydrogen gas transport in pipelines: Current state of numerical and experimental methodologies
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2024 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 67, p. 136-149Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals, modelling approaches, experimental studies, and challenges associated with hydrogen gas flow in pipelines. It elucidates key aspects of hydrogen gas flow, including density, compressibility factor, and other relevant properties crucial for understanding its behavior in pipelines. Equations of state are discussed in detail, highlighting their importance in accurately modeling hydrogen gas flow. In the subsequent sections, one-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling techniques for gas distribution networks and localized flow involving critical components are explored. Emphasis is placed on transient flow, friction losses, and leakage characteristics, shedding light on the complexities of hydrogen pipeline transportation. Experimental studies investigating hydrogen pipeline transportation dynamics are outlined, focusing on the impact of leakage on surrounding environments and safety parameters. The challenges and solutions associated with repurposing natural gas pipelines for hydrogen transport are discussed, along with the influence of pipeline material on hydrogen transportation. Identified research gaps underscore the need for further investigation into areas such as transient flow behavior, leakage mitigation strategies, and the development of advanced modelling techniques. Future perspectives address the growing demand for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier and the evolving landscape of hydrogen-based energy systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Pipeline transport, Hydrogen, Numerical modelling, Leakage Experiment, Renewable energy
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105267 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2024.04.140 (DOI)001232412300001 ()2-s2.0-85190604760 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kempe FoundationsThe Kempe FoundationsLuleå University of Technology
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-07-05 (joosat);

Full text license: CC BY 4.0;

Available from: 2024-04-29 Created: 2024-04-29 Last updated: 2024-07-05Bibliographically approved
Shiraghaee, S., Sundström, J., Raisee, M. & Cervantes, M. J. (2024). Experimental Investigation of Part Load Vortex Rope Mitigation With Rod Protrusion in an Axial Turbine. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 146(8), Article ID 081205.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Investigation of Part Load Vortex Rope Mitigation With Rod Protrusion in an Axial Turbine
2024 (English)In: Journal of Fluids Engineering, ISSN 0098-2202, E-ISSN 1528-901X, Vol. 146, no 8, article id 081205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present paper investigates the rotating vortex rope (RVR) mitigation on an axial turbine model by the radial protrusion of four cylindrical rods into the draft tube. RVR mitigation is of particular interest due to the unfavorable pressure pulsations it induces in the hydraulic circuit that can affect turbine life and performance. The protrusion lengths, which were the same among the four rods, were varied according to a predefined sequence. The experiments were performed under four part-load regimes ranging from upper part load to deep part load. Time-resolved pressure measurements were conducted at two sections on the draft tube wall along with high-speed videography and efficiency measurement to investigate the effect of the mitigation technique on the RVR characteristics and turbine performance. The recorded pressure data were decomposed and studied through spectral analyses, phase-averaging, and statistical analyses of the RVR frequency and peak-to-peak pressure amplitude distributions. The results showed different levels of pressure amplitude mitigation ranging from approximately 10% to 85% depending on the operating condition, protrusion length, and the method of analysis. The hydraulic efficiency of the turbine decreased by a maximum of 3.5% that of the best efficiency point (BEP) with the implementation of the mitigation technique. The variations in the obtained mitigation levels and efficiencies depending on protrusion length and operating condition indicate the need for the implementation of a feedback-loop controller. Thus, the protrusion length can be actively optimized based on the desired mitigation target. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASME Press, 2024
Keywords
rotating vortex rope, hydraulic turbines, swirling flow, part load, pressure measurement, turbine efficiency
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-104969 (URN)10.1115/1.4064610 (DOI)2-s2.0-85187202672 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, (Grant No. 814958; Funder ID: 10.3030/814958)
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-04-04 (joosat);

Full text: CC BY license

Available from: 2024-04-04 Created: 2024-04-04 Last updated: 2024-06-27Bibliographically approved
Shiraghaee, S., Sundström, J., Raisee, M. & Cervantes, M. J. (2024). Extending the operating range of axial turbines with the protrusion of radially adjustable flat plates: An experimental investigation. Renewable energy, 225, Article ID 120232.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending the operating range of axial turbines with the protrusion of radially adjustable flat plates: An experimental investigation
2024 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 225, article id 120232Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The implementation of hydropower to stabilize electrical grids dictates more frequent off-design operations of these renewable energy resources. Flow instabilities under such conditions reduce the efficiency of hydro turbines. Part-load operation is particularly detrimental since the development of a rotating vortical structure termed rotating vortex rope (RVR) in the draft tube leads to periodic pressure pulsations that jeopardize turbine performance. This paper experimentally explores a novel solution involving the protrusion of flat plates into the turbine draft tube. Three flat plates equally separated by 120° were vertically installed on the draft tube wall. The plates were protruded up to 83% of the draft tube local radius under four different part-load conditions. Their impact was observed through time-resolved pressure measurements in the draft tube and vaneless space, as well as efficiency measurements. The results demonstrated successful RVR mitigation, achieving a maximum 85% reduction in pressure oscillation amplitudes. Protruding flat plates disrupted RVR periodicity and coherence, confining its orbit to the draft tube center. This approach proved particularly effective at lower part-load conditions, enhancing turbine hydraulic efficiency by increasing torque extraction. Reducing the adverse effects under part load, the proposed method appears promising in extending the operational range of hydraulic turbines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Hydropower, Part-load, Pressure measurement, Rotating vortex rope, Turbine efficiency, Vortex rope mitigation
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Energy Engineering
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-104627 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2024.120232 (DOI)2-s2.0-85187203326 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 814958
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-03-18 (hanlid);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2024-03-18 Created: 2024-03-18 Last updated: 2024-05-08Bibliographically approved
Shiraghaee, S., Sundström, J., Mehrdad, R. & Cervantes, M. J. (2023). Characterization of The Rotating Vortex Rope Pressure Oscillations in a Kaplan Model Turbine Draft Tube. International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems, 16(2), 204-218
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of The Rotating Vortex Rope Pressure Oscillations in a Kaplan Model Turbine Draft Tube
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems, ISSN 1882-9554, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 204-218Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Korean Society for Fluid Machinery, 2023
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103336 (URN)10.5293/ijfms.2023.16.2.204 (DOI)
Note

Godkänd;2024;Nivå 0;2024-01-01 (hanlid);

Available from: 2023-12-18 Created: 2023-12-18 Last updated: 2024-05-08Bibliographically approved
Shiraghaee, S., Sundström, J., Raisee, M. & Cervantes, M. J. (2022). An experimental investigation on the effects of cylindrical rods in a draft tube at part load operation in down-scale turbine. In: 31st IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems 26/06/2022 - 01/07/2022 Trondheim, Norway: . Paper presented at 31st Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2022), Trondheim, Norway, June 26 - July 1, 2022. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), Article ID 012007.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An experimental investigation on the effects of cylindrical rods in a draft tube at part load operation in down-scale turbine
2022 (English)In: 31st IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems 26/06/2022 - 01/07/2022 Trondheim, Norway, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2022, article id 012007Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The present work examines the effects of the radial protrusion of four cylindrical rods at different lengths within the flow field of a down-scaled turbine draft tube under part-load operating conditions. Four rods were placed on the same plane 90 degrees apart. The protrusion length was varied from zero to approximately 90 % of the draft tube radius. Time-resolved pressure measurements were performed to quantify the effect of the rod protrusion, using two pressure sensors at the same vertical level 180 degrees apart. Such sensor configuration enabled the decomposition of the signals into rotating and plunging components of the rotating vortex rope (RVR). The results show that different levels of mitigation are achieved for the rotating and plunging components depending on the protrusion length. The effects on the plunging component differ from the ones on the rotating component. The RVR plunging pressure pulsations slightly increase with the initial rod protrusion and then significantly drop after a certain length. On the contrary, the rotating component of the pressure pulsation amplitudes immediately decreases with the onset of rod protrusion. However, an optimum length is obtained in both cases where the highest mitigation occurs before reaching the maximum protrusion. This observation falls in line with the previous investigations conducted for oscillatory rod protrusions, further approving the point that a closed-loop controller should accompany the mitigation technique to achieve optimum mitigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2022
Series
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315 ; 1079
Keywords
Hydraulic turbine, stationary rod protrusion, rotating vortex rope, draft tube, pressure pulsation
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94953 (URN)10.1088/1755-1315/1079/1/012007 (DOI)2-s2.0-85141797888 (Scopus ID)
Conference
31st Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2022), Trondheim, Norway, June 26 - July 1, 2022
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 814958
Available from: 2022-12-21 Created: 2022-12-21 Last updated: 2024-05-08Bibliographically approved
Sotoudeh, N., Shirghaee, S., Andersson, L. R., Sunstrom, J., Raisee, M. & Cervantes, M. J. (2022). PIV Measurements in the Draft Tube of a Down-Scale Propeller Turbine: Phase-Averaged Analysis. In: Pär Jonsén; Lars-Göran Westerberg; Simon Larsson; Erik Olsson (Ed.), Svenska Mekanikdagar 2022: . Paper presented at Svenska Mekanikdagarna 2022, Luleå, Sweden, June 15-16, 2022. Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PIV Measurements in the Draft Tube of a Down-Scale Propeller Turbine: Phase-Averaged Analysis
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2022 (English)In: Svenska Mekanikdagar 2022 / [ed] Pär Jonsén; Lars-Göran Westerberg; Simon Larsson; Erik Olsson, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå tekniska universitet, 2022
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95109 (URN)
Conference
Svenska Mekanikdagarna 2022, Luleå, Sweden, June 15-16, 2022
Available from: 2022-12-30 Created: 2022-12-30 Last updated: 2024-03-27Bibliographically approved
Sotoudeh, N., Shiraghaee, S., Andersson, R., Sundström, J., Raisee, M. & Cervantes, M. (2022). PIV measurements in the draft tube of a down-scale propeller turbine: uncertainty analysis. In: 31st IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems 26/06/2022 - 01/07/2022 Trondheim, Norway: . Paper presented at 31st Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2022), Trondheim, Norway, June 26 - July 1, 2022. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) (1), Article ID 012065.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PIV measurements in the draft tube of a down-scale propeller turbine: uncertainty analysis
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2022 (English)In: 31st IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems 26/06/2022 - 01/07/2022 Trondheim, Norway, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2022, no 1, article id 012065Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study, the flow in the conical section of the draft tube of a propeller turbine has been investigated at the best efficiency point and part-load operating conditions using 2D and stereoscopic 3D particle image velocimetry. Since the flow in the turbine is periodic, it is necessary to study the mean flow field rather than the instantaneous one to identify the flow characteristics from a statistical standpoint. However, the statistical convergence of the obtained mean velocity is questionable. Thus, the current work proposes a methodology for investigating the convergence of mean velocity profiles based on the central limit theorem. The methodology is applied to the best efficiency point and part-load results. The results show that 3D PIV results have lower uncertainty than 2D PIV results because measuring the tangential velocity component affects uncertainty, only measured in 3D PIV. The uncertainty difference is more significant, especially in part-load operation, due to the presence of the rotating vortex rope, and therefore a more accurate measurement is necessary to produce a reliable mean flow field. Furthermore, the convergence of the mean velocity profile is faster, with lower uncertainty for best efficiency point results since, at the part-load condition, the tangential velocity component of the flow is higher. In addition, the converged mean velocity profiles show a backflow region with minor rotation in the center, surrounded by a high rotational axial flow during the part-load operation of the turbine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2022
Series
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315 ; 1079
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94959 (URN)10.1088/1755-1315/1079/1/012065 (DOI)2-s2.0-85141746137 (Scopus ID)
Conference
31st Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2022), Trondheim, Norway, June 26 - July 1, 2022
Projects
Swedish Hydropower Centre—SVC
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencySwedish National GridLuleå University of TechnologyKTH Royal Institute of TechnologyChalmers University of TechnologyUppsala University
Note

Funder: Elforsk

Available from: 2022-12-21 Created: 2022-12-21 Last updated: 2024-03-27Bibliographically approved
Holmström, H., Sundström, J. & Cervantes, M. J. (2022). Vortex rope interaction with radially protruded solid bodies in an axial turbine: a numerical study. In: 31st IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems 26/06/2022 - 01/07/2022 Trondheim, Norway: . Paper presented at 31st Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2022), Trondheim, Norway, June 26 - July 1, 2022. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) (1), Article ID 012055.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vortex rope interaction with radially protruded solid bodies in an axial turbine: a numerical study
2022 (English)In: 31st IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems 26/06/2022 - 01/07/2022 Trondheim, Norway, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2022, no 1, article id 012055Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Radially protruded solid rods and their interaction with the rotating vortex rope at part load condition are investigated numerically on an axial model turbine. The commercially available software ANSYS CFX was used to perform the simulation, and the test case was the Porjus U9 Kaplan turbine model operating at a fixed runner blade angle at part load condition. Four rods, with a rod diameter equal to 15% of the runner diameter were evenly distributed in a horizontal plane in the draft tube cone and protruded to a length set to intercept the RVR in its unperturbed trajectory. It is shown that the RVR plunging (synchronous) mode is completely mitigated upstream and downstream of the protruded rods. The RVR rotating (asynchronous) mode is reduced by 47% and 63% at the two monitor positions located upstream of the protruding rods, while only a minor reduction occurs to the first RVR harmonic at the monitor positions located downstream of the protruded rods. The perturbed RVR experiences an increased angular velocity due to the flow area decrease caused by the protruding rods, thus increasing the RVR frequency by approximately 53% compared to the unperturbed value. Investigation of the swirling flow indicates a locally increased swirl in the center of the draft tube downstream of the protruded rods which could explain the reduction of the RVR pressure amplitude. The overall turbine efficiency with solid rods protruded causes a marginally efficiency reduction of 0.85%. However, as the RVR pressure pulsations are reduced significantly, a more comprehensive investigation of the rods impact on the turbine performance and life time should be performed to elucidate the suitability of using solid rod protrusion for RVR mitigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2022
Series
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315 ; 1079
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94718 (URN)10.1088/1755-1315/1079/1/012055 (DOI)2-s2.0-85141771842 (Scopus ID)
Conference
31st Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2022), Trondheim, Norway, June 26 - July 1, 2022
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 814958
Available from: 2022-12-21 Created: 2022-12-21 Last updated: 2022-12-21Bibliographically approved
Shiraghaee, S., Sundström, J., Raisee, M. & Cervantes, M. (2021). Mitigation of Draft Tube Pressure Pulsations by Radial Protrusion of Solid Bodies into the Flow Field: An Experimental Investigation. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science,: 30th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2020). Paper presented at 30th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2020) 21-26 March 2021, Lausanne, Switzerland. Institute of Physics (IOP), 774, Article ID 012004.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitigation of Draft Tube Pressure Pulsations by Radial Protrusion of Solid Bodies into the Flow Field: An Experimental Investigation
2021 (English)In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science,: 30th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2020), Institute of Physics (IOP), 2021, Vol. 774, article id 012004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An experimental investigation of frequential protrusion of four solid rods into the draft tube of a propeller turbine operating under partial discharge has been undertaken. The effectiveness of mitigating the pressure fluctuations associated with the rotating vortex rope (RVR) has been quantified using pressure measurements on the wall of the draft tube cone. Three azimuthal configurations of the phase difference between the rods, and four protrusion lengths were investigated. It is shown that the rotating component of the RVR decreases, irrespective of the azimuthal configuration and protrusion length, with imposed phase differences in the same direction as the runner rotation being the most effective, reducing the amplitude of the rotating component by a maximum of 62%. However, for each azimuthal configuration, the plunging mode of the RVR is amplified for large protrusion lengths, with the smallest amplification occurring for the case of 180 degrees phase difference between protrusions. Therefore, to quantify the most efficient configuration in mitigating the harmful effects of the RVR, an overall assessment of its effects on the entire turbine must be made before a conclusion can be drawn.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2021
Series
IOP Conference Series-Earth and Environmental Science, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315
Keywords
hydraulic turbines, part load, rotating vortex rope, pressure pulsations, RVR mitigation, solid-body protrusion
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87992 (URN)10.1088/1755-1315/774/1/012004 (DOI)000712043400004 ()2-s2.0-85108613058 (Scopus ID)
Conference
30th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2020) 21-26 March 2021, Lausanne, Switzerland
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 814958
Available from: 2021-11-23 Created: 2021-11-23 Last updated: 2024-03-27Bibliographically approved
Holmström, H., Sundström, J. & Cervantes, M. J. (2021). Vortex rope mitigation with azimuthal perturbations: A numerical study. In: 30th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2020): . Paper presented at 30th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2020), Lausanne (Online), Switzerland, March 21-26, 2021. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 774, Article ID 012144.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vortex rope mitigation with azimuthal perturbations: A numerical study
2021 (English)In: 30th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2020), Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2021, Vol. 774, article id 012144Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A novel method to mitigate the rotating vortex rope is investigated numerically on a propeller turbine using ANSYS CFX. Pulsating momentum is injected in a horizontal plane in the diffuser cone from four evenly spaced jets. Three mitigation strategies are tested; M1 in which the momentum is injected perpendicular to the axial flow direction, M2, which exhibit a 12 degree angle against the tangential velocity in the diffuser cone, and finally M3, which exhibit the same horizontal angle as M2 but at a 15 % higher flow rate. It is shown that mitigation attempts M1, M2 and M3 decrease the amplitude of the rotating mode by 51%,96% and 97%, respectively. The amplitude of the plunging mode, on the other hand, increase for all mitigation attempts. However, the amplitude of the plunging mode of the unperturbed RVR is an order of magnitude smaller than the rotating mode, and thus, the overall amplitude of the pressure fluctuations in the diffuser decreases significantly. The more efficient mitigation using attempt M2 and M3 are explained using velocity contour in the diffuser cone, which show that the RVR is significantly reduced downstream of the injection plane in between injections, which is not the case for attempt M1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2021
Series
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315
Keywords
Vortex rope mitigation, Vortex rope
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-89944 (URN)10.1088/1755-1315/774/1/012144 (DOI)000712043400144 ()2-s2.0-85108591056 (Scopus ID)
Conference
30th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems (IAHR 2020), Lausanne (Online), Switzerland, March 21-26, 2021
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 814958
Available from: 2022-03-29 Created: 2022-03-29 Last updated: 2023-10-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3349-601X

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